Dr. Virgil Hart Chinese version

9,203 views

Published on

A Chinese / English version about the life of Dr. Virgil Hart, who was a Methodist missionary who built hospitals and schools along the Yangtze and Min Rivers in China.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
9,203
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Dr. Virgil Hart Chinese version

  1. 1. The Middle Kingdom's Western Medical Disciples 中国的西方医药传教士 / 东方大国的西方医药传 教士 Volume I: 第一卷:Dr. Virgil Hart 生平纪事,附 Dr. Edgerton Hart 及 Caroline Maddock Hart 的传奇 Volume II: 第二卷:Dr. Mary Stone 玛丽·斯通 , Jenny Hughes 及, Dr. Ida Kahn 生平纪事 * 经历 Volume III: 第三卷: The History of Kuling English version Preface 序言 I want to thank all those who have been a big part of helping me in creating this book with special mentions going to my Aunt Cathy Green, Aunt Carol and Uncle Ken Eikelmann and my older brother Steve & his wife Terri Crawford, who tolerated my rants to help contribute/edit the Hart work. To the KAS members (Kuling American School), Peter Burt and his wife Adrienne for their editing efforts on the Dr. Mary Stone and Dr. Ida Kahn portions too. To the Jiujiang To-Win translation Co., who are responsible for the Chinese version page and the Jiujiang Public Library for all its work in page layout and publication help. With a special thanks going to the verbal translation services of Samuel Shui, Nick He Guang, Huang Xiao Kui, and others that without their assistance, much of my information gathered would have been more of a challenge than it was. The years of stories I was told by my grandmother, my great aunts Helen and Rose and what snippets of memories I have of my great grandmother whom we visited every Sunday afternoon until her death. 我要感谢所有在我创作本书的过程中给予我帮助的人们。非常感谢姑妈 Cathy Green、Carol 和 叔叔 Ken Eikelmann 以及我的哥哥 Steve、嫂嫂 Terri Crawford,他们多次不厌其烦地为我编校本
  2. 2. 书有关 Hart 部分的内容;感谢牯岭美国学校的教职员工以及 Peter Burt 和他的妻子 Adrienne, 在我撰写本书的 Dr. Mary Stone and Dr. Ida Kahn 部分时,他们提供了许多帮助。感谢本书的中 文版本译者。感谢九江市图书馆在本书排版和出版方面给予的帮助。我还要特别感谢 Samuel Shui、何广、黄小葵等人为我提供口译服务。没有他们,我在收集资料时肯定会遇到更大的挑 战。书中的许多陈年往事是祖母和她的姊妹海伦和罗斯告诉我的,至于我对曾祖母有些零星的 印象,是因为在她生前的每周日下午我都去看望她。 I also want to thank the authors of the books which provided much of the information I used in writing my own. Thanks also go to my Hart relatives who kept such rich and detailed writings of the things they observed while providing medical care and educational training to the Chinese people. 因为我在创作中参考了许多书籍,所以我也要向它们的作者表示谢意;感谢我的哈特家族的亲 戚们,他们为中国人提供医疗服务和教育培训,并详细地记录了身边的所见所闻,这些记录对 我有重要的参考价值。 This future book and present site is to provide the reader with a pictorial glimpse into the past through the eye of an American family that committed itself through three generations of building and providing western medical care and education to the Chinese people from 1866-1924, with my own photos of the same places today. The book tells of the lives of two remarkable Chinese women: Dr. Mary Stone and Dr. Ida Kahn, the first western educated female Chinese doctors to hail from what is the city now known as Jiujiang, one of many pearls along the ever flowing and sometimes over-flowing Yangtze River. Included are now three more additional generations of people, one my grandmother and her sisters and brothers, who lived a part of their early lives in Wuhu, traveling to Kiukiang and Kuling for holidays spent with many other mission families gathered for festive occasions. I was introduced to Mariam Wong by a newspaper reporter who did the article on the Hwa Feng Chi'ao Bridge at the end of the page. The brief things she described after I gave her pictures of Wuhu and Dr. Stone, pictures that she had lost in a house fire brought many tears of joy once again to recall ,stories of her life to and share with her family, I expect to add in the future. (即将完成出版的本书和现在的网址)本书力图从美国家庭的视 角出发,让读者对过去的一段历史有一个直观的印象。1866 年至 1924 年间,这个美国家庭的 三代人都致力于在中国建立医疗和教育机构,为当地百姓服务。本人的许多照片,就是在他们 当初的工作和生活的地方拍摄的。本书还将讲述两位杰出的华人女性——石美玉医生和康爱德 医生的故事。她们是中国首批接受过西方教育的女性医生。美丽的九江城犹如一颗珍珠,镶嵌 在经年川流不息、偶尔洪水泛滥的长江岸边,她们当年就是从这里走出国门的。现在这个美国 家庭又有三代人在追随他们祖先的足迹。其中包括我的祖母和她的兄弟姐妹这一代人。她们年 轻的时候曾经生活在安徽的芜湖,节日期间还前往九江和庐山牯岭镇度过假,那时来中国的教 会家庭常常因为过节聚在一起。一位报社记者把我介绍给 Mariam Wong,在本网页结尾部分的 那篇华封桥的文章就是出自她的笔下。我把当时芜湖的照片以及石医生的照片拿给她看(她的那 些照片在一次房屋失火中丢失了)。她眼含热泪简要地向家里人回忆了那段经历。她的这段故事 我会在后文与大家共享。
  3. 3. These never ending stories as a child would weave my imagination into mystic lands of exotic people and wonderful things to behold. Now living in China as a teacher of English at Jiujiang University has allowed me to seek out these places my family once trod, and to meet people who know about my former relatives. Their memories and interpretations have provided me the information to re-tell the stories to a new generation of family and Chinese people who are interested to know who personally represented the Methodist's Missions and others which had so much impetus to facilitate what are the medical and teaching colleges of some of the cities within China today. 我小时候就对这片外族人的神秘土地充满美好的想象,想去那里看看各种各样新奇的事物。如 今我已经在续写祖辈们的故事。我现在也生活在中国,在九江学院做一名英语教师。这让我有 机会寻访祖先的足迹,向那些接触过他们的中国人了解他们的过去。所了解的这些情况给我提 供了大量信息,使我能向感兴趣的中国人讲述这段历史:是谁亲自履行卫理公会派教徒的使 命,为今天中国境内的某些医学院和师范学院的形成奠定了基础。 Half of the revenues generated from sales of this book are going to the Caroline Maddock Hart, Dr. Mary Stone and Dr. Ida Kahn Nurses Scholarship Funds at Jiujiang University. If revenue warrants additional scholarships will be created in the name of Dr.Virgil Hart and Dr. Edgerton Hart at both Jiujiang and Wuhu medical colleges. There is a U.S. donation account that will manage and forward these monies to the students awarded. Scholarship selections will be based on their submitting a life story of their future intentions and of their need, based on their family's annual income. A similar account will be available to accept Chinese donations and be awarded to the chosen recipients too. If interested, your donation is greatly appreciated and will serve a needed student's desire to continue the cause begun many years ago. It currently costs just under 10,000 RMB or $1,250 for tuition, books and dorm expenses per year: a good bargain compared to many western institutions. Jiujiang University also accepts applicants from western students and currently hosts medical students from: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Malawi and Pakistan, with foreign teachers from: Australia, Canada, Italy, Hong Kong, Japan, Mexico, Nepal and the U.S.A.. 