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Wintertime PM in Utah <ul><li>Utah’s mountain valleys and wintertime temperature inversions provide ideal conditions for t...
Background <ul><li>The Clean Air Act identifies 6 criteria pollutants (CO, Lead, NO 2 , Ozone,  Particulate Matter , SO 2 ...
Particles Fine Particles lodge deeply into the lungs, and are associated with serious health problems, including heart and...
PM2.5 in Utah <ul><li>Most of Utah’s Wintertime Particulate is Fine Particulate, or PM2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Utah’s...
Revised NAAQS for PM2.5 <ul><li>EPA revised the NAAQS for PM2.5 in December of 2006   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24-hr standard...
ug/m3 1974 – 3080 ug/m3 TSP 1987 – 487 ug/m3 TSP 1992 – 267 ug/m3 PM10 2002 – 91.6 ug/m3 PM2.5 Salt Lake Valley Maximum 20...
Monitored levels of PM2.5
Timeline <ul><li>The Clean Air Act lays out a 5-year process from revision of the standard to completion of a State Implem...
PM2.5 Area Designations <ul><li>UDAQ has completed its work on area designations for PM2.5 and the Governor submitted Utah...
Current Status <ul><li>EPA has not published its findings in the Federal Register, meaning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there is...
State Implementation Plan <ul><li>Essentially a  3-year process </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Project Phases include: </li></ul>...
Early SIP Work <ul><li>Phase I – Model Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Work is already underway to develop the Air Quality Mo...
CMAQ Modeling Domain <ul><li>Grid-based Regional Scale Model </li></ul><ul><li>Simulates Atmospheric Chemistry & Dispersio...
Emissions Modeled PM 2.5   Concentrations Air Quality Model NOx SO4 NH3 NO NH3 NH 3 +HNO 3   NH 4 NO 3 OH+NO 2   HNO 3 NO ...
Speciated PM2.5 Data   January 2004 Inversion
Winter Emissions Inventory <ul><li>Categories of Sources include Mobile (cars), Point (industry), and Area (urban activity...
<ul><li>Fuel Type </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Type </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature / Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Speed ...
Preliminary Modeling Runs <ul><li>UDAQ has been running the Air Quality model in order to replicate measured values from p...
 
Work in the Coming Years <ul><li>Control strategies will be evaluated for all sectors within the airshed </li></ul><ul><ul...
Stakeholder Involvement <ul><li>SIP development is an open stakeholder process </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders include: </l...
Next Steps <ul><li>Project has just begun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will take about 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work is alr...
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Wintertime PM in Utah (Air Quality)

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Science-based presentation on wintertime particulate matter in Utah.

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Wintertime PM in Utah (Air Quality)

