Edgerton Haskell Hart Chinese version


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Chinese and English version of the life of Dr. Edgerton Hart, who was a Methodist mission doctor born and practiced in China.

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  • I am very curious about the photo of the family on the stone steps. Was that at the home at Wuhu or the one at Lushan? Since there are three girls in the photo, I assumed that that was wife Caroline and not Rose. Is the woman standing Sue Munn? Does the child she is holding belong to her or to Edgerton? Her face is long and similar to the girls. I would love a response. -Rebecca Ewing Peterson
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Edgerton Haskell Hart Chinese version

  1. 1. Dr. Edgerton Haskell Hart: in His Father’s Footsteps 博士,继承父志 By 作者:Cathleen Crawford Green and Stanley Crawford Edgerton Haskell Hart, the second son of Virgil and Adeline Hart, was born May 18, 1868, in Kiukiang, China. He spent until 1879 growing up in the city and became friends with Shi Mei Yu and Ida Kahn who were Jenny Hughes’ adopted daughters. Edgerton left for the United States in 1879 for schooling. He attended the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, from 1887-1889. He received his medical degree from the University of the City of New York in 1892, and did his internship at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in New Jersey from 1892 to 1893. He was married to Rose Munn on July 20, 1893, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. By the end of 1893, Dr. and Mrs. Hart were in Soochow, China, where he was working at the hospital and dispensary. Their first daughter, Rose Adelaide Hart, was born June 29, 1894. By the summer of 1895 they were able to spend the hot months in the higher altitude of Kuling, where they continued their Chinese language lessons. They enjoyed walks, such as to the Moon Temple of the White Cloud Precipice. Edgerton Haskell Hart 是 Virgil 和 Adeline Hart 的第二个儿子,1868 年 5 月 18 日生于中 国九江。他在九江长大,并与石美玉以及 Jenny Hughes 收养的女儿康爱德成了朋友。1879 年 Edgerton Haskell Hart 去美国求学。1887 至 1889 年间他在加拿大安大略省多伦多大学学 习,1892 年在纽约市立大学获得医学学位,从 1892 年到 1893 年作为实习生留在新泽西州 St.
  2. 2. Bartholomew 医院实习。1893 年 7 月 20 日在加拿大安大略湖省哈密尔顿市与 Rose Munn 结 婚。1893 年底这对夫妇来到中国的苏州从事医务工作。他们的大女儿 Rose Adelaide Hart 于 1894 年 6 月 29 日出生。1895 年夏天,他们终于可以在庐山的牯岭避暑,并在那里继续学习汉 语。他们喜欢去诸如白云绝壁边缘的月亮寺散步。 In August, 1895, Edgerton responded to the call for rescue volunteers to go to Kucheng where ten missionaries had been massacred and the mission compound destroyed. Upon arrival he was witness to men being tortured in the Chinese court. No official written record was transcribed of these events. 1895 年 8 月 Edgerton 响应号召去 Kucheng 当救助志愿者,在那里已经有十名传教士被杀,教会 建筑也遭到破坏。刚到 Ku-cheng 他就见识了中国衙门折磨人的场面。这样的场面在官方的文案 中是见不到的。 In November, Dr. Hart received word to go to Wuhu which he hoped would be his permanent mission station. The journals he kept record many of his daily activities, such as seeing patients at the dispensary and the hospital, doing surgery, delivering babies, giving vaccinations, doing amputations and removing large tumors from patients. For entertainment the Harts took walks, went to chapel, visited with other missionary friends, had tea and dinners with them and the consulate and customs staff. He enjoyed hunting as well as playing tennis and croquet when time allowed. Visitors from abroad were always welcome. In April, 1896, he mentioned meeting a Chicago, Illinois couple who was traveling around the world on bicycles! Two months after Dr. Hart’s 28th birthday their second daughter, Dorothea Mansell Hart, was born. He took Baby Rose for rides on his pony. In early October, he returned to Kiukiang for the first time since leaving as a boy of eleven years of age. 11 月,哈特博士收到去芜湖的任命,他希望那里是他最后的一站。在旅行途中他记录了在诊所 和医院里的许多日常工作:包括看病人,做手术,接生小孩,疫苗接种,为患者做截肢和消除大肿 瘤手术等。在空闲时间里,哈特夫妇会一起散步,去教堂,与其他传教士朋友结伴出游,与他 们以及领事、海关工作人员一起喝茶和共进晚餐。如果时间允许,他还会打猎以及打网球和槌 球。他也很喜欢迎接国外游客。他曾提到在 1896 年 4 月接到来自芝加哥和伊利诺斯的一对夫 妇,这对夫妇正骑自行车环球旅行。在哈特博士 28 岁生日的两个月后,他们的第二个女儿 Dorothea Mansell Hart 出生了。他常常让小 Rose 骑他的小马。在十月上旬,他回到了九江, 那是自他十一岁离开之后的首度回访。
  3. 3. Dr. Edgerton Hart business Card Dr. Edgerton Haskell Hart 的名片 Dr. Edgerton Hart Name Card Dr. Edgerton Haskell Hart 的名片 In February, 1897, he wrote about the visit of Dr. Hare who was en route to Yokohama where he married his sister Estella Hart. The two doctors enjoyed hunting for ducks and deer, but only shot a pheasant. That month Dr. Hart wrote about several interesting surgeries. An operation was noted for Elephantiasis where both legs were removed due to gross deformation. One man had leprosy for fifteen years and another had necrosis of the bones of his foot. Dr. Hart amputated one foot and leg on a Chinese woman with gangrene due to foot binding and necrosis. On February 22nd, he was called to help a man who was buried alive by a heap of coal. Later that day a native man who had ingested three grams of powdered opium, had tried to commit suicide by jumping off a bridge. After being rescued, he took a straight razor and opened his throat, but missed the arteries on either side of his neck. The stitches Dr. Hart sewed in had to be redone after the opium induced addict pulled them out. Imagine the challenge presented to find stout enough flesh to bind such mangled remains! 1897 年 2 月,哈尔医生乘船去日本横滨,在那里哈尔医生与哈特博士的表妹艾丝特拉结婚。这 两位医生喜欢猎狩鸭子和鹿,但是只打到一只野鸡。在二月里,哈特医生记录下了一些稀奇古 怪的手术:其中象皮病手术非常出名,病人的双腿因严重变形而被截肢;有位男子患麻风病有 十五年的历史。有位男子的足骨已坏死。一位中国妇女因患坏疽而致腿部粘连和坏死,哈特医 生为她截去了下肢。在二月二十二日那天,他被喊去抢救一位被煤堆活埋的男子;那天的晚些 时候,当地一位男性在吞服了三克的鸦片粉末之后,从桥上跳下自杀。在被救起之后,他又拿 起剃须刀割开了自己的喉咙,幸好颈部两侧的动脉没被割断。因为鸦片成瘾致使伤口裂开,哈 特医生不得不再次为他缝合伤口。不难想象用结实的肤肉来包扎那样的伤口会有多困难。
  4. 4. Woman's bound foot (OWM)book photo Opium addict slit throat 鸦片上瘾者切开了喉咙 妇女的小脚 The lives of missionaries so far from their homeland were filled with many joys and sorrows. After a visit from his father and mother in 1897, Edgerton wrote in his journal: “We have enjoyed their short stay with us very much. Sorry they have
  5. 5. to be so far away from us. Our whole lives seem to have been made up of meetings and partings. As a family we are pretty well scattered. Hope someday we may all be together as a family.” The family was blessed with the birth of their first son, Edgerton Haskell Hart, Jr., on October 22nd that year. In March, 1900, Rose received word that her father, James J. Munn, had died in January, far away in Canada. She was devastated with the loss and the fact that he had never seen their children. Their second son, Wellington Jackson Hart, was born in Hamilton, Ontario, on October 1, 1900, while the family was home on furlough. During their stay Dr. Hart did post graduate work at the New York Post Graduate Medical School from November 1900 to May, 1901. 传教士们远离自己的祖国,生活充满着快乐与悲伤。1897 年 Edgerton 拜望他父母之后在日记 中写道:“我们非常享受与他们相聚的短暂时光,也为与他们彼此远离感到难过。我们的整个 生活似乎是由相聚与分离组成。我们全家几乎分散在各地,希望有一天我们一家人可以团圆在 一起。”同年十月二十二日,他们第一个儿子小 Edgerton Haskell Hart 出生,一家沉浸在幸 福之中。1900 年三月, Rose 收到父亲 James J. Munn 在遥远的加拿大去世的消息,悲痛万分, 他老人家还从没见过自己的孙子呢。Wellington Jackson Hart 他们的第二个儿子于 1900 年 十月一日在安大略湖省哈密尔顿市出生,当时他们在家休假。在此期间,哈特博士从 1900 年十 一月到 1901 年五月仍然在纽约医学院研究生院从事研究工作。 One of Dr. Hart’s Chinese friends was Lord Li who later became the minister from China to Great Britain. In 1899, Lord Li sent a messenger to Dr. Hart to call at his home. His uncle, Li Han Chang, the former Viceroy of Canton, was very sick and he wanted Dr. Hart to go see him in Luchio. Together they went to his country home where Dr. Hart treated him for an extensive carbuncle at the back of his neck. They returned a week later to find the patient improving. While there they toured the extensive gardens, stone bridges, ponds and moats. They paid homage to the ancestral tomb of Li Hung Change’s parents. The family temple was a fine building with five steps and numerous tablets, several from the Emperor and Empress Dowager and other notables. Dr. Hart was also asked to operate on an 89 year old man who was a pupil of Li Hung Chang’s father. Three years later Lord Li beckoned Dr. Hart to come view the casket of the “last great Chinese statesman” Li Hung Chang. He was also asked the following year to see the wife of a relative of Lord Li who had swallowed a gold earring in order to commit suicide. She was unsuccessful in her attempt. After operating on Lord Li’s son for appendicitis, Lord Li asked if the boy could live in the Hart home in preparation for going to school in America or Europe. Lord Li 李经方是哈特博士的中国朋友之一,他后来出任中国驻英国的大使。1899 年,他的伯 父李翰章(前任湖广总督)生病了,他通知哈特博士,希望他前去医治。他们一起去了李翰章 乡下的家中,哈特博士为他处理了项部的痈。一周后病情好转他们才回来。在此期间,他们参 观了那里的大花园、石桥、池塘还有护城河,还瞻仰了安放李鸿章父母的祖祠,这座祠堂是非 常漂亮,有五个台阶和许多牌匾,有几块还是出自皇上、皇太后和名士之手。哈特博士也被邀 去为一位 89 岁老人手术,这位老人是李鸿章父亲的学生。三年后李经方就邀请哈特博士参加中 国近代最伟大的政治家李鸿章的葬礼。第二年,李经方的一个亲戚的妻子吞金耳环自杀,哈特 博士也被请去救治。在给李经方的儿子做完阑尾炎手术后,李经方问是否能将儿子住在哈特家 中,以便为日后去欧美留学做准备。 In April, 1902, Dr. Hart went with others to inspect the broken dike near Wuhu. One man was Mr. Von Heidenstam from Sweden who was a hydro-engineer up from Shanghai.