本书一半的销售收入将捐献给在九江学院设立的奖学金——卡罗琳•马德达克•哈特医生、石美 玉医生和康爱德护士奖学基金。在资金许可的情况下,将在九江学院医学院和芜湖医学院建立 另一项奖学金——维吉尔•哈特医生和艾德格顿•哈特医生奖学基金。美国的一个账户接受和管 理捐赠款项,同时负责将奖学金转交给获奖学员。奖学金的评选依据包括:未来的学业和职业 规划,贫困生申请报告,申请者家庭的年收入证明。来自中方的捐赠和奖学金的授予将使用另 一个类似的账户。如蒙捐赠将不胜感激,您的捐赠将有助于完成当初的那位美国穷学生多年的 愿望。目前,九江学院每年的学费、书本籍和住宿费总共不到 1 万元人民币,折合为 1,250 美 元,相比西方同类学校学习的费用要便宜得多。九江学院也接受西方学生的留学申请。目前其 主要的医科学生来自:阿富汗、孟加拉国、印度、马拉维和巴基斯坦。本土以外的教师来自: 澳大利亚,加拿大,意大利,中国香港地区,日本,墨西哥,尼泊尔和美国。 Website: Jiujiang University E-mail:fao@jju.edu.cn 网址:Jiujiang University 电子信箱: fao@jju.edu.cn
  4. 4. Another 10% of revenue will go to the Jiujiang Public Library for children's programs (local & rural) and books needed to fill their shelves. Dr. Virgil Hart saw the need to begin the education of children at an early age to provide future students to attend the medical schools and teachers colleges that were created out of the mission stations. The goal was to help China with her desire to develop and become a brother of nations all the world should be striving towards. Your contributions and sharing of this book will broaden the development of these opportunities for children who desperately want to improve the quality of their lives. 本书另有 10 %的收入将捐赠给九江市公共图书馆,用于扶助当地农村的儿童项目及购买书 籍。Dr. Virgil Hart 维吉尔•哈特医生认为:为了使儿童将来会选择到教会创立的医学和师范 类学校学习,有必要及早对他们进行教育。这样做是为了使中国得到发展并成为国际大家庭的 一员,这也正是世界上所有国家努力的目标。对于贫困的中国农村孩子而言,您的捐款和购买 本书的行为将极可能提高他们的生活质量。 I want to acknowledge that I borrowed heavily, re-writing from Virgil Hart Missionary Statesman, Notable Women of Modern China, The History of Kuling and Historical Lushan. Many mission news references and stories told by my grandmother and great aunts are all combined together with my own personal observations and experiences. This is not an accurate historical record, merely a work of entertainment with added actual events and circumstances observed by myself. Photos displayed are a combination of the Hart Family collection, digitized copies from old mission news notes and family books that are available also on-line with links below, and my own. These photos are not to be used for personal monetary gain by unauthorized individuals. 我得说明我大量引用和改写了《传教政治家维吉尔哈特》、《当代中国的杰出女性》、《牯岭 镇历史》和《历史中的庐山》几本书中的资料。本书中包括许多使团的新闻参考资料、祖母和 姨婆给我讲述的故事以及我个人的亲历亲闻。不过,本书不是准确的历史记录文献,而仅仅是 一本休闲读物。书中的照片包括:哈特家庭珍藏的照片、数码拍摄的旧的教会简报图片、通过 以下链接可以搜索到的家谱上的照片以及我自己的照片。未经授权,任何人不得将这些照片用 于商业用途。 Virgil Hart Missionary Statesman by E. I. Hart 《传教政治家维吉尔哈特》作者 Evanston Ives Hart Our Western Mission by Dr. Virgil Hart 《我们的西方传教团》作者 Dr. Virgil Hart Notable Women of Modern China by Margret Burton 《当代中国的杰出女性》作者 Margret Burton Western China by Dr. Virgil Hart 《中国西部》作者 Dr. Virgil Hart Historic Lushan by Albert Hendrix Stone 《历史中的庐山》作者 Albert Hendrix Stone
  5. 5. The Temple and the Sage by Dr. Virgil Hart 《寺庙及其圣贤》作者 Dr. Virgil Hart The History of Kuling by Edward Little 《牯岭历史》作者 Edward Little ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ Table Of Contents 内容列表 Volume I 第一卷 Dr Virgil Hart: Man On a Mission 杰出的传教士 主要内容 第一卷 I & II "The Call" "Fellow Farrers True" I & II 听从召唤,预言灵验 III & IV "Outward bound" "The first field" III & IV 初出国门,莅临九江 V & VI "Central China" "On Furlough" V & VI 华中创业,劫后余生 VII "By River & Lake" VII 长江历险 VIII "A Movement Forward" VIII 建功立业,大展宏图 IX "Ichi san / Pheasant Hill" IX 弋矶山医院/世外桃源 X "The Porcelain city" X 华夏瓷都 XI "Change but No Rest" XI "再接再厉 XII "The Pride of the Yangtze" XII 长江骄子 XIII "Turned Back" XIII 难归故里 XIV"The Chinese Tartarus" XIV 阴曹地府 XV "The Seductive Viper" XV 邪恶毒品
  6. 6. XVI "The Re-established Mission" XVI 重振教会 XVII"One Step from Heaven" XVII 天堂之路 XVIII "For Canada" XVIII 倾情加拿大 XIX "The First Contingent" XIV 第一支加拿大传教团 XX "Beginnings XX 开天辟地 XXI "The Work Expanding XXI 事业发达 XXII "Bolt from the Blue XXII 晴天霹雳 XXIII "Appeal Unto Caesar" XXIII 教会索赔 XXIV "The Work Resumed" XXIV 重振教会 XXV "A Visit to An Outstation XXV 外访教会办事处 XXVI "Two Eventful Years" XXVI 多事之年 XXVII "Worn Out” XXVII 鞠躬尽 Note: The Chinese words for cities or titles are from Dr. Virgil Hart's writings and used throughout the book. The names used today can be ascertained by replacing the K's with a J, dropping the dash and pronouncing the word out loud. Example Kiukiang / Jiujiang. The exception is with the name Kuling, Edward Little chopped the English word cool, created a modified Chinese twist to it Kul and added ing to finish it off. 注:本书通篇使用的中国城市名称均出自 Dr. Virgil Hart 的作品。对应于今天使用的名字,可以 将拼音 K 改为 J、然后去掉原来的破折号再大声念出即可。例如 Kiukiang 读 Jiujiang 九江。不过 Kuling(牯岭)这个名字例外,Edward 对英语单词 cool(凉爽的)稍稍作了一下改动,将它变 为 Kul 并在末尾加上了后鼻音。 ___________________________________________________________________________________ ______
  7. 7. ___________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________
  8. 8. Dr. Virgil Hart: Man On A Mission — 杰出的传教士(作者 Stanley Crawford) Seated: Dr Virgil Hart, daughter: Estella Hart (Hare), 2nd son: Edgerton Haskell, Wife: Adeline Gilliland Hart; Standing: 4th son: Virgil Ross, 1st son: Evanston Ives, 3rd son: Maynard Manson 前排左起(坐):父亲 Dr Virgil Hart, 女儿 Estella Hart (Hare),次子 Edgerton Haskell,母亲 Adeline Gilliland Hart; 后排左起(站):四子 Virgil Ross, 长子 Evanston Ives, 三子 Maynard Manson I "The Call" II "Fellow-Farrers True" I 听从召唤,II 预言灵验
