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Statistikaamet ettekanne Changemakers 2019_07_06

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Changemakers Summit is a place to meet likeminded people from NGOs and other mission-driven organisations who are trying to change the world for the better. These three days are meant to inspire and to help you learn from the best practices and find fellow Changemakers to work together with.

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Statistikaamet ettekanne Changemakers 2019_07_06

  1. 1. Kaia Oras Changemakers Summit Tartu 07. 06. 2019 How has the Estonian society changed in recent years: environmental trends
  2. 2. Plan of the presentation Envrionmental SDG-s, Estonias position Planetary environmental boundaries model Some environmental trends:  - use of natural resources, environmental pressure, key figures on climate change Circular economy Environmental financial measures  Environmental taxes  Environmental sector  Contribution to environmental protection Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019
  3. 3. * Stockholm Resilience Centre, 2018, Illustration: Azote Images for Stockholm Resilience Centre Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 UN Sustainable Development Goals Hinnang 18 eesmärgi osas on kujundatud üksikute näitajate positsioonide keskmisena bad bad goodgood Economy and society have to fit into the environment *
  4. 4. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019
  5. 5. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019https://www.stat.ee/publication-2018_indicators-of-sustainable-development Estonias ranking and the trends of environmental SDG indicators
  6. 6. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019
  7. 7. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019
  8. 8. * Stockholm Resilience Centre, 2018, Illustration: Azote Images for Stockholm Resilience Centre Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 UN Sustainable Development Goals Hinnang 18 eesmärgi osas on kujundatud üksikute näitajate positsioonide keskmisena bad bad goodgood Economy and society have to fit into the environment *
  9. 9. Planetary boundaries according to Rockström et al. 2009[1] and Steffen et al. 2015.[2] The green areas in middle represent human activities that are within safe margins, the yellow areas represent human activities that may or may not have exceeded safe margins, the red areas represent human activities that have exceeded safe margins, and the gray areas with red question marks represent human activities for which safe margins have not yet been determined. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 Planetary environmental boundaries Scientific viewpoint Which are important environmental trends?
  10. 10. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 30 000 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Generation of waste, thousand tons 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Landfill of waste, thousand tons 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Generation of hazardous waste, thousand tons 0 100 200 300 400 500 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Generation of municipal waste per capita, kg 0 500 1 000 1 500 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Fresh water extraction per capita, m³ 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Excavation of sand, thousand m³ 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Excavation of limestone, thousand m³ 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Excavation of gravel, thousand m³ 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Excavation of oil shale, thousand tons 0 200 400 600 800 1 000 1 200 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Excavation of peat, thousand tons 0 50 100 150 200 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Pollution load of wastewater, nitrogen, tons 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Pollution load of wastewater, phosphorus, tons 0 20 40 60 80 100 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Emission of sulphur dioxide, thousand tons 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Emission of carbon dioxide, thousand tons 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 Forest felling, th cubic metres solid volume 40000 42000 44000 46000 48000 50000 Ground water abstraction, thousand m3 Main trends of environmental pressure and resource use
  11. 11. Environmental trends and circular economy… Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019
  12. 12. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019
  13. 13. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 Circular economy indicators unit EU average Estonia’ s value and rank in EU red: worse than average green: better than average Estonian trend (v.v.a.) 3. Municipal waste generation kg per cap 486 390 No trend 3. Waste generation kg/ th. euro 65 646 No trend 3. Waste generation per DMC % 13.5 33.4 No trend 4. Food waste generation M ton 76 - No trend 5. Recycling rate of waste, excl mineral waste % 57 10 No trend 5. Recycling rate of municipal waste % 46.4 28.4 No trend 6.1 Recycling rate of packaging waste % 67.2 56 Changed for worse 6. 2. Recycling rate of packaging waste (plastic) % 42.4 24.6 Changed for worse 6. 3. Recycling rate of packaging waste (wood) % 39.8 32.5 Changed for worse 6. 4. Recycling rate of E-waste % 41.2 75.3 Improved 6. 5. Recycling rate of bio waste % 81 14 Improved 6. 6. Recycling rate of construction and demolition waste % 89 97 Improved 7. Circular material use rate % DMC 11.7 11.8 Improved 8. Import of recyclable material, non EU ton 5,905,135 14,933 No trend 8. Export of recyclable material, non EU ton 36,934,824 447,253 No trend 8. Import of recyclable material, EU ton 53,035,741 160,285 No trend 9. Investments into activities related to recycling % inv.-st 0.12 0.15 Improved 9. Employment of activities related to recycling % empl 1.73 2.01 Improved 9. Value added of activities related to recycling % GDP 0.98 1.11 Improved 10. Patents related to recycling number 338 4 Improved