  6. 6. 1902 年 4 月,哈特医生和其他几人一起考察芜湖附近破损的长江大堤,其中一人就是瑞典的 Von Heidenstam 先生,他是来自上海的水利工程师。 Dr. Edgerton hart, left surveying the Wuhu dikes Edgerton hart 博士(左)在视察芜湖大堤 Such a calamity threatened the lives and homes of thousands of people along the Yangtze River. Cholera was a deadly disease often associated with contaminated water. Dr. Hart was called to see numerous patients who showed symptoms of the disease in the morning, were dead by that night and buried the following day. Extreme care was taken to wash their hands and those of their servants and helpers. They boiled and filtered all water for drinking and the preparation of food. An old river boat captain who had sailed the Yangtze River for forty years, allowed himself to eat a fresh pear one day. Thirty hours later their fight to save his life was useless. 这样的灾难威胁着长江沿岸数以千计的人民的生命和财产。霍乱是一种常伴随洪水(疫水)而 至的致命疾病。哈特医生早上就是应邀来为大量出现这种病症的病人看病的,这种病人到晚上 就死了并在第二天被埋葬。哈特医生的佣人和一起帮忙的人都要极其小心仔细地清洗自己的 手,把过滤的水烧开用于饮用和制作食物。一个在长江上行船 40 余年的老船主,一天吃了一个 细菌感染的鲜梨,三十小时后,他就死去了。 On April 17, 1903, Dr. Stone came down from Kiukiang to see their work and witness some operations. The only forms of anesthesia available were chloroform, ether and cocaine. Dr. Hart was called to deliver many babies, especially when mothers had been in labor for several days with midwives unable to deliver them. He used forceps when necessary, but no mention is made in his journals of doing any Caesarian sections. One afternoon in 1903 a poor woman was put off a boat and delivered a baby in their back yard. Only one entry in his journals mentioned operating for a sarcoma and one for
  7. 7. cancer of the breast. However, many cases were not noted in his journals, so conclusions cannot be formed as to the incidence of cancer. 1903 年 4 月 17 日,stone 医生从九江来到这里并观看了他们的工作和几例手术。当时能获得的 麻醉剂只有氯仿,乙醚和可卡因。哈特医生还被请去接生小孩,特别是那些已经临产多日而产 婆还束手无策的产妇。必要时他还会使用助产钳,但他在工作日志中从未提及这些。1903 年的 一个下午,有一个贫穷的产妇被用船送来并在他们的后院生下一个小孩。在他的日志中只有一 条提及他曾为一个肉瘤患者和一个乳癌患者做过手术,然而,许多病例并未记录,因此也不知 道癌症的发病率。 While in Kuling for the summer of 1903 Rose gave birth to their third son Virgil Chittenden Hart, II, on August 17th. That December 8th she was in intense agony with abdominal pain, at first thought to be peritonitis. The following day Dr. Hart discovered a mass on her right side which proved to be a dislocated kidney. It is believed she injured herself while moving a piano during house cleaning in their Wuhu home. She apparently improved enough for Edgerton to attend the annual meeting of the missionaries in Kiukiang in January. On February 25th he received the shocking news of the death of his father Virgil Hart. Edgerton wrote, “Father dear old man has fought his fight and finished a glorious course of life.” 1903 年的夏天,Rose 于 8 月 17 日在牯岭生下了他们的第三个儿子 Virgil Chittenden Hart, II。十 二月 8 日,她出现剧烈的腹痛,开始以为是腹膜炎,第二天哈特医生发现在她的右侧腹部有一 个肿块并证明这是一个移位的肾脏,可能是她在芜湖的家里打扫卫生时搬动钢琴受了伤。她似 乎已经好很多了,Edgerton 便去参加 1 月份在九江的传教士聚会。2 月 25 日,他收到一个可怕 的消息,他的父亲,Virgil Hart 去世了。Edgerton 写道,父亲,这位可敬的老人,奋斗终生,并 度过了光荣的一生。
  8. 8. Edgerton Hart 和他的第一任妻子 Rose Mansell,坐在两人之间的是小 Edgerton Haskell,幼 女 Rose 及长女 Dorothea Mansell,在阿婆怀中的是 Wellington Jackson,Edgerton Hart 夫 妇还生育率几个孩子,其中 Virgil Chittenden II 英年早逝,她用的是 Edgerton Hart 祖父的 名字。 On February 27, 1904, Edgerton received a letter from Miss Caroline Maddock of Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. stating she was accepting his invitation and that of Dr. Beebe and the Mission Board of New York to be a nurse at the Wuhu Hospital. Mrs. Rose Hart immediately replied to the letter stating her delight that Caroline was coming there. Rose said that her husband had been serving with only a few native helpers to do the work which at home would require a score or more doctors and nurses. There was no training school for native women as yet. She instructed her to bring many items, including furniture, clothes, tennis racquet, and plenty of shoes because shopping was so expensive there. Married couples had to stay seven years, single people were entitled to a furlough in five years. “Prepare yourself for another world, but not a better one. Everything in China is directly opposite to what you have been accustomed to at home. Monotony predominates, so arm yourself with a large amount of common sense, a great big heart and a contented sunny disposition.” She said she had five children who required all her time and attention. She was a teacher as well as a mother. 1904 年 2 月 27 日,Edgerton 收到了一封美国伊利诺州芝加哥市 Caroline Maddock 小姐的来信, 说她愿意接受他、Beebe 医生和纽约代表团委员会的邀请来芜湖医院当一名护士。Rose Hart 夫
  9. 9. 人立即回信说她非常高兴 Caroline 的到来,并说自己的丈夫工作时只有少数几个本地人帮忙, 而这些工作在美国需要至少十二名医护人员才能完成,这里也没有为当地妇女提供培训的学 校,她还给 Caroline 写了一张单子,让她带些家具,衣服,网球拍子和许多鞋子,因为在这里 购物是很昂贵的。结婚的夫妇工作 7 年,而单身工作者 5 年后有休假。“做好准备在另外一个 世界生活吧,这种生活可没有美国那么舒适。在中国,所有的事情都会有些不习惯,生活单调 无味,因此请用丰富的知识,伟大的胸怀,知足常乐的个性来武装你自己吧。” 她还说自己已 经有了 5 个小孩,照顾他们要花费自己所有的时间和精力,自己即是母亲又是老师。 In March Dr. Beebe arrived to consult Edgerton in regard to Rose’s case. He agreed that she had displaced her right kidney and it may be necessary to take her home for an operation. However, they spent two months in Kuling that summer. Rose Hart wrote to Miss Maddock again on September 21, 1904, welcoming her and saying they were longing to see her and have her with them socially and in the work. That same night the intense abdominal pain resumed and lasted at least four days. Edgerton had no journal entries until October 22 when Rose was feeling better. He wrote, “Miss Maddock, our new nurse, arrived this p.m. She impresses us all as being very capable.” Rose’s pain and fever resumed and four days later they boarded Captain Hogg’s boat with help getting Rose on-board. Miss Maddock accompanied them, having arrived just in time to serve as her personal nurse. They were met in Nanking by Doctors Stuart, Rowe, and Wilson and Miss Shaw. 3 月,Beebe 医生来请教 Edgerton 一起给 Rose 做了会诊,Edgerton 同意她右侧肾脏移位的诊 断,并且认为她需要回国接受手术治疗。然而,这个夏天他们又在牯岭呆了 2 个月。1904 年 9 月 21 日 Rose Hart 再次给 Maddock 小姐写信欢迎她的来临,并且告诉她他们非常渴望她来这里 和他们一起生活和工作。同一天的晚上,Rose 的肚子再次剧痛,并且至少持续了 4 天。Edegerton 也没再写日志陈条,直到 10 月 22 日 Rose 感觉好多了,他才写道,Maddock 小 姐,我们新的护士,今天晚上终于抵达。她的能干给我们所有的人留下了深刻的印象。Rose 的 腹痛再次发作并伴有发烧,4 天后他们登上了 Hogg 船长的船,Maddock 小姐也一起陪着他们, 她来后正好可以给 Rose 做专职护理。在南京,他们受到了 Stuart 医生, Rowe, Wilson 以及 Show 小姐的接待。 On November 27, 1904, they arrived in Shanghai where Rose was operated on immediately as she was in critical condition. A laparotomy was done on her right side and seven ounces of yellowish fluid was removed. She remained in the hospital with Miss Maddock caring for her as they were the only two women there and male nurses were not to care for women. Dr. Hart’s cook brought and cooked their meals. On January 10, 1905, they sailed from Shanghai, arriving in San Francisco, California on February 2nd. From there they took a train to Baltimore, Maryland where Mrs. Hart was admitted to Johns Hopkins Hospital. Miss Maddock and Miss Sue Munn, Rose’s sister, accompanied the five children to their Grandmother Munn in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 1904 年 11 月 27 日,他们到了上海,Rose 的病情危重并立即接受了手术治疗。医生给她做了右 侧腹部剖腹探查术,从她腹腔中取出 7 盎司的淡黄色液体。她留在医院继续就接受治 疗,Maddock 小姐也留下来照看她,她俩是这里唯一的俩个女人,而男护士是不能照看女病人 的。哈特医生把餐具带来烹煮食物。1905 年 1 月 10 日,他们坐船从上海出发,2 月 2 日到了加 州旧金山,然后坐火车前往马里兰州的巴尔的摩市,在这里哈特夫人住进了 Johns Hopkins 医 院。Maddock 小姐和 Rose 的妹妹 Sue Munn 小姐陪着五个孩子前往加拿大安大略省的哈密尔顿 市他们外祖母 Munn 的家中。