  9. 9. My great-great-grandfather Dr. Virgil C. Hart felt a calling to serve his fellow human as a young man in upstate New York, U.S.A., in 1854. After graduation from Garrett Biblical Institute in 1865, he accepted an appointment from the Methodist Episcopal Church to serve as a missionary in Foochow, China. He proposed to his sweetheart of only a few months named Adeline Gilliland, who had been told by a fortune teller that she would travel to far away places and have five children, four of them boys, a prophecy later fulfilled. Virgil told her to only consider his proposal if she was willing to spend her life in China. 1854 年,我的高祖父 Dr. Virgil C.Hart 还是美国纽约上州的一个青年,他响应教会的召唤去为 上帝的子民服务。1865 年他从加勒特神学院毕业后,接受美以美会的任命去中国的福州做传教 士。那时他认识女友 Adeline Gilliland 才几个月。Dr. Virgil C. Hart 把被任命的消息告诉女友, 对她说如果她愿意去中国生活,请她一定嫁给自己。一位占卜的人预言 Adeline Gilliland 将要去 很远的地方,会生育五个孩子——四个男孩,一个女孩。这个预言后来得到了灵验。 III "Outward Bound" IV "The First Field" III 初出国门,IV 莅临九江 After spending a harrowing six month trip aboard a schooner, Mr. and Mrs. Hart spent a year in Foochow, Fujin learning the Chinese language. Then they were told their first place of residence would be Kiukiang, Kiangsi, which had become a treaty port in 1860. Upon arrival, there were only 30 Americans and English nationals mainly involved in the customs and Consular office affairs who were occupying a concession of land by the river facing the western walls of the city. Kiukiang was where the Methodist Missions of Central China built the first western hospital in the province that is today the #1 People's Hospital. 乘坐纵帆船经历了六个月的痛苦航程,哈特夫妇到达中国的福建省福州市,他们在那里学习了 一年汉语。然后他们被告知第一个驻地是江西九江。这座城市在 1860 年就被辟为通商港口。他 们刚到九江的时候,美国人和英国人总共才 30 人,主要是海关和领事馆的工作人员。他们的租 借地就在九江西城墙对面的南湖边。九江是卫理公会在华中地区建立医院的第一座城市。这家 医院就是今天的九江市第一人民医院。 V "Central China" VI "On Furlough" 华中创业,劫后余生 There was a Scottish preacher who spent more time consoling a liquor bottle on Saturday night, than amongst his lo-wei flock and the Chinese people that came to St Paul’s Church on Sunday. Virgil Hart was asked to relieve this tormented soul and thus he began to eagerly discharge the sermons there for the next 20 years. 有位苏格兰传教士,为了安慰一个酒鬼,在周六晚上与他直谈到深夜,以至于第二天没能挤出 足够的时间陪同到圣保罗教堂做礼拜的“老外”和中国人。Virgil Hart 也被请去拯救这个痛苦 的酒鬼。后来他在这里热切地布道了二十年。
  10. 10. The anti-foreigner sentiment was strong but there were three Chinese families that aided Virgil Hart greatly. A day school was quickly organized and begun with 3 students that swelled to 14 after a few days of the word getting out about its existence. This was contested by evil men who gossiped that the foreigner would whip the children and cut their eyes out, to be used as telescope lenses, so that to continue a native teacher was hired to educate the children. 虽然那时候中国人很不喜欢外国人,但是仍然有三户人家给 Virgil Hart 帮了大忙。学校很快成 立起来。消息传出没几天,学员人数便由最初的 3 名猛增到 14 名。有些恶毒的人反对华人子女 到这里上学。他们造谣说外国人会鞭打孩子,挖他们的眼睛。为了继续办学,学校不得不雇请 了一位当地教师,以便让担心的家长透过他了解学校的真实情况。 Soon after arriving in Kiukiang, Mr. Hart was sought by a Chinese man who had heard about his being there and requested he make a journey inland to meet other men anxious to see him. After a day's travel south, they came upon a temple where many had gathered to hear the “Mu-Si” or great foreign teacher. Virgil Hart made five journeys similar to this his first year in Kiukiang. These journeys into the countryside were by no means easily undertaken for the Chinese road system was unlike today. Boats were the easiest when water was available or where the road on land was broad and fairly level, a sedan chair was the main mode of transportation offered. As the pathway narrowed a wheel barrow became an alternative means, and when the gradient became steep, a horse was the most efficient mode of moving forward, if available. Mr. Hart 刚到九江不久,一位中国人就得知了这一消息。他立刻去见 Mr. Hart 先生并请他去乡 下一趟,因为许多人迫切地想见到他。南行几天后,他们来到一座庙宇,这时庙里已经聚集了 许多等着见牧师的人。Virgil Hart 在九江生活的第一年里有过五次类似的经历。那时去乡下的 路程很辛苦,因为当时中国的公路系统远不如今天发达。水路行得通时坐船更简便易行。如果 陆路宽敞平坦就常常选择坐轿子。道路狭窄时用独轮车(红车)也是不错的选择。遇到陡坡多 的路,倘若有马那就最方便不过了。
  11. 11. Enclosed Sedan Chair 小轿 (NWMC) Photo 西北教会大院图片 Chinese Wheelbarrow 独轮 车(红车) (NG) photo 美 国《国家地理》图片 Accompanying him were one or two coolies to carry the food, bedding and supply of books on forays. Sleep would be found in a temple or accommodating home for the “Foreign Devil”. Passing though hamlets was not an easy task as agitators who held a grudge against a lowei (foreigner), could entice stone throwing or physical harassing of the coolies, to bring on injury. One such instance occurred when they were ambushed while trying to cross a long bridge. After getting away from the mob they required a convalescence stay in a temple for several days before Virgil Hart could return from the journey. 与 Mr. Hart 一同去乡下的有一两个苦力,他们带着食物、床上用品及一些收购来的书籍。夜里 他们就睡在庙里或愿意收留“洋鬼子”的百姓家中。因为有些人对“老外”怀有恶意,所以即 使要安全地经过村庄也不是一件容易的事。那些敌意的人们会伤害他们,向他们投掷石块。有
  12. 12. 一次当 Virgil Hart 一行人试图经过一座大桥时就发生了这样的情况。他们逃离了伏击并请求在 一座庙里修养,几天后 Virgil Hart 才开始返回原地。 Not being easily intimidated Virgil Hart would return to the very spot upon where the altercation had taken place just to prove he could not be driven from the field, and through humor and reason gained the respect of the Chinese natives. Virgil Hart 并没有被轻易吓倒。为了向那些有敌意的人证明没人能把他赶出这块土地,他勇敢 地经原路返回。后来 Virgil Hart 用自己的幽默和智慧赢得了当地中国人的尊敬。 Hart 在九江的家 The first western medical dispensary in Kiukiang 九江第一家西方医疗机构
  13. 13. VII "By River & Lake" VII 长江历险 In order to fulfill his duties of building missions along the Yangtze River, it was necessary for Virgil Hart to travel by boat, but using local transportation was both tedious and unsafe. So when the opportunity unveiled itself in the mid 1870’s, he took it. He had heard of an unfortunate sportsman who had lost a sailing ship in a card game to a friend of his who had no interest in the craft. The man knew Virgil Hart was looking for such a boat. Formerly named “The Mad Cap”, Virgil had it rechristened the Stella, after the name of his youngest child and only daughter. It was 13 m long and had a beam of 3m and could accommodate six passengers easily. Many a long and interesting trip was made on it along the Yangtze River, around Boyang Lake and its tributaries. 为了圆满完成沿长江建立教会机构的使命,Virgil Hart 不得不坐船四处活动。但是使用当地的 交通工具既乏味又不安全。1870 年夏秋之交,Virgil Hart 抓住了一个千载难逢的好机会。他听 说有个倒霉的运动员因为赌博将船输给了朋友。他的这位朋友对船毫无兴趣而又恰好知道 Virgil Hart 正需要这样一条船。这条船原名“狂人”,Virgil Hart 叫她斯特拉(即恒星),用的 是他唯一的小女儿的名字。斯特拉长 13 米,寛 3 米,能轻松承载 6 名乘客。后来 Virgil Hart 多 次乘坐这条船,沿长江、环鄱阳湖及其支流进行了多次饶有兴味的航程。