  14. 14. ECONOMIC GROWTH OR ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION, COULD WE GET BOTH? Resource use and economic growth decoupling environmental pressure from economic growth… Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019
  15. 15. GDP, domestic material consumption and resource productivity, trends of change 2000- 2017* Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 IMPORTANT INDICATORS: DOMESTIC MATERIAL CONSUMPTION = Domestic extraction use + physical trade balance DOMESTIC EXTRACTION USE = Materials, which are moved or extracted in Estonia PHYSICAL TRADE BALANCE = Physical import - Physical export RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY = GDP / Domestic material consumption 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 GDP Domestic material consumption Resource productivity
  16. 16. Resource productivity 2016 Changes in resource productivity 2008-2016 Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00 Romania Bulgaria Estonia Latvia Poland Lithuania Hungary Czechia Slovakia Croatia Finland Portugal Cyprus Malta Greece Slovenia Austria Sweden Denmark EU-28 Germany Ireland Belgium Spain France Italy Luxembourg United Kingdom Netherlands euro per kg -50 0 50 100 150 Malta Luxembourg Sweden Latvia Austria Estonia Germany Hungary Finland Romania Denmark Bulgaria Poland Lithuania Netherlands Czechia EU-28 United Kingdom France Slovakia Greece Belgium Portugal Croatia Italy Slovenia Spain Cyprus Ireland %
  17. 17. Just an intersting component: physical export and import, million tons Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Export Import
  18. 18. Physical export, million tons Physical import, million tons Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 milliontons Waste for final treatment and disposal Other products Metal ores and concentrates Biomass and biomass products Non-metallic minerals Fossil energy materials/carriers 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 milliontons Waste for final treatment and disposal Other products Metal ores and concentrates Biomass and biomass products Non-metallic minerals Fossil energy materials/carriers
  19. 19. Economy is an important source of greenhouse gas emissions Emissions of greenhouse gases 2000-2017, tons of CO2 equivalents Sources of greenhouse gases emissions 2000-2017, tons of CO2 equivalents Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Waste Agriculture Industrial processes Energy 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 F-gases N2O CH4 CO2
  20. 20. Changes in GDP, domestic energy consumption and CO2 emissions, 2010=1 Is there a decoupling of emissions from economic growth Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0,80 0,90 1,00 1,10 1,20 1,30 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 GDP Gross domestic energy use CO2 emissions
  21. 21. Changes in GDP, CO2 emissions and intensities of GHG emissions, 2010=1 Is there a decoupling of emissions from economic growth Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 GDP Intensity of GHG emissions GHG emissions
  22. 22. Decoupling of GHG emissions and economic growth in two sectors DECOUPLING: Electricity, gas and steam supply Decoupling is missimg: manufacturing industry Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 GHG emission Value added Intensity of GHG emissions 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 GHG emission Value added Intensity of GHG emission s
  23. 23. ” CO2 emission intensity of in economic activity “Electricity, gas and steam supply”, kg/euro Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Estonia EU Source: Eurostat 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 Bulgaaria Eesti Küpros Poola Kreeka Tšehhi Saksamaa Holland Sloveenia Suurbritannia Ungari Rumeenia Itaalia EL Portugal Iiri Soome Läti Horvaatia Leedu Belgia Taani Slovakkia Hispaania Austria Prantsusmaa Rootsi Luksemburg ” CO2 emissioon intensity of in economic activity “Electricity, gas and steam supply”, 2016, kg/Euro Luxembourg Sweden France Austria Spain Slovakia Denmark Belgium Lithuania Croatia Latvia Finland Ireland Portugal EU Italy Romania Hungary United Kingdom Slovenia Netherlands Germany Czechia Greece Poland Cyprus Estonia Bulgaria
  24. 24. Which are the sectorial trends? Intensities of GHG emissions and the changes Canges in GHG intensities* 2010 ja 2016Which sector is most intensities in terms of GHG emissions 2016, kg of CO2 equivalents/Euro Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 * 1-(CO2/LV 2010)/(CO2/LV 2016) 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 Electricity, gas and steam supply Agriculture, forestry and fishing Transportation and storage Manufacturing Mining and quarrying Other Manufacturing Other Mining and quarrying Agriculture, forestry and fishing Transportation and storage Electricity, gas and steam supply -0,6 -0,4 -0,2 0 0,2 0,4
  25. 25. 10.06.2019 What is done in Estonia to lessen the negative impact on environment? Trends of environmental fiscal measures Size of environmental (green) sector
  26. 26. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 TRANSPORT TAXES PACKAGING EXCISE DUTY FISHING CHARGE WATER POLLUTION CHARGE AIR POLLUTION CHARGE WATER ABSTRACTION CHARGE EMISSION PERMITS WASTE DISPOSAL CHARGE ELECTRICITY EXCISE DUTY FUEL EXCISE DUTY