  10. 10. 1907 年 10 月 6 日 Edgerton Hart 的结婚照(从左至右)Dr. Edgerton Hart, Dr. Beebe, Caroline Maddock Hart, Dr. Stuart(南京大学第一任校长)及其夫人 Miss Maddock visited her own relatives in Canada and then in Chicago. Dr. Hart expressed in letters his deep appreciation to her for her self-sacrifice on their behalf. He advised her to return to China and spend the summer studying Chinese with a teacher in Kuling. She left Chicago in
  11. 11. April and sailed from San Francisco to Shanghai on the PMSS Korea, her third crossing of the Pacific Ocean on this ship within a year. Maddock 小姐也走访了芝加哥和加拿大她自己的亲戚。哈特 医生给她写信表达自己的深深谢 意,赞扬她无私奉献,为他人利益自我牺牲的精神,并建议她重返中国,夏天在牯岭跟老师学 习中文。她四月份离开芝加哥,乘坐朝鲜 PMSS 号轮船从旧金山前往上海,这是她一年内第三次 坐船横跨太平洋。 Mrs. Hart underwent three more surgeries before she died on March 12, 1905. While at Johns Hopkins with his wife, Dr. Hart did post-graduate work at the medical school and many surgeries. After her death he said his life was empty without his dear one. Unable to bear the thought of returning to China alone, Dr. Hart took his son Edgerton with him, traveling for over two and a half months from Montreal to England, France and Australia on the SS Marmora. On November 16th they returned to Wuhu. 哈特夫人又做了三次手术并于 1905 年 3 月 12 日去世。哈特医生在陪伴他的妻子在 Johns Hopkins 医院接受治疗的这段时间里完成了自己在医学院的研究生学习,还做了许多例手术。 妻子去世后,没有了自己的爱人,他觉得自己的生活空洞无趣。因难以忍受孤独,他有了重返 中国的想法,哈特医生带着儿子 Edgerton 一起用了几乎三个月月的时间来旅游散心,他们乘坐 SS Marmora 号游历了蒙特利尔市、英格兰、法兰西和澳大利亚。11 月 16 日,他们回到了芜 湖。 Edgerton’s journals for 1905-1907 are missing so information about this time is gleaned from letters and published articles. It is apparent the lonely widower’s affection for Caroline Maddock blossomed early in 1906 as they sent loving letters to one another while he was doing surgery in Nanking. He appreciated her excellent help in the operating room and they missed each other greatly while apart. They were both sensitive and caring people, as well as very proper in their behavior. On January 16, 1907, Dr. Hart proposed to Caroline while she was sitting at her writing desk, which was a cherished possession all her life. Edgerton 在 1905-1907 期间的日志已经丢失,因此有关这段时间的信息资料只能从书信和出版 物中收集。很明显,这位丧妻之人对 Caroline Maddock 的爱慕之情是缘于 1906 年初。当时他在 南京做手术,两人之间经常写情书。他欣赏她在手术室出色的协助工作,当他俩分开时彼此都 非常想念对方。他们俩都是感性的人,富有爱心、行为高尚。1907 年 1 月 16 日,哈特医生向坐 在写字台旁的 Caroline 求婚了。这张写字台也成为她珍惜一生的财富。 An August, 1907 article Caroline wrote for a World Wide Missions publication described the hospital compound outside the city of Wuhu on the hill named Iche san. The hospital had beds for seventy patients. There were buildings for the laundry, kitchen, baths, barbering, clothing and oil storage, and several houses for doctors, including the native Dr. Chung. In the past year they had had 409 inpatients, 363 operations, had seen 7,635 persons in the dispensary, and had made 743 out-calls. They also cared for foreigners and sailors from passing ships. Caroline trained Chinese men as nurses. Fortunately the peasant women around Wu-hu did not bind feet but many cases were brought from a distance with horrible ulcers from this practice. Almost
  12. 12. daily lepers came seeking health care but they had no isolation ward for them. Many came with huge tumors that had to be surgically removed. Caroline 在 1907 年 8 月份为 World Wide Missions 出版社写的一篇文章里描述了这所位在芜湖 市郊弋矶山上的医院。这所医院里有 70 张病床,有洗衣房,厨房,澡堂,理发店,衣物和油料 储藏室,还有几所供医生住的房子,本地的陈(Chung)医生也有住房。在过去的一年里,他们 收治了 409 个住院病人,做了 363 例手术,门诊人数达 7635 人,出诊 743 次。他们也收治照看 外国人和过往船只的船员。Caroline 还训练几个中国男人做护士。幸运的是芜湖周围的乡下妇 人没有裹脚,但有些患者来自外地,他们因裹脚而致使其严重溃疡。几乎每天都有麻风病人来 求医,但这里尚不能为他们准备隔离病房。还有许多患者需要手术切除身上的巨大肿块。 Dr. Hart and his colleagues made significant improvements to the hospital compound by the digging of a well and the building a windmill. Water was piped inside from the windmill tank. Cleanliness of water was a constant problem. Caroline wrote, “Probably the tea habit saves millions of lives every year, as it insures the boiling of water." One man’s job was carrying their household water from the river up the hill. Huge amounts of alum were stirred into it to cause the silt to settle to the bottom. Then it was boiled and filtered for household use. The cook bought their eggs, chickens and vegetables from farmers. They never ate raw vegetables and fruits except those carefully supervised in the compound gardens. Fish was only bought during the cold months and were brought to the kitchen door swimming alive in buckets of water. Fish was never eaten during cholera season from May to October. During those months they had many varieties of chicken, duck and pheasant. 哈特医生和他的同事们,通过挖井,建造风车,明显改善了医院的条件,井水从风车的水槽中 流出。一直都难得到清洁的饮用水,Caroline 写道,饮茶的习惯可能每年都能挽救几百万人的 生命,因为这能确保水被煮开。有位男雇工专门从河里挑水至小山上。大量的明矾丢进水里搅 拌使泥沙沉底,然后烧开过滤作为家用。厨师从农民那里买来鸡蛋,蔬菜,鸡肉。他们从不吃 生的蔬菜或水果,除非他们知道是在医院菜园或果园摘取的。只在天气冷的月份里买鱼,并且 要水桶中养着的活鱼才可进厨房做菜。他们从不在五月至十月霍乱流行的季节里吃鱼。在此期 间他们只吃各种鸡,鸭或野鸡。 Though the Maddock family discouraged Caroline from marrying a widower with five children, Caroline was determined and was disappointed none of her family could attend their wedding. She and Edgerton were married in Nanking at the home of Dr. and Mrs. Stuart, during the celebration of their 25th wedding anniversary, on October 26, 1907. The newlyweds honeymooned for one month on a houseboat Dr. Hart owned. They took a crew of four on their 1,000 mile trip on the lower Yangtze River and BoyangLake. They stopped beside small villages and some would bring sick people for him to heal, if possible, with their bag of medical supplies. North of Nanking they were struck by a sudden and terrible typhoon. For two nights Caroline was hurled from one side of the cabin to the other as the boat pitched and Dr. Hart and the crew fought to free the dragging anchor and master the tiller. During the 36 hour storm many junks, much larger than theirs, were overturned with great loss of life. 尽管 Maddock 的家人反对 Caroline 与一位带着五个孩子的鳏夫结婚,Caroline 仍然决定嫁给 他。Caroline 的家中没有一个人参加她们的婚姻,这让她很失望。1907 年 10 月 26 日正值