  14. 14. In 1877, it was decided the whole family would attend the mission conference held in Shanghai by sailing the Stella the 700 klms there. Sailing down the rushing Yangtze River and back again would require many weeks and all were excited to take the risk. After everything was tucked away, the boat cast off from Kiukiang port and for two days the sailing was smooth, but the morning of the third day brought ominous signs of headwinds and dark clouds. 1877 年,Virgil Hart 全家决定驾驶 Stella 号帆船远行 700 公里,去参加在上海举行的传教团大 会。驾驶帆船往返于两地之间需要好几个星期,但是这段波涛汹涌的航程也令全家兴奋不已。 一切准备妥当后,他们从九江码头出发。开始两天一切顺利,但第三天上午逆风呼啸,乌云密 布,出现了不祥的征兆。 Seeking shelter in a small creek to wait out the time for more welcome quarter one can be deceived at anchor as to how strong the wind is actually blowing. It was no sooner they were on their way when they wished they were back again. They were in the center of the river and tacking towards the north bank, when horror struck by the mast snapping at its base, crashing towards the stern, bringing the saturated sail down into the river with the rain coming down in torrents. The boat was turned onto its side, spilling all the contents and people into the water. What was to be done with no other boats on the river, in a fast treacherous current with winds approaching a gale force? The crew, stricken with fear, lay prone-like on the deck moaning and clinging to what they could. The children were in the cabin with wife Adeline by the tiller, while Virgil Hart leaped upon the cabin roof and ordered the sail be cut from the mast and make it secure. This action helped to right the boat, but as the storm increased directing the boat by rudder was futile, being driven by the mercy of the wind and waves. Imagine to their delight when spying down river the trimmed cut sails of a foreign schooner! It appeared at first to not see the distressed sailboat flying the stars and stripes, but after passing came about and lowered her sails. After a tow rope was secured they were pulled to a creek and let off to ascertain the damage to put the little sailing ship back into condition once again. Luckily a cargo of camphor logs was found nearby with a carpenter hired for two days to resume their stalled journey down the river. 帆船不得不驶进一个小河口暂时避风。船停着的时候人很难准确判断风力的大小,由于想找一 个更理想的避风港,他们冒险继续前行。然而很快他们就后悔了。因为船行至江心,只得顺着 风势驶向北岸。不料桅杆连根折断,砸向船尾。此时暴雨如注,积满雨水的船帆被刮进江里, 船一下子失去平衡,差一点连人带物都掉进江里。水流湍急,风越刮越大,江上又不见其它船 只,怎么办?恐怖笼罩着每一位船员,他们趴在甲板上祷告,双手紧紧地抓住身边的任何东 西。孩子们躲在船舱里,妈妈 Adeline 紧靠在船舵边。Virgil Hart 果断地跳上舱顶,命令将船帆 砍落以保证船的安全。Stella 号果然恢复了平衡。但风浪越来越大,船舵已无法控制航向,船在 风浪里颠簸。忽然,他们看见一艘已经收起部分船帆的外国船只顺流而下,可以想象他们是多 么高兴哦。这条船靠了上来,落下船帆,他们这才看见船上悬挂的是美国国旗。系上拖绳 后,“恒星”号被拖到一个小河口检修。幸运的是在附近找到了一颗樟树圆木做桅杆。他们请 来一位木工,经过两天修补,“恒星”号重新顺江而下,继续耽搁了的旅程。
  15. 15. Many great cities were passed, all important stopping places for supplies and shelter, making late the arrival of the Hart family to the conference. A house was rented and coolies hired to bring water by shoulder pole from the “Bubbling Spring” well a mile away to be poured into large jars or tanks in the back of the house. These coolies were not honest men and on hot days would not trek to the well. Instead they drew water directly from Sochow Creek in which flowed the drainage of hundreds of houses, filthy streets and miles of shipping waste, with just the thought of it making one weak. The result was Virgil Hart and two members of the family were smitten with malaria, which for weeks kept them alternatively convulsing with burning fever and shaking chills. Thought to be cured of this disease, it was to return upon Virgil Hart in his later years and a more virulent form sapped his vitality and shortened his life. 他们沿途经过了许多大城市,在每个大港口都休息并对船补充给养。最终 Hart 一家到达上海时 会议已经开始了。他们租了一套房子安顿下来,还雇了几个挑夫去一里外的“泡泡泉”挑水, 水就倒在屋后的水缸里作为日用。炎炎烈日下,那些滑头的挑夫不想去那么远挑水,于是他们 直接去附近的苏州河取水。苏州河沿岸有数以百计的住户,脏兮兮的街道及往来船只的污水都 排进河里,任何一个思想健全的人都知道这样的水会影响人的健康。结果 Virgil Hart 和两个家 人感染了疟疾,一连几个月内他们一会儿高烧,一会儿冷得直哆嗦。虽然疾病最后被治愈,但 这次生病大大影响了 Virgil Hart 寿命和他晚年的健康。 Later it was decided by the mission headquarters to have a steam boat built to carry out work by its force. Money was collected to commission an English shipbuilder to make the craft and it was transported on the deck of an ocean liner to Shanghai. However, Chinese officials notified the American counsul they would not allow the “Glad Tidings” to ply the inland waters as planned. The reason advanced was if the missions were allowed to operate their own steamers, then soon foreign merchants and local ones would demand the right also, thus increasing the smuggling and cheating the customs and duty fees already denied the government. For four years the “Glad Tidings” lay in dry dock till Virgil Hart suggested it be sold before its depreciating value made it worthless. After it was sold, three sailboats similar in design to the Stella were ordered with the name “Glad Tidings” with the city of the home port they hailed from included. For a score of years these sailboats plied the inland waterways of central China to deliver mission medical supplies and gospel where needed. 后来,为了便于开展工作,传教团总部决定购买一条轮船。他们设法筹钱并委托一家英国的轮 船制造商生产。这条船被放在一艘远洋客轮的甲板上运抵上海。不料,中国官方通告美国领事 馆说中国不容许 “喜讯”号轮船在内陆水域航行,理由是:一旦容许传教团驾驶自己的轮船, 那么外商和本国商人都会要求享有同样的权利;这样走私和偷逃关税的可能性会大大增加,政 府的关税损失也会更大。“喜讯”号轮船在码头躺了四年,没下过一次水,最后 Virgil Hart 建 议趁它还值钱的时候卖掉它。“喜讯”号轮船被卖掉后,传教团订购了三艘和 Stella 号同样造 型的帆船,名字仍然叫“喜讯”,但加上了船厂所在城市的名字。 VIII "A Forward Movement" 建功立业