  1. 1. Wintertime PM in Utah <ul><li>Utah’s mountain valleys and wintertime temperature inversions provide ideal conditions for the formation of fine particulate. </li></ul><ul><li>PM2.5 Concentrations build as temperature inversions persist. </li></ul><ul><li>Utah will need to develop State Implementation Plans to meet revised federal Health Standards for PM2.5 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>The Clean Air Act identifies 6 criteria pollutants (CO, Lead, NO 2 , Ozone, Particulate Matter , SO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for each in order to protect public health </li></ul><ul><li>UDAQ monitors the air to determine whether or not Utah is meeting these standards </li></ul>
  3. 3. Particles Fine Particles lodge deeply into the lungs, and are associated with serious health problems, including heart and lung diseases, and premature death.
  4. 4. PM2.5 in Utah <ul><li>Most of Utah’s Wintertime Particulate is Fine Particulate, or PM2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Utah’s PM2.5 is “Secondary” PM </li></ul><ul><li>This Wintertime Smog develops in, and is trapped by, mountain valleys and temperature inversions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Revised NAAQS for PM2.5 <ul><li>EPA revised the NAAQS for PM2.5 in December of 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24-hr standard was lowered from 65 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m 3 ) to 35 µg/m 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual standard was retained at 15 µg/m 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retained the 24-hr standard for PM10 at 150 µg/m 3 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ug/m3 1974 – 3080 ug/m3 TSP 1987 – 487 ug/m3 TSP 1992 – 267 ug/m3 PM10 2002 – 91.6 ug/m3 PM2.5 Salt Lake Valley Maximum 2008 – 59.6 ug/m3 PM2.5 Particulate Matter Standards
  7. 7. Monitored levels of PM2.5
  8. 8. Timeline <ul><li>The Clean Air Act lays out a 5-year process from revision of the standard to completion of a State Implementation Plan (SIP) </li></ul><ul><li>The First 2 years are used to define the area boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Year 1: The State makes a recommendation to EPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Year 2: The EPA makes the final designations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The next 3 years are used to develop the SIP </li></ul>
  9. 9. PM2.5 Area Designations <ul><li>UDAQ has completed its work on area designations for PM2.5 and the Governor submitted Utah’s recommendations to EPA </li></ul><ul><li>UDAQ based its recommendation on a technical evaluation of local data </li></ul><ul><li>EPA considered Utah’s recommendation, but expanded the areas </li></ul>Utah’s Recommendation EPA’s Proposed Final Designation Great Salt Lake Great Salt Lake
  10. 10. Current Status <ul><li>EPA has not published its findings in the Federal Register, meaning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there is still no effective date, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>none of the clocks are ticking just yet, giving UDAQ more time to develop and implement strategies to reduce pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIP will be due 3 years after the effective date </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Even though the clocks are not ticking, UDAQ has been working on a PM2.5 SIP </li></ul>
  11. 11. State Implementation Plan <ul><li>Essentially a 3-year process </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Project Phases include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes Episode Selection, Inventories, Meteorological Data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Strategy Testing / Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity runs to Identify Targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of Possible Controls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Projection Inventories are tested in the model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIP writing & processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emission Limits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Documentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated Rulemakings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Early SIP Work <ul><li>Phase I – Model Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Work is already underway to develop the Air Quality Model used to support the SIP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling Domain includes most of Northern Utah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulates the chemical and physical processes important to PM2.5 (and ozone) formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will ultimately be the tool for evaluating the effectiveness of possible control strategies </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. CMAQ Modeling Domain <ul><li>Grid-based Regional Scale Model </li></ul><ul><li>Simulates Atmospheric Chemistry & Dispersion </li></ul><ul><li>Input Hourly Emissions & Meteorology </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs Hourly Gridded Concentrations </li></ul>
  14. 14. Emissions Modeled PM 2.5 Concentrations Air Quality Model NOx SO4 NH3 NO NH3 NH 3 +HNO 3 NH 4 NO 3 OH+NO 2 HNO 3 NO 2 +O 3 NO 3 83% -5 ° 250m NW 6 Meteorology Chemistry Must replicate the complex chemistry of winter-time Fine Particulate (PM 2.5 ) Formation
  15. 15. Speciated PM2.5 Data January 2004 Inversion
  16. 16. Winter Emissions Inventory <ul><li>Categories of Sources include Mobile (cars), Point (industry), and Area (urban activity.) </li></ul><ul><li>Not only PM2.5 emissions, but also precursor emissions that become chemically altered during winter inversions to form more particulate </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these precursor gasses are also important to summertime ozone formation </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Fuel Type </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Type </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature / Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Speed </li></ul>Local Data Input Model Prediction NOx CO2 VOC NH3 CO MOBILE 6 NMIM (National Mobile Inventory Model) MOVES ( Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator ) Vehicle Emissions in Tons Mobile Emission Models SOx PM2.5 Emission Factor Model Air Quality Chemistry Model Vehicle Miles Travel (VMT) I/M Program
  18. 18. Preliminary Modeling Runs <ul><li>UDAQ has been running the Air Quality model in order to replicate measured values from past episodes. </li></ul><ul><li>This step insures that the model will be suitable for testing control strategies later on. </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling is preliminary, but the next slide shows some early results: </li></ul>
  19. 20. Work in the Coming Years <ul><li>Control strategies will be evaluated for all sectors within the airshed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PM2.5 and the precursors that form PM2.5 (NOx, SO2, VOC) from point sources will be considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls on area sources such as wood burning and fugitive dust will be considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile sources will be evaluated for various I/M strategies (including on-board diagnostics (OBD) and diesel) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modeled Attainment Demonstration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows that control strategies will sufficient to meet the standards </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Stakeholder Involvement <ul><li>SIP development is an open stakeholder process </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local government officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned Citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation Officials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UDAQ held kick-off meetings in Salt Lake and Cache Counties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well Attended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There will be more meetings as the SIP is developed </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Next Steps <ul><li>Project has just begun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will take about 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work is already underway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Episode Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic Emissions Inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation of representative Meteorological Data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We will likely re-convene when we have a Validated AQ Model </li></ul>

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