  13. 13. Stuart 夫妇的第 25 个结婚纪念日,这一天她与 Edgerton 在 Stuart 夫妇南京的家里成了亲。这 对新婚夫妇在哈特医生的游艇上度过了一个月的蜜月生活。这一个月来他们和四名船员在长江 下游和鄱阳湖区域旅行了 1000 英里。他们的游艇在沿途的小村落停靠,有些人会送病人来看 病,他们就尽可能用随身所带的药品救治病人。在南京北部,他们遭遇了一场突如其来的猛烈 的台风。连续两个晚上,因为船的剧烈颠簸,Caroline 常常从船仓的一头被甩到另一头;而哈 特医生和其他船员则忙于解开拖锚并控制船舵。在 36 个小时的暴风雨中,许多比他们的游艇大 的船只因为质量欠佳而失事,造成很大的人员伤亡。 新婚夫妇 Edgerton Hart and Caroline 离开九江港去鄱阳湖度蜜月
  14. 14. 新婚的 Dr. Edgerton Hart and Caroline 离开九江港去鄱阳湖度蜜月 One night they anchored in an untested spot and pirates circled their boat, trying all the shutters. Edgerton took his rifle and handed Caroline a revolver. The pirates tried the deck doors but the locks held them and the crew safely in the cabins below. The pirates finally left but Caroline did not sleep all night. Pirates often preyed on river passengers. Many nights Dr. Hart had treated parties who had been attacked and badly wounded by them. For her own protection Caroline practiced with rifle and revolver and it was widely known by the Chinese that she was a good shot. 一天晚上,他们在一个陌生的地方靠岸,结果海盗将游艇围在中间,试图进入船舱抢 劫。Edgerton 端起步枪并递给 Caroline 一支左轮手枪自卫。海盗们试着打开甲板的舱门,幸 好因为上了锁,里面的船员才幸免于难。最终海盗们弃船而去,但 Caroline 却整夜未眠。海盗 们经常抢劫过往船只和乘客。多少个夜晚,哈特医生曾救治过因海盗袭击而严重受伤的人们。 为了保护自已,凯若琳练习使用步枪和左轮手枪;许多中国人都知道她是神枪手。 On January 1, 1908, Dr. Hart arrived in Shanghai in anticipation of the arrival of his children on January 6 aboard the SS Korea. He waited many hours during the quarantine inspection before he could see Rose, Dorothea, Wellington and Virgil who were accompanied by their aunt, Sue Munn, from America. The children were all well and glad to be back in China. They returned to Wuhu the following day. In February the family planted a garden of potatoes, peas, spinach, turnips, beans and beets. In June they went to Kuling to escape the summer heat. They attended the opening services of the new Kuling church in August and celebrated Virgil’s fifth birthday with a party. The following day his father operated on Virgil under chloroform at the hospital there. On August 30 Mr. Stratton of the Episcopal School called at 8:30 in the morning suffering from great pain and diarrhea. It proved to be cholera and by 8:00 p.m. he was dead and was buried the next day. 1908 年 1 月 1 日,哈特医生到达上海准备迎接他的孩子们。预计孩子们在 1 月 6 日将乘坐 SS Korea 号船到达这里。在等待了几个小时的海关检疫之后,他终于看到了 Rose, Dorothea, Wellington 和 Virgil 以及从美国陪同他们来的姨妈 Sue Munn。孩子们身体状况都很好,大家很 高兴能回到中国。第二天,他们返回了芜湖。二月,他们在菜地里种上了马铃薯、豌豆、菠 菜、萝卜、豆子和甜菜;六月份他们去庐山的牯岭避暑;八月份,他们参加了新牯岭教堂的开 放仪式,并且为了庆祝 Virgil 的十五岁生日,他们还举行了一场生日宴会。生日的第二天,在 牯岭的医院里, Virgil 的父亲用氯仿为他麻醉并做了手术。8 月 30 日早晨 8 点半,教会学校的 Stratton 先生因剧痛和腹泻而打电话求救,结果被确诊为霍乱并于当晚 8 点病逝,第二天其遗体 被安葬。
  15. 15. Carolyn Estella Hart was born on December 11, completing the Hart family circle with three girls and three boys. Edgerton wrote, “Caroline is doing nicely. Too bad she had to suffer on her birthday, though she seems well pleased with her birthday gift.” Caroline was 35 years old. Carolyn Estella Hart 卡罗琳·埃斯特拉·哈特的生日是 12 月 11 日,哈特家有三个女孩和三 个男孩,她是最小的。Edgerton 写道:“Caroline 凯若琳现在挺不错的。尽管当初她出生吃了 不少苦,不过她对于今天的生日礼物好像很满意。”凯若琳那年 35 岁。
  16. 16. Dr. Edgerton Hart (middle) performing surgery
  17. 17. 医生(中)在给病人做手术 The Chinese article above appeared in the Shanghai newspaper. It was about some naughty Chinese boys who had climbed upon a wood pile to get a better view of fireworks going off for the Lantern Festival. One of the boys fell off and presumably broke his leg. They took the crying child to the hospital, where Dr. Hart happened to be visiting, and asked him to set the leg. How amazed the Chinese people were when the next day the boy was seen walking on the leg. The magical powers the great foreign doctor possessed were beyond what any local Chinese doctor could have done. 上海的报纸用中文刊载了上面的消息。事情是这样的:元宵节这天,为了更好地观看烟花,一 群淘气的中国男孩爬上一根木桩,其中一个男孩不慎跌落,腿部可能骨折。别的男孩将他带到 了附近的医院,哈特医生恰好在那里参观,他们请 Hart 医生为他腿部正骨。第二天那个男孩竟 然可以用腿走路,目睹此事的中国人都非常吃惊!在他们看来,这位出色的外国医生的“魔 力”已不是任何一位本地中国医生可比的啦。 In early February, 1909, Edgerton and two colleagues took his house-boat to Tsu Hs’in to call on patients. They listened to Mr. Buck’s talking machine, a novelty to them. The house they visited was beautifully situated on Tsau Lake. A legend was that Confucius was not able to enter this city as he found the children were too smart. 1909 年二月上旬,Edgerton 埃杰顿和他的两位同事将他的游艇停在了 Tsu Hsin 桐城为病人进行 治疗。病人听到 Buck 先生的留声机的音乐声,觉得很新奇。那段时间他们住在美丽的巢湖湖 边。关于那个地方有一个传说:孔子曾经不敢进城,因为他发现当地的小孩太聪明了。 In March, the Wuhu Hsien called to pay his respects and to thank Dr. Hart for treating his hand. He sent Dr. Hart a fine, long, satin scroll and a donation to the hospital of $100. Dr. Houghton and Dr. Hart opened their 2nd Street Dispensary which they hoped would be a feeder to the hospital. 三月份,芜湖的 Hs’in 为了感谢哈特医生挽救了他的手,他送给哈特医生一根细长的精美丝质 卷轴,并向医院捐赠了 100 美金。于是 Houghton 医生和 Hart 哈特医生在街上开了第二家药房, 他们希望这个药房能为医院提供所需药品。 The Peculiar Autopsy Case of Yu Fa Chan 特使的验尸 案
  18. 18. On April 26, 1909, according to a letter written by Consul Werner of Kiukiang, a Chinese man named Yu Fa Chang collapsed while walking on the Bund in the foreign concession, was taken to the hospital and then to his home where he died. The Chinese magistrate ordered him to be buried, having found death to have been the result of natural causes. A Dr. Lambert was the first to examine the body and declared death was due to internal hemorrhage. On May 5th, Dr. Hart received a telegram requesting him to leave immediately to go to Kiukiang. The next day he was met by Mr. Hwang Noi Chen and Mr. Chi, the Prefect from Nanchang, the viceroy’s deputy. He was taken aboard the official boat to the North Gate where official chairs awaited them. He met Tao Tai Wen Bing, the district magistrate Mr. Ho and Tao Tai’s secretary Mr. Wu. They discussed the details of the case of Yu Fa Chang who they said died after receiving a blow on the abdomen which had been given him by the foreign constable Mr. Mears. The officials wanted Dr. Hart to examine the man to determine the cause of death. He agreed to do a post mortem. The remains were exhumed from the sand in which he was buried between 3:00 and 4:00 in the morning on May 7 and the post mortem exam was done by lamplight in the presence of Mr. Chi, Mr. Wu, Mr. Hu, representative of the Board of Commons, workmen and fifteen soldiers. It was done out in the open by the temple at the South gate, in the same spot Edgerton and his parents had been mobbed back in 1870. That evening while dining at the home of Dr. Stone, the Tao Tai’s messenger brought him two envelopes. One contained $40 for his expenses and the other had $500 as a donation to the hospital. He returned to Wuhu the following day. 