  16. 16. In an article written in 1874, Virgil Hart wrote, “I frequently climb the hills for inspiration and to get a wide sweep of the broad, rich fields given us to cultivate. I return to the dirty, noisy streets refreshed and encouraged to plod along and continue the work of assisting the local people. When shall railroads and carriage ways wind through these broad valleys carrying the the riches of the great State to and from its metropolis? Will it be in my day? My judgment says no, but my faith pierces to a higher flight as my heart beats quicker for the coming of China". Virgil Hart1874 年在一篇文章中提到:“为了寻求灵感,我经常去登山;为了陶冶性情,我经 常去宽阔茂盛的原野。那样当我回到肮脏吵闹的小街时,我会充满干劲和勇气,继续把帮助当 地人当作我的工作。什么时候铁路和马路才能穿过这些宽阔的山谷,使财富在城市和山区间流 动起来?在我这个时代能实现吗?我认为希望很小,但是我坚信并热切期盼中国这一天的早日 到来"。 Before many a year had past, Virgil Hart was able to see his deep longing dream of medical missions materialize. It was through countless hours of meeting with mission superintendents and repeat letters of petitions to mission Secretaries to encourage the recruitment of teachers, medical missionaries, physicians, and nurses; and for building dispensaries, hospitals, schools and colleges. In one letter he exclaims, “Experience has taught us some valuable lessons in that to open new stations in China and prosecute vigorous work there is no influence so powerful as that of the art of healing”. “If ones' spiritual work is to be effective, what more effectual means than to heal the sick, and alleviate the pain of suffering, for the doctor and teacher are welcome where the preacher is scarcely tolerated....To allay prejudice, to inspire confidence and to produce gratitude, there is nothing to compare with the healing art”. 没过几年,Virgil Hart 就看到他期盼已久的医疗传教项目得以实现。为了修建诊所﹑医院﹑中 小学和大学,Virgil Hart 花费了好几个小时说服传教团督导。他还多次写信向教会书记员请求 积极招募教师﹑医药传教士﹑医生和护士。他在一封信里说:“以往的宝贵经验告诉我们:要 在中国打开局面,有力地促进传教工作,给中国人提供医疗服务是最好的办法。” “要想影响 一个人的思想,比较有效的办法是去减轻他们的病痛。教师和医生总是受人欢迎而牧师却受冷 落……为了消除对牧师的偏见﹑建立人们对教会的信心和培养他们的感恩之心,没有什么比为 他们提供医疗服务更重要的了。” In what seemed excruciating long time there came the reply from the mission rooms in New York that large appropriations for Central China had been approved and reinforcements would soon be on the way so the long desired plan could be put into action. The first place to be occupied was Chinkiang a city of four hundred thousand souls at the junction of the Yangtze River and the Grand Imperial Canal, giving it direct communication with most of the principle cities and provinces in central China. A few hours sail north was the city of Yang-chow with a population of a half a million. 经过长时间的痛苦等待,纽约传教机构终于回复已批准对华中地区大量拨款,后续款项也将陆 续到位,这样一来酝酿很久的计划终于可以付诸实施了。第一个受惠的城市是镇江。拥有 40 万 人口的镇江地处长江和京杭大运河的交汇处,交通便利,从这里可以直通华中地区的大多数重 要省市。乘船北行数小时便可到达拥有 50 万人口的城市扬州。 The story of the founding of the Chunkiang mission would not be complete if no reference was made to the important contributions Superintendent Virgil Hart made in establishing the Woman’s Foreign Missionary Society. The purchasing of property from the Chinese was always a difficult matter especially in those days, but particularly it was so if the
  17. 17. negotiations were to be carried out by the foreign women which were contrary to normal Chinese etiquette. Virgil Hart was called upon by the Woman’s Missionary Society to render help by protecting them against extortion or fraud for land and the contracts for buildings. In Chunkiang today sits the splendid site of the Girls' Boarding School and Woman’s Hospital, an eloquent testament to his foresight and good judgment. 说到镇江传教会,我就不得不说说传教督导 Virgil Hart 对建立美国的妇女海外布道会的贡献。 那时外国人在中国购置房产非常不易,由女人出面交涉更是如此,因为这有悖中国的礼仪。美 国的妇女海外布道在购置房产签订合同时,为了不被欺诈,经常请 Virgil Hart 去帮忙。今天的 镇江市依然完好保留着当初女子寄宿学校和女子医院的建筑,这一切都是 Virgil Hart 先生具有 远见卓识的有力证明。 Chunkiang is 170 klms. upriver from Shanghai and all up-river ferries made ports stop there. It once used to be the most heavily fortified city in central China, but a few hours of shelling by the British gun-boats leveled its forts in 1842 and the Chinese were slow to forget the damage inflicted upon its ego. This retarded the progress of successful mission work in the area. Soon after the British bombardment, the city suffered severely from the Taiping Rebellion with its population being reduced to 25,000. Yet Chunkiang was phoenix-like rising from its ashes to become a important commercial center. 镇江位于上海上游,距上海 170 公里,长江上游的所有商船经过这里都会停靠镇江港。1842 年,这座曾经固若金汤的中国中部重城被英军战船在几小时内摧毁。中国人难以忘却这种心灵 上的伤痛,这使得传教团很难在此地讲经传道。不久后,太平军又占领了镇江城,镇江人口缩 减至 25000 人。不过,在后来镇江象凤凰涅盘一样,再次成为中国重要的商业中心之一。 A treaty port with about 200 foreign residents and the Gold & Silver Islands, the city was covered with ancient temples and monasteries. One of the most interesting is the Iron Pagoda cast and erected over 2,000 years ago. It was believed that by placing a stick or twig at the base of the pagoda a person would be immune from back pain. When Virgil Hart arrived in Chunkiang in 1880, there was a dedicated Dr. White and his wife who built a dispensary and small school, but after five years were ready to migrate to Europe. 镇江是一座对外通商城市,这里生活的外国侨民大约 200 人。这座城市经济发达,资源丰富, 古老的庙宇和修道院在城内随处可见,其中那座 2000 年前铸造的铁塔仍屹立至今,颇为引人注 目。有些人相信背部疼痛的人只要在塔基处支上一根棍子或树枝,疼痛就会消失。1880 年 Hart 来到镇江,当时有对很有奉献精神的 White 夫妇,他们捐资建造了一所医务室和一所小学,不 过五年后他们决定移民去欧洲。 IX "Ichi san / Pheasant Hill" 弋矶山医院 / 世外桃源
  18. 18. Three hundred miles upriver from Shanghai where the Yangtze River makes a broad sweeping curve westwards, nestling in a fertile valley is the city of Wuhu, one of the chief rice exporting centers of China. Its massive walls surrounding it and the weather worn pagoda facing the anchorage were built some fifteen centuries before. From this “Peaceful” city came the notorious Koo Sou Whai whose crimes plunged more than one foreign persons home into mourning. There were few places in China where the anti-foreign sentiment was as pronounced or bitter as found in Wuhu. So hostile were its citizens to foreigners residing there they could not obtain life insurance policies as their risks were too great a gamble. 距上海上游 300 英里处的江面宽阔,涛涛江水蜿蜒西行,舒缓地安歇于一片肥沃的谷滩之上 ——作为中国主要大米出口地之一的芜湖市就坐落在这里。厚实的城墙四周环绕,拥有 1500 年 历史的铁塔虽经岁月沧桑却仍然日夜守望着这座港口。这座“安宁”的城市出了一位叫辜苏怀 (音译)的人,可不止一户外国家庭受到他的伤害。在中国象芜湖这样有严重排外情绪的地方 很少。当地人非常仇视在那里定居的外国人。毫无疑问,因为生命得不到保障,居住在这里是 很冒险的。 Though Wuhu was made a treaty port in 1877, it was not until 1881 that Virgil Hart and the Rev. M.L. Taft arrived to rent a house on a main thorough-fare with the intent for the Rev. James Jackson and his wife to occupy it. Virgil Hart wrote he was like a “steam engine”, wishing the mission had more men like him. Two years later a choice location a mile from the center of town, just upstream from the port was secured. It was a wooded hill lot that was surrounded on two sides by the meandering Yang-tze River named Ichi san or Pheasant Hill.