  27. 27. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities Warehousing and support activities for transportation Manufacture of wood and paper, printing and reproduction of recorded media Administrative and support service activities Other manufacturing activities, excl. manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles Public administration and defence, education, health and social work Agriculture, forestry and fishing Mining and quarrying, activities related to energy production Construction Other activities Households Land transport FUEL EXCISE DUTY ELECTRICITY EXCISE DUTY EMISSION PERMITS TRANSPORT TAXES AIR POLLUTION FEE WATER POLLUTION FEE WASTE DISPOSAL FEE PACKAGING EXCISE DUTY WATER ABSTRACTION FEE FISHING FEE MINERAL RESOURCE EXTRACTION FEE Who pays environmental taxes and charges (million EUR), 2016
  28. 28. Are environmental taxes fair? Example: quantify of used transport fuels and transport fuels excise duty, 2016 Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 EXCISE DUTY QUANTITY 10% 3% 0% 4% 2% 4% 3% 32% 41% 0% 10% 2% 1% 3% 4% 6% 10% 18% 21% 25% 0 0,05 0,1 0,15 0,2 0,25 0,3 0,35 0,4 0,45 Other Public administration and defence; education; human health and social work activities Non-residents Mining and quarrying; manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products; electricity, gas and… Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles Construction Agriculture, forestry and fishing Land transport Households Water and air transport
  29. 29. Monitoring of the ecological tax reform in10.06.2019 Imapct on competivness: surplus compared to environmental expenditures, million EUR, 2016 283 165 168 212 43 15 190 256 218 33 8 10 11 13 13 22 24 28 100 201 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Warehousing and supporting activities; Postal and courier activities Administrative and support service Manufacture of wood and paper, printing Other manufacture (except coke and refined petroleum) Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation Public administration and defence; education, human health and social… Agriculture, forestry and fishing Construction Mining, manufacture of coke and refined petroleum and energetics Land transport Environmental taxes Surplus 283 165 168 212 43 15 190 256 218 33 8 11 18 14 58 22 30 35 146 201 0 100 200 300 Environmental expenditures + taxes Surplus
  30. 30. National environmental protection expenditure, mln euros -500 0 500 1000 2014 2015 2016 Use Investments Transfers By type of exenditure and transfers from the rest of the world (left) Environmental domains Who is contributing? 0 200 400 General government Corporations Households Rest of the world 0 200 400 600 2014 2015 2016 Waste water management Waste management Other Protection of ambient air and climate Protection of biodiversity and landscape Trend
  31. 31. GREEN ECONOMY: ENVIRONMENTAL GOODS AND SERVICES SECTOR IN ESTONIA IN 2016 10.06.2019 Output: 2,7 billion eur (6% total output) Value added: 1,1 billion eur (6% total value added) Export: 443 million eur (3% total export) Employment: 31 thousand full-time equivalent (5%, comparable with employment of healthcare)
  32. 32. 10.06.2019 ACTIVITY ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESOURCE SAVING Air Waste water Waste Ground and surface water Noise Biodive rsity Radiati on R&D Other Water Forest Game Renew ables Energy saving Fossil Minera ls R&D Other Agriculture, forestry, fishing 0 0 0 69 10 0 4 55 1 12 0 0 Mining and quarrying 0 12 0 8 0 1 0 Manufacturing 15 31 41 0 0 0 2 1 56 21 255 210 16 45 8 Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning 6 3 2 0 0 7 187 60 1 9 Water supply, sewerage, waste management 0 62 88 2 0 0 0 48 5 0 47 146 Construction 22 22 9 3 2 3 0 13 0 14 660 1 Wholesale and retail trade 0 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 24 4 1 55 0 Transportation and storage 0 1 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 Accommodation, food service 0 0 0 0 1 Information and communication 3 0 Financial and insurance 0 0 0 Real estate 0 1 2 0 1 1 4 1 Professional, scientific and technical 6 3 0 0 0 1 0 1 33 2 0 0 8 44 0 1 2 2 Administrative and support service 0 12 0 1 1 0 3 3 0 0 Puclic administration and defence 8 38 2 10 1 0 62 0 0 2 1 0 8 Education 0 0 7 1 0 0 1 3 6 Human health and social work 0 0 0 0 0 Arts, entertainment and recreation 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Other service 0 2 0 3 2 5 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Environmental goods and services output, million eur, 2016
  33. 33. Output of economic activities producing some circular economy goods, including export, million eur, 2016 10.06.2019 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Plastic granules from plastic waste Reuse of glass Retreaded tyres New products from oilshale ash Products from old paper Reuse of metal Output Export
  34. 34. *- price difference between environmentally friendlier product and  “normal” product Specific products Cleaner and resource efficient products Consumption of env goods, million eur Goods Consumption Extra cost* Septic tanks 5 5 Rubbish containers 1 1 Wood fired boilers 6 6 Wind turbines 12 12 Heat pumps 19 19 Electric cars 3 1 Hybrid cars 33 5 Bio fuels 4 0 Organic goods 46 19 Electricity from renewable sources 211 7 Heat from biogas 1 0 Fuelwood 362 0 Total 702 74
  35. 35. Interaktiivsed juhtimislauad kui otsustamise tööriistad tulevikus
  36. 36. Thank you for the attention! Kaia Oras Leading Analyst Economic and Environmental Statistics Department Statistics Estonia kaia.oras@stat.ee tel: +372 625 9234 GSM: +372 504 2694 More: https://www.stat.ee/keskkond https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/environment

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