根据九江的领事 Werner 的书信记载, 在 1901 年 4 月 26 日, 一个名叫 Yu Fa Chang 的中国人在 外国租界附近行走时瘫倒,被带到了医院,接着又被接回家中,并最终死于他自己的家中。 中 国官员以自然死亡的名义将他掩埋。 Dr. Lambert 是第一个对遗体进行检查的人,他宣布死因是 内出血。 5 月 5 日, Dr. Hart 接到一份电报,请他立即起身前往九江。次日,从南昌来的总督的 代表官员 H'wang Noi Chen 和 Chi 生生接待了他。他们上了前往北门的官船,那里有官轿在等侯 他们。Dr. Hart 见到了道台文斌(音译)和地地方官 Ho 先生及其秘书 Wu 先生。他们详细讨论 了 Yu Fa Chang 死因的细节。得出的结果是 Yu Fa Chang 在腹部受到剧烈的打击后死去,这名 对其攻击的外国巡警叫 Mears 先生。官方提出要求 Dr. Hart 进行检查并鉴定真正的死因, Dr. Hart 答应了验尸的要求。验尸在 5 月 7 号凌晨 3 点到 4 点进行, 遗体的残骸从埋葬的沙土中取 出。 当时在场的还有 Chi 先生,Wu 先生,Hu 先生, 议会成员,工作人员和 15 名士兵。 尸检 就在九江南城门边的庙前空地进行,此地也是 Edgerton 和他的父母在 1870 年被围困之处。当晚 在 Dr. Stone 家用餐的时候, Tao-Tai 的信使带来了两个信封。 其中一个里面有 40 美元是用于 他的开资, 另一个信封里装了对医院的 500 美元捐款。 第二天哈特就回到芜湖。
  19. 19. The autopsy report Dr. Hart sent to His Excellency Tao Tai Wen stated Yu Fa Chang was a well developed man of about 30 years of age, who was said to have come to his death in the foreign concession after having received several blows from a policeman. There was one place on the abdomen which appeared to be more discolored than the rest of the body and somewhat bruised. The internal examination showed large quantities of dark blood in the abdominal cavity. His internal organs were normal, the heart and vessels were free from blood and blood clots and the valves were in a healthy condition. In his opinion, death was caused by a hemorrhage into the abdominal cavity. Dr. Hart 把验尸报告交给了 Tao Tai Wen 阁下陈述了他的观点。 观点大致如下, Yu Fa Chang,30 岁身体健全。 由于在外国租界其腹部遭到一名警察重击后死亡。其腹部发现有一处 不同于身体其他肤色的淤青。通过对体内的检查,在腹腔内发现了大量的淤血。 但是体内器官 完好, 心脏和血管血流健康,血液凝块和瓣膜也是正常的。 在 Dr. Hart 看来, 死者是死于 腹腔出血。
  20. 20. Tao Tai's letter to inquiry board
  21. 21. On May 16th Dr. Hart received Chinese newspapers from the Kiukiang Tao Tai said to contain extracts from a dispatch sent by H.B.M. consul Werner, in which he ridiculed Dr. Hart’s autopsy report. Two days later E.T.C. Werner wrote to Edgerton denying he ridiculed his report and Dr. Hart’s ability to perform a satisfactory postmortem. He challenged him to make good his serious allegation or abide by the consequences, and to provide him the names of those making the supposed falsehoods. 5 月 16 日, Dr. Hart 收到了从九江 Tao-Tai 来的一些中文报纸,报纸摘录了一些从 H.B.M. Werner 领事的急件中的内容。内容大致是对 Dr. Hart 的验尸报告的嘲笑。 两天以后, E.T.C. Werner 写信给 Edgerton 表示拒绝他的嘲笑和反对对 Dr. Hart 验尸工作能力的不信 任。他建议 Edgerton 要做正确严肃的证言,尊重事实,并且提供做假证者的名单。 British Consulate letter to Dr. Edgerton Hart The North China Daily newspaper reported on August 27, 1909, the judgment given by H.M. Consular Court at Kiukiang in the case of the prosecution of Mr. John Mears for the alleged manslaughter of a Chinese, charges made on July 31st. A
  22. 22. Chinese had laid a charge against an Englishman, and of the three foreigners who have appeared against the accused Englishman, two were of American nationality (the doctor and lawyer). E.T.C. Werner, H.B.M. Consul and Judge of the Provincial Court questioned the similarity of the Chinese witnesses’ testimony, presuming they were drilled on what to testify. He questioned their ability to leave work and take a “vacation” to testify in Kiukiang and discarded their testimony as useless. He found Dr. Lambert was better able to make a satisfactory examination of the body than was Dr. Hart eleven days later. Dr. Lambert’s opinion was that internal hemorrhage might have resulted from other causes than the “poke” Mears had told him may have been involved. The judge found Dr. Hart’s autopsy was inappropriate being done at night by artificial light, without representation from the other side present. Both doctors agreed that only microscopical examination of sections was the only infallible method of detecting previous disease, and Dr. Hart’s request to take these sections was refused. Therefore, the judge discounted Dr. Hart’s testimony. The judge found insufficient evidence against the accused to put him on trial and discharged the defendant. 1909 年 8 月 27 日的字林西报对该案有相关的报道。位于九江的 H. M. 领事法庭对 John Mears 先 生嫌疑过失杀死一名中国人的起诉给与了裁定。一个中国人起诉一名英国人,而且 3 个三个原 告方的外国证人中,有两位是美国人 (他们既是医生又是律师)。中国证人的证词一 致,E.T.C. Werner, H.B.M. 领事和地方法院的法官怀疑是受人引导的。 法官还对中国证人在工 作期间请假来作证的权利提出了疑问,并最终对他们的证词不予采信。他认为 Dr. Lambert 对尸 体的检验结果比晚了 11 天的 Dr. Hart 的检验结果更合理。Dr. Lambert 的观点偏向于死者的死因 是内出血,但不一定是 Mears 重击下造成的,可能有别的原因。 法官认为 Dr. Hart 的尸体检验 是晚上在非自然光下进行的,所以不足以采信。被告方没有证人出席。两位医生都认为只有利 用显微镜对尸体的组织进行鉴定,才能准确诊断死者以前是否患有致命的疾病。 Dr. Hart 希望 得到一些尸体组织用于鉴定的要求被拒绝了,所以法官裁定 Dr. Hart 的证词无效。法官认为指 控被告入狱的证据不足,所以将被告释放了。
  23. 23. Dr. Edgerton Hart's reply letter to British Consulate
  24. 24. Kiukiang Incident newspaper articles The Shanghai Times on September 13th criticized the unfortunate way the British Consul handled the case with such prejudice, though he was bound to do what was best for any of his nationals. He demonstrated more prejudice against Americans in dismissing Dr. Hart’s autopsy as “useless, improper and illegal”, and insulting the lawyer Mr. Fleming. The latter had objected to the judge from the outset as he knew his decision was predetermined and he held the hearing “in camera”, excluding from the proceedings a shorthand reporter, a number of Chinese gentlemen, members of the Chamber of Commerce of Kiukiang, and the secretary and interpreter of the Tao Tai. He also overlooked the reason the autopsy was performed at night, for fear any other method may have resulted in a serious disturbance. The article also called for the Chinese authorities to prevent irresponsible parties from a punitive boycott against British goods, promoting further trouble between their countrymen and the foreigners. 尽管英国领事 Werner(兼地方法庭法官)的职责就是最大程度的保护自己的英国国民,但是在 处理这个案件中他带有明显偏见。九月十三号的《申江服务导报》对此进行了批评。Werner 对 美国人甚至抱着更大的偏见:他批评 Hart 博士的尸检报告“没有价值,不适当和不合规定” 。 他没有理会为排除可能的干扰而不得不在晚上进行尸检这个因素。他还极力嘲笑律师 Fleming 先生。Fleming 先生从一开始就反对 Werner 私自审判案件,在这场审判中连速记员、几个中国 绅士、九江商会成员以及道台的秘书兼翻译都没有到场。而且 Werner 审理案件明显具有倾向 性。这篇文章也呼吁中国政府防止一些与此案无关的人士发起抵制英国货的运动,这将会在中 国人和英国人之间引起更多的矛盾。 