  19. 19. 尽管 1877 年芜湖就被辟为通商口岸,但直到 1881 年 Virgil Hart 和牧师. M.L. Taft 才来到这里。 他们在主干道附近租了一套房子,打算与牧师 James Jackson 夫妇合住。Virgil Hart 称赞 James Jackson 牧师是一台不知疲倦的蒸汽机,希望有更多像他那样的传教士。两年后,他们在离城中 心约一英里处购得一处上等的山地,山上树木葱翠,山地的一边是蜿蜒的长江,另一边就是弋 矶山。 The area around was known as a sportsman’s paradise with foreigners gathering from different parts of the river to explore the hills and streams for wild bore, deer, and fowl. Virgil Hart said if he had a gun in the boat he could have shot and retrieved them off the river. "Pure breezes cool its heights and porpoises frolic in waves along its rocky shores" is a poetic description once given. After contracts were signed it was realized the British consul had its eyes on it for a long time, working through Chinese officials to secure it as a future British consulate, but were too late. The alert actions of Virgil Hart cut through the red-tape of officialism. 这块山地周边的区域是猎人的乐园,住在长江两岸的外国人很喜欢来这里。顺着山路和溪流可 以寻找到野熊、鹿和山鸡的踪迹。Virgil Hart 说如果当时船上有枪,他一定能将射中猎物并把 猎物带回来。如此美景有诗句为证,“清风凉万里,河豚岩上戏”。后来,Virgil Hart 得知英 国领事一直在盯着这块宝地,他们串通几个中国官员想在此地建使馆。幸好办事谨慎的 Hart 走 在了英国人前面,他抛开繁文缛节,迅速地和当地政府签好合约。 The hospital was built at the crest of the hill and at its base were the Girl’s Boarding School and residences for the mission staff. Travelers after learning the hill was occupied by missionaries were known to exclaim they live like royalty. Though it is doubtful one of these globe-trotting travelers would be willing to trade their life for a day with those faithful servants, some who spent twenty years or more upon a solidarity piece of real-estate on the banks of the Middle Kingdom's greatest river. 医院就建在山顶处,医院的后面是女子寄宿学校和教职员工的生活区。到过那里的游人得知传 教士就生活在这座小山上,不禁惊叹他们过着皇室人员一般的生活。对于那些喜欢周游世界的 人们来说,恐怕没有谁愿意花一整天时间来体验传教士这样的生活。而这些虔诚的信徒要在中 国最大河岸上的这座教会建筑内生活二十年以上。 The names of three physicians admired by the people of Wuhu should be remembered with the hospital at Ichi san that is still the largest hospital complex in all of Anhui. One is Dr. Stuart, the original mission doctor when the hospital began, who was also the first president of the University of Nanking. Another is Dr. Chung a native who declined an offer of the Chinese Imperial government for a salary five times what he received from the mission, being forever thankful to be delivered from his paganism. The last person to note is Edgerton Haskell Hart who was the second son of the great Superintendent of the Methodist Mission in China, Dr. Virgil Hart.
  20. 20. 位于弋矶山上的这座医院依然是现今安徽省境内最大的综合医院。说起这家医院就不得不说说 三位深受芜湖人民尊敬的医生。第一位是 Dr.Stuart, 医院的创始人之一,南京大学第一任校长。 第二位是本地的陈医生(音译),他受到基督教的影响后放弃了原来的宗教信仰,并一直对此 心存感激,所以他来教会医院工作而宁愿拒绝中国政府高出五倍的薪水。最后一位是 Edgerton Haskell Hart,他是中国卫理工会代表团总负责人 Dr. Virgil Hart 的次子。 X "The Porcelain City" 华夏瓷都 It was said that Kiangsi was completely independent from the rest of China, supplying it with five times more rice than it consumed. It had the largest lumber mart in the country, exported more tea than any other province, and was the original place and one of the few places in the world to manufacture porcelain. For more than 2,000 years the city of Chintekching (Jingdezhen) has produced porcelain of such magnificence it was the only material to touch the emperors lips besides gold, silver or precious stones. The capital city of Nanchang, across Boyang Lake is where the staging of porcelain began its trade route distribution points to places outside of China. 江西省的粮食产销量之比为 5 比 1,据说不用依靠其它省份就完全可以自给自足。江西拥有全 国最大的木材市场;出口的茶叶量也居全国之冠;同时,江西还是世界瓷器的发源地。景德镇 生产瓷器的历史有两千年,这里生产的瓷器质地优良,美丽华贵。除了金银和宝石器皿外,中 国的古代帝王只用这种瓷器做餐具。历史上的景德镇瓷器就是经江西的省府南昌从鄱阳湖走向 海外的。 It is therefore obvious why Virgil Hart steered the Stella in its direction, though on one occasion the local people spanned the width of the river with a cable to hinder his progress, and threw stones while shouting “Kill the Foreign Devil!” Finally they gave up on expecting to sway Virgil Hart from his intentions and a telegram was sent to the New York mission offices declaring a house had been rented in Nanchang-Foo. "We have reached the center from which we can go in every direction throughout the province". In 1882 as the plans were being drawn up, Mr. Hart requested several hearty men to be sent there. Little did anyone know that this call would go unheeded for some twenty years and it would not be a man doctor, but a native Chinese woman named Dr. Ida Kahn that answered the call to become the dominating mission personality for this great city. Virgil Hart 决定驾驶 “恒星”号沿着这条路线航行。不过,有一次,当地人在河道上横拉了一 条绳索不让他通过。他们一边向他投掷石块一边叫嚷着“杀死洋鬼子”。当地人试图使 Virgil Hart 对这次航行产生动摇,但他们最终还是放弃了这个念头。后来纽约的教会办事处还收到一 份电报,电报上说已经为 Hart 先生在南昌府租了一套房子。“我们已经达到中心地带,从这里 我们可以去全省任何地方。” 在 1882 年起草华中传教计划的时候,Hart 先生要求美国的教会 机构派几名热心传教的人员来帮忙。20 年来他的这一请求一直未能得到应有的重视。后来,成
  21. 21. 为南昌教会骨干的不是美国派来的男医生,而是一位中国妇女,她的名字叫康爱德。这些情况 都鲜为人知。 Nanchang City Arch, one of many surrounding it. 南昌城门之一 XI "Change But No Rest" 再接再厉