By October the case was taken before the House of Commons in London by Mr. Ginnell who asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether it was in accordance with consular practices, when a native is accused of killing a British subject and when a British subject is accused of killing a native, respectively, to hold the preliminary magisterial inquiry “in camera”. In this case the consul accepted all the evidence for the defense and none for the prosecution, did not allow Mears to be called for question, and refused to allow the case to go before the British Supreme Court of Shanghai. By November, the answer was that British defendants are tried in British courts and Chinese defendants are tried in Chinese courts. Consul Werner was on a leave of absence, due him, and John Mears, the police inspector, was discharged from service. The Chinese press apparently fanned the flames of the case resulting in a serious boycott, led by students, of innocent ship owners and shippers, leading to much waste of British pork. Of the collection of $15,000 by the agitators, $400 was paid to the family of the deceased, with which they were quite satisfied, according to an editorial by Edward. S. Little in February, 1910. 到十月,这个案件在伦敦下议院审理。对于这种原住民被控谋杀英国公民和英国公民被控谋杀 原住民的讼案,私自审理案件是否符合外交惯例?审理人 Ginnell 就这件事公开询问外交大臣。 很显然在 Yu Fa Chung 案件中,英国大使认可了所有辩护方的辩论,却忽略了所有的控方证 据。他没有传被告人 Mears 警官审问,也没有让案件经英国在上海的最高法院审理。十一月, 伦敦下院裁定英国辩护方在英国法庭审讯,而控方则在中国法庭审讯。Werner 领事休假,而肇 事警局检查员 John Mears 则被开除。中国媒体对这个案件报道引起了人们的强烈不满,掀起了 一场由学生领导的严重抵制英国货的运动。主要的受害人则是一些无辜的船主和货运公司,大
  25. 25. 量英国猪肉无人购买。根据 1910 年 2 月 Edward. S. Little 的社论记载,抵制活动一共收到了一万 五千美元的捐款,其中四百美元用于补偿死者家属,他们对此比较满意。 During the summer of 1909 Dr. Hart saw patients regularly and did surgery at the Kuling hospital. He was called to see Yu Lu Yii, the Chinese physician who treated the late emperor in his last illness. While in Kiukiang for the Mears case hearing, he stayed with Dr. Lambert and had him treat him for some ailment. Apparently the two doctors were friends. Dr. Lambert requested Edgerton to come the following year to operate on a friend of his for appendicitis. Two of Dr. Stone’s nurses came from Kiukiang with supplies to help. 1909 年夏,Hart 医生在 Kuling 医院定期给病人看病和做手术。他被叫去见先帝临终前给其治病 的太医 Yu Lu Yii。在九江 Mears 案讼听证会期间,他和 Lambert 医生在一起并请 Lambert 医生 给自己看病。很明显这两个医生是朋友。Lambert 医生想让 Hart 医生年后去给他的一个朋友做 阑尾炎手术石美玉医生的两个护士也从九江赶来帮忙。 In September Dr. and Mrs. Hart dined at Bishop Bashford’s home with Dr. Edwards of Harvard University who was looking at the prospects of establishing a medical school in China under the auspices of Harvard. On September 4, the Doctors Edwards, Taylor and Hart, Mr. Paul and Edgerton, Jr., trekked to the waterfalls and back for a fine day. 同年九月, Hart 夫妇在 Bishop Bashford 家里同哈佛大学的 Edwards 医生一同进餐。哈佛大学 要出资在中国建一所医学院,而 Edwards 医生正在考查医学院领导的合适人选。9 月 4 日,为了 观赏瀑布,Edwards 医生、Taylor 医生 和 Hart 医生,以及 Paul 先生和 Edgerton, Jr. 徒步 来回去,这一天他们玩得很愉快。
  26. 26. Black Dragon Pool 1902: Dr. Edgerton Hart: left, Edward Little: March, 2005: Bud Crawford, left: Stanley Crawford, right who center, 1902 年 乌龙潭 Dr. Edgerton Hart:左, Edward Little 中 are the grandson and great grandson of Dr. Edgerton Hart. 2005 年 3 月 Bud Crawford, 左: Stanley Crawford, Edgerton Hart 的 曾孙右
  27. 27. On the Hart’s return trip to Wuhu at the end of the summer they traveled with a Chinese giant named Pan. He was over seven feet tall! At the end of September Dr. Hart was saddened by the news of the death of Dr. Houg whom he had known since he was five years old. She and Miss Robinson had done great work together in Chinkiang and were now resting in peace. In October their friend Capt. Flagg was brought to the hospital with cholera but they were unable to save him. He died and was buried the following day. While dressing the wound of another patient being treated for tuberculosis, Dr. Hart found a 12 inch long round worm in a wound in the man’s leg and thigh. The next month he removed an 80 pound ovarian cyst that was attached to the woman’s ovarian tube, a technically difficult procedure. On December 24th he operated on another woman, aged 35, and removed a 60-70 pound ovarian cyst. She took the anesthesia poorly but did well. On Christmas Day he had to amputate the badly infected leg of a merchant’s wife. And on New Year’s Eve Day he had to operate on a 23 year old woman for a large growth on the abdominal wall which was bleeding profusely. 夏天结束的时候,Hart 踏上了去芜湖的回程,他和一个有七英尺高的名叫 Pan 的大个子中国人 同行。九月底的时候,一个让 Hart 很难过的消息传来,他从五岁就认识的 Dr. Houg 去世了。她 和 Robinson 小姐曾一起在镇江工作过,但现在 Dr. Houg 已经安然长眠了。十月,他们的朋友 Capt. Flagg 得了霍乱被带到了医院,而他们却无力救治,只能眼睁睁的看着他去世并于第二天 被埋葬。有位肺结核患者的大腿根处受伤,Hart 医生在给他包扎伤口的时候,发现了一条长 12 英寸的圆形虫子。十一月,他做了一台很有技术难度的手术,为一位女患者移除卵巢管上 40 公 斤的肿瘤。12 月 24 日,他又为另一位 35 岁的女人移除了三十几公斤的卵巢肿瘤。虽然麻醉情 况不是很好,但手术很成功。圣诞节当天他切除了一位商人妻子被严重感染的腿。除夕那天, 他不得不给一位 23 岁的女患者手术,因为她的腹壁上长了一个经常流血的大肿瘤。 There was enjoyment in their lives as well as work. When it snowed he took the children for sleigh rides. They also enjoyed riding on his horse with their father. A wild parrot occasionally perched on their water tower rail and entertained the family. In November he left home for a few days of sailing and rest on their houseboat with Caroline, Wellington, Virgil and Carolyn. On Christmas Day they had good entertainment for helpers and patients in the hospital. Early in 1910 he spotted a meteor in the sky the same night he felt an earthquake which seemed to upset his horse while he was riding home from a case. A few weeks later he saw a comet and on the night of May 14th the whole family went out at 3:30a.m. to view Haley’s comet, a fine sight in the East with the tail almost to the zenith. The prior day all the flags on buildings and ships were at half-mast due to the death of King Edward VII of England. 他们在工作之余也有娱乐。每当下雪,他总是带着孩子们乘雪橇玩。一只野生鹦鹉偶然停在了 他们的水塔的围栏上,这足足让一家人开心了好一会。十一月里,他和 Caroline, Wellington, Virgil and Carolyn 一起开游艇离家玩了几天。圣诞节那天,他们和助手们还有 病人们在医院也很好的娱乐放松了一下。1910 年上半年,当看完一个病人以后骑马回家的路 上,他感觉到了地震,这次地震让马也有一些不适的反应,当天晚上他在天空中发现了一颗流 星。几个星期后他又看到了彗星。5 月 14 号凌晨三点半,他们一家人全都出来看哈雷彗星,彗 星在东部出现,尾巴几乎拖到了天顶。前一天因为英国国王爱德华七世的去世,所有的大楼和 船只都降了半旗。
  28. 28. March 22, 1910, he wrote in his journal, “Five years as of today at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Rose passed to the better land after much suffering. Her memory is sweet and precious in our home….Caroline who has taken up Rose’s burdens and life work manifests in her life the same keen devotion and love for the children and my unworthy self. Two noble true women.” On October 26 he remarked it was Caroline’s and his anniversary with three very happy years to celebrate. They had been blessed with the birth of another daughter, Helen, on October 7th. 1910 年 3 月 22 日,他在日记中写道,“五年前的今天,在 Baltimore 的 Johns Hopkins 医院,经 受长期的病痛后,Rose 终于去了天堂。她给全家人留下甜蜜而宝贵的回忆……。后来 Caroline 挑起了 Rose 的重担。她终日劳碌,象 Rose 一样对孩子们和我都充满了爱和奉献精神。这是两 位高尚而忠诚的女性。”他说 10 月 26 日是属于 Caroline 的日子,这一天是他们美满婚姻三周 年的纪念日。10 月 7 号他们的另一个女儿 Helen 出生了,这让全家非常高兴。 He attended the annual mission conference in Nanking where he stayed with Dr. Beebe and gave his hospital report. The ladies present urged him to telegraph Alice Maddock, Caroline’s sister who had come to China to teach and help with the growing family. They were anxious to discuss the prospects of her teaching in Nanking. She arrived with Rose and Dorothea and Edgerton took them to the first Chinese Exhibition on November 1st and to the Ming Tombs. Next they embarked on a journey to visit Dr. Cochran and the hospital and missionaries in Hwai Gwan. They took a train and ended up sleeping in the caboose on very uncomfortable benches, without bedding. Tired and hungry they were relieved to reach Hwai Gwan the next day where they were heartily welcomed. Between helping Dr. Cochran with surgeries, Edgerton enjoyed a hike to the top of the mountain for a beautiful view. He and the girls walked on the foothills and saw hundreds of pomegranate trees whose fruit was shipped to all parts of the empire. After helping operate on a man whose arm was crushed by a railroad train running over it, they had a much more pleasant train trip with most of the time spent in the engineer’s private car. They saw thousands of refugees along the railroad line from Hwai Gwan to Nanking. 哈特参加了在南京举办的年会,在那里他和 Beebe 医生相遇并且做了一次有关芜湖医院的报 告。哈特家的孩子越来越多,Carolyne 的姐妹 Alice Maddock 来到中国一边教书一边帮忙照顾孩 子。她们热切地讨论着她在南京教书的情况。年会上的女士们极力怂恿 Edgerton Hart 打电报让 她来 。于是 Alice Maddock 和 Rose 以及 Dorothea 一起来到了南京。11 月 1 日,Edgerton Hart 博 士在带她们去参观了中国的第一个展览会,并带他们去了明墓。第二天他们外出去参观了医 院,拜访了 Dr. Cochran、以及在 Hwai Gwan 的传教士。他们坐在载货火车最后一节的守车车厢 内,最后大家在极不舒服的长凳上睡着了,连被褥都没有。第二天到达 Kwai Gwan 时,他们又累 又饿,但大家都松了一口气。在 Kwai Gwan 他们受到了热烈的欢迎。在帮助 Cochran 医生手术 的间隙里,为了能欣赏大自然的美景 Edgerton 爬上了山顶。他还和女士们在这些丘陵小山之间 散步,他们看到了几百棵石榴树,这里的石榴用船运往中国各地。有人的手被火车压伤,他们 给他做了手术以后被请到火车工程师的专门车厢里,这使得他们余下的大部分旅程要比原来舒 服得多。沿途他们看到了成千上万的从 Kwai Gwan 逃往南京的难民。 In 1911, the Hart family went home on furlough with their seven children. Caroline and the younger children stayed in Chicago while Dr. Hart traveled around the country telling about their mission work. Rose, Dorothea and Edgerton, Jr., went to Oberlin Academy and later the college. While they were away the revolution took place in China that changed it from a monarchy to a republic. On their return in 1912, they found that 5,000 revolutionary soldiers had not been mustered
  29. 29. out or paid. The men mutinied one night, looting and slaughtering anyone who stood in their way. The Harts were warned the soldiers might come to the hospital, a mile and a half from the city, to attack the foreigners. Caroline dressed her two little girls, aged four and two, in their warmest clothing, packed the necessities for the family in pillowcases which she and Edgerton could carry, plus a rifle apiece. They watched all night for the flares that were to warn them to leave. The mutiny was quelled but dawn brought a procession of terribly injured residents from the city to the hospital. 1911 年,Hart 与七个孩子一起回国休假,Caroline 和年幼的孩子住在芝加哥,而在美国各地 做演讲,向人们介绍他们的教会工作,Rose, Dorothea and Edgerton, Jr.就读于 Oberlin 学 院,他们离开中国的这段时间里,中国从君主制的国家变成了共和国。他们在 1912 年回中国的 时候,发现有 5 千个革命的士兵既没有点阅也没人给他们发薪水。他们在一个晚上暴动了,抢 劫、屠杀任何反抗他们的人。Hart 一家收到了警报,他们的医院离城市只有一英里半远,这些 士兵可能会来这里攻击外国人。Caroline 给他们两岁和四岁的女儿穿上了她们最暖和的衣服, 把日用品都塞进枕头套,以便她和 Hart 先生携带,每人还准备了一把来复枪。他们整个晚上都 在等待着让他们逃跑的信号。暴动被镇压了,但是黎明时分,一大队重伤者从城市被带到医院 来。 Carolyn Dr. Edgerton Hart, Helen In the summer of 1912, the Yangtze River flooded and the dikes, reaching out from the hill where the hospital stood, broke, flooding thousands of acres of peasants’ land. That fall famine followed,
  30. 30. with horrible suffering for the poor people. Dr. Hart administered the funds, $100,000, sent by the American Red Cross, for famine relief and repairing the dikes after the floods in the Hwai and Yangtze River valleys. While directing the reconstruction work and caring for the sick, he contracted Typhus fever and died nine days later, on April 14, 1913, at age 45. He was buried in the foreign cemetery in Wuhu the next day. He left eight children, including Herbert who was born on December 23, 1912, and was only three months old. Caroline received an outpouring of condolences from the many friends, both Chinese and foreign, who admired and respected the American doctor. On his tombstone was aptly written, “Lover of Mankind”. 1912 年夏, 长江(扬子江)的洪水漫过堤坝,由医院所在的山坡而下,冲毁淹没了上千亩的农 田。 饥荒接踵而来,贫困的人们生活在水深火热之中。 Hart 博士负责管理来自美国红十字会的 一笔 10 万美元的基金。 该基金用于救助发生在淮河和长江(扬子江)的洪灾导致的饥荒和修 复损毁的堤坝。 在努力指挥恢复工程和照顾伤病员的工作中, 他不幸染上了斑疹伤寒。 9 天 后,于 1913 年 4 月 14 日离开了人世,享年 45 岁。 1 天后,他被葬在了芜湖外国公墓。他留下 了 8 个孩子,包括 1913 年 4 月 14 日才出生的才三个月大的 Herbert。Caroline 收到了许多中外朋 友的对 Hart 先生吊唁,他们都崇拜并且尊敬这位美国医生。在他的墓碑上写道,“施爱使 者”。 Wuhu Foreigner Cemetery, Dr. Edgerton Hart was buried along back wall near the left side. 芜湖的外国人公墓,Edgerton Hart 医生葬在左侧的 靠后墙旁。
  31. 31. The Story of Shoh Huan Shoh Huan 的经历 One of the last surgeries Dr. Hart performed was to remove a 30 kilo tumor from the back of a young Chinese woman named Shoh Huan. The story is as follows: Two Chinese women were talking together in a village hut. The younger one was lying on a bed of straw while the mother was seated on a bamboo stool beside her. “Shoh Huan”, said the mother, “Our neighbor came back to the village today from his trip down the river to Wuhu. He told a wonderful story about a great foreign doctor whose big white house is always full of sick folks. The doctor can make lame people walk and the blind to see. After the wicked Yangtze River flooded our villages, there were so many sick people there were not enough beds for them all. Good villagers took some of the sick into their own homes. Every morning the kind doctor came to see them all.” Dr. Hart 成功的从一个叫 Shoh Huan 的中国女人背上切除了一个三十公斤的肿瘤,这也是他最后 做的几个手术之一。故事是从一对母女俩在棚屋里谈话开始的,女儿躺在简陋的稻草铺成的床 上,而母亲则是坐在床边的竹凳上。“Shoh Huan”,母亲开口道,“记得我们的邻居从长江坐 船去了芜湖吗?他回来了,告诉我们有个很好的外国医生,他能使瘸子走路,瞎子复明,所以 他的白房子诊所总是挤满了前去看病的人。长江的大水淹了我们村子之后,病人太多,连诊所 里的床位都不够了,村里的一些善人就让一部分病人住进了自己家中,这位好心的医生每天早 晨就挨家挨户的给他们看病。 Sho Huan tried to turn slowly upon the hard straw bed. It was painful to move because of the great lump of flesh growing from her shoulder, hanging down over her back. Many times they had taken what little money they earned going to the Chinese doctor for help, but that had only caused her more pain when he pierced the lump with cruel needles or laid red-hot irons on her back. She had endured the agony only to have the lump grow larger. She feared the foreign doctor would only treat men. Shoh Huan 试着在稻草床上翻了个身,因为肩膀上的肿块逐渐长大,已经垂到了背部,这让她 每动一下都非常痛苦。虽然每攒点钱她都会去中医那看病,可是中医都是在肿块上扎针,或者 用烧红的火罐来治疗,这让她更加痛苦,而肿块还是眼看着越来越大。Shoh Huan 有些心动 了,但是担心这个外国医生会只接纳男性患者。