  22. 22. It was unfortunate that Virgil Hart did not go back to Nanchang many years later, to see the fruit of the seeds he planted that became one of the marvels of mission history in China. The one little rented home became a Woman’s and Children’s hospital directed by the great Dr. Ida Kahn, a girl’s boarding school and the embryonic beginnings of what was to become the University of Nanchang. Virgil Hart 在南昌播撒的种子已经结出了果实:他在南昌成立的基督教组织已经成为中国基督 教教会的丰碑之一。当时租用的房屋已成为妇女儿童医院(康恩德任院长)、女子寄宿学校及 南昌大学的前身。令人遗憾的是在多年后他没能回到南昌看到这些丰硕成果。 In 1881 after frequent bouts with malaria, Virgil Hart decided he needed a year of furlough and left for the United States via Europe. While in London he had estimates solicited for the “Glad Tidings” steamship mentioned earlier and one month later he was in upstate New York with his family. 1881 年,Virgil Hart 几次患疟疾,他认为有必要休假一年,于是决定经欧洲返回美国。在伦敦 的时候,他请人去船厂了解了前文讲到的“喜讯”号轮船的建造情况。一个月后他回到偏远的 纽约家中与家人团聚。 XII "The Pride of the Yangtze" 长江骄子 "Here Virgil, you should establish a hospital," exclaimed Adeline to her husband in 1881, as they were standing on the deck of a steamer at Nanking. This was the inspiration for what became a future Hospital, girl’s boarding school, the University of Nanking with its famous medical and theological colleges and other important institutions. The Nanking mission became the crowning ambition of his Superintendency for central China. It was strange that so important a city had been neglected by the great missionary bodies of China. Chinese officials had employed several foreigners in the manufacture of weapons and ammunition there, but of the missionary societies possessed no arsenal of members or a battle plan devised when it came to send out the doctrines to win the hearts and minds of Nanking residents. 1881 年,南京。Adeline 站在轮船的甲板上对丈夫大声说:“Virgil,在这儿,你该建座医 院。”她的这一建议促成了后来的南京教会医院,女子寄宿学校,南京大学及其著名的医学 院、神学院和许多其它的(教育、慈善、宗教性质的)社会公共机构的建立。南京的教会原本有 希望成为中国中部教会的最高机构。令人奇怪的是,这么重要的城市一直被中国境内主要的宗 教团体所忽略。早在教会试图教化南京市民前,中国政界就已经雇用了几名外籍人士到军械厂 工作,不过有些工厂既缺乏生产设备又没有精心拟定的计划。
  23. 23. Nanking is halfway between Kiukiang and Shanghai, with easy access by both ship and carriage, and for eight generations was the capitol of China. It was one of the largest and most cultural of Chinese cities with its art and literature, and thriving satin and silk business, produced by one hundred thousand weavers on twenty thousand looms. Mr. Hart imagined that Nanking might once again become by its geographical location the capitol city of a rejuvenated people and modern China. It was the site of numerous magnificent temples with its shining star being the Porcelain Pagoda, the pride of the Yangtze, glory of the nation with its nine shining stories, casting a shadow of over four hundred feet and costing more than three point five million taels of silver to erect the world’s first skyscraper. This important city should not be left to grope in pagan darkness. 南京地处九江与上海之间,水陆交通便利,是中国的八朝(六朝)古都。南京的艺术和文学成 就很高,是中国最有文化氛围的大城市之一。它的绸缎业也很发达,有十万纺织工人,俩万台 织布机。Mr. Hart 认为南京可能因为其独特的地理条件而再次成为中国的首都。南京有无数宏 伟的庙宇,其中最为耀眼的是南京瓷塔。塔高九层,塔灯长明,如星光闪烁,塔身在地上投射 的影子有四百英尺长。南京瓷塔是长江的骄傲,也是这个国家的荣耀。建造这座世界第一摩天 高塔共耗资 3500 万两白银。这座重要的城市的确不应该被宗教团体忽视。 While he was home on a much needed furlough he attended the Methodist Mission annual conference in New York where he addressed the committee with a proposal for ten thousand dollars to build and equip a hospital. Dr. Fowler wrote to Virgil Hart by letter to meet in San Francisco with a Mr. Blackstone who was willing to furnish the required funds requested. The Superintendent had his prayers answered with a great burden lifted from his heart. Hart 先生因健康原因不得不在家休假的这段时间,他出席了在纽约举行的 Methodist Mission 年 度会议,会上他提出筹集一万美元用于建立一家医院及购买医用设备。Dr. Fowler 写信让 Virgil
  24. 24. Hart 去旧金山见一位愿意提供这笔资金的 Mr. Blackstone 先生。Mr. Blackstone 果然答应了他的 请求,这样 Virgil Hart 心中的那块大石头才算落地。 En-route he stopped in Salt Lake City where he had an experience he would never forget. The police chief had been shot by a black man who was lynched within less than ten minutes of the murder. His dead body was dragged around the streets being kicked and pounded by the angry mob, resulting in swift and retributive dispensation of western justice. About Mormonism, which was dominant in the city, he commented, “No transient visitor can measure the effects of an evil upon the lives of a people”. It required some sort of redeeming quality towards its institutions or it would be like a rose with no water, "shrivel up and die in the desert sun”. He found it strange women were content to live under such conditions that Mormons required at the time. He sat through a sermon which he said was full of bombast, making little sense with the preacher stopping in mid sermon to eat and drink. 坐船去旧金山途中,Virgil Hart 曾停靠盐湖城,在那里他有过一次终生难忘的经历。当地警长 被一名黑人枪杀,这次谋杀案发生还不到十分钟,这名黑人就被私刑处死。愤怒的人们不是诉 诸于法律,而是立刻采取报复行动,他们沿街拖着这个黑人的尸体,对它拳打脚踢。Virgil Hart 这样评价在盐湖城占主导地位的摩门教:“短暂的过客是无法评判邪恶对于一个民族的影响 的。”一个健全的机构应该有自我改进的品质,否则就犹如失去水分的玫瑰花将在“沙漠的阳 光下迅速枯萎”。当时摩门教有许多过分的教义(如一夫多妻),妇女们竟然愿意接受,这让 Virgil Hart 觉得难以理解。他曾经坐下来完整地观摩了一场摩门教的布道。他说摩门教的布道 完全是吹牛,毫无意义,布道者在布道的休息时间竟然会喝酒吃肉。 On the morning of September, 6th, Virgil Hart embarked in San Francisco upon the “City of Peking” steamer with over six hundred China men being crammed like sheep into steerage with the berths so taxed that over 100 of them could not find any sleeping quarters the entire voyage. Every man had to show his poll-tax ticket. Although the people of California were anxious to get rid of the Chinese in those days, wishing him to return to his native land, they still taxed him for going-an inconsistency that was hard to explain. When the day comes that Joe China-man can retaliate and get his revenge for indignities heaped upon him by the political and commercial representatives of our much-vaunted western civilizations. "What a hue and a cry will be raised throughout North America when our citizens will be subjugated to the same humiliations we throw upon the incoming and resident Chinese". 