  32. 32. “Ah, Shoh Huan, that is the most wonderful part of our neighbor’s story. He said the great foreign doctor had been called to the capital to see the Governor and that, many times, great men –even as high as the Viceroy—had come to him to be healed. Yet he said the foreign doctor was just as good to the poor sick beggars when they came as he was to the great rich officials. The best of all was that the doctor kept a special room for women.” “啊,Shoh Huan,这就要说到邻居故事里最精彩的部分了。这个外国医生还被召去京城给高官 们看过许多次病呢,就连总督都曾经是他的病人。他还说了,虽然如此,这位医生对待前来求 医的穷人就象对待达官贵一样友好。他还有一间特别的病房是专门留给女病人,这真是太好 了。 “Mother, let us go down the river to this foreign doctor,” said Shou Huan. The long journey was hard and painful for Shoh Huan but at last they arrived at the hill with the large buildings. Over the roof of one floated a white flag with a red cross on it, a symbol of where they do deeds of mercy. “娘,我们坐船去找这位医生看看吧,”Shoh Huan 说。对 Shoh Huan 而言,虽然这样的长途跋 涉会非常艰难痛苦,但是他们最终还是到达了那座有许多大房子的山上。有一栋房子的屋顶上 插着一面白色的旗子,旗子上有个红色十字标志,这是一个行善的标志。 The gate was opened to them and they were shown to a waiting room in the main building where they sat wondering and half afraid. When the foreign doctor came out the mother threw herself on the floor, striking her forehead on the floorboards. “Have mercy”, she pleaded. “Save my daughter’s life! She is about to die. Use your skill and save her life!” But the doctor motioned for her to rise. He said, “Do not kotow to me. Just tell me all about your daughter’s illness and how long ago it began.” 门开了,他们被带到了主楼的候诊室里,既充满期待又惶恐不安。医生出来的时候,母亲噗得 一下跪在了地板上,磕着头。“行行好”,她恳求道。“救救我女儿吧,她都快不行了。您医 术那么高明,求求您救她一命吧!”医生扶起了她,说道,“不要对我磕头了。快说说你女儿 的病情吧,她病了多久了?”
  33. 33. Sho Huan Sho Huan, in profile displaying her tumor with
  34. 34. Caroline Hart in the background. Sho Huan 的侧面像 照片背 景上的是 Caroline Hart So the mother and Shoh Huan told how in a year’s time a little lump had grown to this big one, now weighing about 60 pounds, and how the Chinese doctors had treated her. They warned how poor they were and questioned if he would have time for them. He called for a lovely Chinese woman who came and helped her bathe and dress in clean clothing. She led them to the women’s ward with its row of pretty white beds, which seemed like a fairy land. Though he had many patients to care for, the doctor promised to remove the lump while she was asleep so she would feel no pain. Though he had to wait until his own arm, which he carried in a sling, felt better. When asked why the kind doctor tired himself out and allowed so many sick people into his big house, when their own people left them alone to die, the pleasant Chinese woman responded, “Oh Shoh Huan, you do not know about ‘The God’ who taught the foreigner there are no evil spirits which make us sick.” For two weeks Shoh Huan and her mother waited at the hospital, learning more about the doctor’s faith and love for others, as his arm healed. 于是 Shoh Huan 和母亲一五一十的叙述了这背上三十公斤的肿瘤是如何在仅仅一年之内长大 的,以及她所有中医治疗的经历。她们也告诉了 Hart 医生自己很穷,问他是不是还愿意给她们 看病。Hart 医生于是叫进来了一个看起来很可爱的中国女人,她帮助 Shoh Huan 洗澡并且换上 了干净的衣服,又领她们来到了女病房。女病房里摆着一排白色的病床,对她们来说就像仙境 一样。虽然 Hart 医生还有许多病人要看,他还是对 Shoh Huan 说一定会帮她把背上的肿瘤治好 的,不过要在她睡着的时候,这样她才会感觉不到任何痛苦。不过现在 Hart 医生的手还裹着绷 带,所以她们恐怕还要等上一小段时间,等到他的手痊愈才能开始手术。为什么自己国家的人 都不管,而这位善良的外国医生却愿意接纳并且竭尽全力地治疗他们这些病人呢?当她们询问 的时候,这位和善的中国女人回答道,“啊 Shoh Huan,你不知道上帝吧,他告诉这位外国人世 界上并没有邪恶的灵魂,也不是邪恶的灵魂让咱们生病的。”在等待 Hart 医生的手痊愈的两个 星期里,Shoh Huan 和母亲都待在这个医院里,她们对于 Hart 医生的信仰以及他对大众的慈爱 有了进一步的了解。 Finally the day came when he could operate. Dr. Chung put her to sleep as the mother stood in the corner of the room watching. For five long hours he worked to remove the tumor as carefully and skillfully as if the woman was the greatest official in China. “It is surely the love of ‘the God’ that makes you so kind”, murmured the mother. 终于等到了做手术的日子。Chung 医生给 Shoh Huan 做了麻醉,她的母亲就在房间的角落里观 察着。她看到,Hart 医生用了整整五个小移除了肿瘤,巧妙而又细心,就好像在给一个中国达 官贵人动手术一样。“肯定是上帝的大爱才让您这么仁慈吧!”母亲喃喃道。 It seemed too wonderful to be true when Shoh Huan awoke and the tumor was gone. She was a new woman and would have wonderful stories to tell her village friends when she was well enough to go back. Only a week later while she was recuperating, they learned that Dr. Hart was ill. The next day they learned he had typhus fever. The Chinese knew how
  35. 35. dreadful the disease was and they prayed for his recovery. He had made wonderful cures for others, why could not someone help him? After nine days of anxious waiting, the sad news came that the foreign doctor was dead. Poor Shoh Huan was heartbroken and wondered if it was she who had brought this tragedy upon Dr. Hart. “He died to make me well. How could this be? He loved like Jesus did”, she said. There were hundreds of other men, women and children in villages and cities who felt just like she did. Shoh Huan 醒来发现肿瘤不见了,觉得简直不可思议。她已经是一个全新的人,当她康复后也 可以回到村子里告诉朋友们这段不同寻常的经历。然而仅仅一个星期以后, 她还没有完全康 复,Hart 医生却病了。第二天她们得知他得的病是斑疹伤寒。中国人都知道这是一种致命的病 症,他们每天都在祈祷他康复过来。他治好了那么多的病人,为什么没有人能治好他呢?九天 焦灼的等待以后,噩耗传来,他终于还是离开了人世。可怜的 Shoh Huan 伤心欲绝,怀疑是不 是自己给医生带来的厄运。“为了治好我的病他却离开了人世,为什么会这样?他的爱就像耶 稣的爱一样伟大。”她说。当时,在城市和乡村里,也有成百上千的男人、女人和孩子象 Shoh Huan 一样沉浸在 Hartford 医生离世的悲痛中。 The family had to give up their home for the doctor who would replace Dr. Hart. Caroline was offered the superintendency of the Union Training School for Nurses but felt she needed to take her small children home to America. It would have been difficult to work in China and raise her children. She settled her accounts and in June sailed on the “Empress of India”. It was probably best they left when they did as by August Nanking was in a state of siege, with fighting, looting and a constant state of anxiety. A friend wrote her in November that “China is not at present a desirable place to inhabit, especially Wuhu, the highway of the Anhui revolutionists.” She moved her family to Chicago, her former home. 为了给替换 Hart 博士的医生腾出地方,Hart 一家不得不搬出他们的房子。 Caroline 被提名为护 士培训中心的负责人。不过她觉得需要把孩子带回美国,因为在中国一边工作一边抚养孩子是 很艰难的。她结清账目后于六月份乘坐“印度女皇”号轮船回美国。或许他们这次离开是最合适 不过的了,因为到了八月南京的教会就被围攻,到处都发生打斗、抢劫,整个南京都处在一种 不安的气氛中。十一月份有位朋友给她写信说:“现在的中国并不是栖居的理想之地,芜湖作 为安徽革命者的重要聚地,更不适合外国人定居。”因此,她全家搬回了故乡芝加哥。