九月六日上午。Virgil Hart 在旧金山登上“北京号”轮船,六百多名华人象成群的绵羊涌进客 船统舱。旅客铺位没法住下这么多人,以至于在整个航行过程中,有一百多人找不到地方睡 觉。每位华人都得出示缴纳人头税的票据。虽然加利福尼亚人急切地想赶走华人,希望他们回 到他们自己的国家,但是华人离开加利福尼亚却仍然要交税-----这的确是个难以解释的矛盾现 象。我们的那些官方代表或商务代表总爱吹嘘我们的西方文明,有朝一日我们强加给华人的耻 辱他们一定会还给我们。倘若我们这些北美洲的市民也遭到我们给予中国人那样的耻辱,我们 必定会大声抗议。 While the ship was being tossed about the ocean several amusing occurrences happened after two missionaries (husband & wife), who took sodium bromide for their sea-sickness. Their appearance throughout the voyage of matted hair, swollen lips and nodding off on a moments notice was most entertaining. One day the good doctor staggered up to Virgil and said “bromide is good for sea-sickness; I haven’t been home-sick yet”. Virgil Hart closes his bromide encounter with,” I'd rather be sea-sick for a month, than act like an idiot for a week" and be recalled as a one for a lifetime. After visiting Japan for several days, Virgil took a steamer to Shanghai and then on to Kiukiang where the annual mission meeting was going on.
  25. 25. Not only did he get a warm welcome from his fellow mission brothers, but especially his old friend and tutor Tai Si'en Sen, whom he had not seen for ages. He held a feast in Virgil Hart’s honor and after the fifty plus course meal that took several hours to consume, all felt like anacondas that had just eaten water buffaloes. 船在海上颠簸。有一对传教士夫妇很有趣。他们随身带着防止晕船的药(溴化物),一路上总 是头发蓬乱,嘴唇肿胀,常常靠在轮船时刻牌上打盹,样子很滑稽。有一天,这位传教士大人 蹒跚着走近 Virgil 说:“溴化物对晕船真有效,我到现在还没晕船呢。” Virgil Hart 丢给他一 句话:“我宁可晕船一个月,也不愿意看起来像个傻瓜,哪怕只是一个星期我也不愿意”,然 后两人结束了这次有关溴化物的探讨。 The months that followed were busy ones for the superintendent making his home on the Stella and then on the “Glad Tidings” sister city sailboats, going up and down the Yangtze River searching for more land for hospitals, signing contracts and supervising the construction of the buildings, this being the most fruitful and meaningful time of his life in central China. Now that Virgil Hart had the money to build the mission hospital at Nanking the only thing missing from the grand plan was property on which to build it, which proved to be a real challenge. 随后的几个月 Virgil Hart 很忙,为了给医院寻找更大的场所,签订合同以及监督建筑施工,这 位教会负责人先后驾驶 Stella 号及三艘“Glad Tidings”号穿梭于长江沿岸城市。这是他在中国 中部地区工作最有成效的岁月。既然 Virgil Hart 已经有钱建立南京教会医院,剩下的就是为医 院选址。事实证明这是个不小的挑战。 "What could nations and its citizens learn from others that were born just yesterday in comparison? Is it a curse amongst the impudent and unsettling foreigner? No they must not be allowed to get a foothold in the city! Any citizen that will part with their property for personal gain to the 'Foreign Devil' will be treated as a criminal and traitor." This was the attitude of the little world the Nanking official and literati when Virgil Hart was in search of a piece of property within the sacred precincts of the city. He knew that treaty rights gave him legitimate reasons to purchase property within the confines of the city and he was determined to stand fast even if it meant the rest of his natural life. He suggested to his tutor that he act as the go-between him and the deed holder of property parcels near the south gate. Tai was terrified at the thought of this endeavor as he knew it placed a bounty on his head for whatever it was worth. 美国的历史与中国相比就好像只是一个刚出生的婴儿,那么中国从美国那里还能学到什么呢? 如果与这些鲁莽的不开化的外国人在一起,老天会不会降祸给自己?不,决不能允许他们在南 京立足。如果有哪个南京人胆敢为个人私利而将地产卖给外国人,将被视作犯罪和叛国。这是 当时南京官方和文化界的普遍态度。而恰恰就是在这时候,Virgil Hart 想在这个神圣的城市寻 找一处地产。他知道有关条约赋予了他们在这座城市特定地段购买地产的权利。他决定立刻行 动,哪怕投入全部精力也愿意。他建议他的 tutor 做他的中间人,去和南京南门附近的地产商接 洽。Tai 一想到这个任务就非常害怕,因为他知道这可能给他带来不可估量的危险。
  26. 26. Nanking Methodist Hospital 南京教会医院 Soon two native men came to inform Virgil Hart there were two properties matching his needs and a couple of nights later, with the shadows concealing true intent, he went to inspect their boundaries and set fire under Tai’s feet to begin negotiations with its owners. Four months later Virgil Hart had the deeds in his hands on small yet valuable properties between the Arsenal and Powder Mills road intersection. When Tai’s skills were no longer needed he hurriedly left the city and returned to the safety of Kiukiang. Several months later another valuable parcel was acquired near the the battle North Gate. Buthad just begun as the deeds required registration and official stamps of the Viceroy and be presented by the proper official, which took months to figure out just who this person might be. Some thought it was the Tao Tai of Chunking while others claimed it was the Tao Tai of Nanking who had the authority and after this matter cleared up there was a wait of several more months to get him to act. 不久,两个当地人来通知 Virgil Hart,说有两处地产正合他的要求。两天后的夜晚,他偷偷 的去勘察了地界并心急火燎地开始催 Tai 与地产的主人洽谈。四个月后,Virgil Hart 终于把 地契拿到了手。这块不大的宝贵地产位于 Arsenal and Powder Mills road 路的十字路口。在 完成交给他的任务后,Tai 为了安全起见立刻从南京返回九江。几个月后 Virgil Hart 得到了北门 附近的另一处黄金地段。但是这次交易的战斗才刚刚开始。因为买卖行为需要向特定的官员提 交申请,然后注册并加盖总督的官印方为有效。有人认为应该向重庆的道台提交这份申请,有 人则认为应该向南京道台提交。仅仅弄清这个问题就花费了好几个月时间。待到真正去提交申 请又得再等上好几个月。 There were meetings scheduled with no-shows, arrests, intimidation and incarceration of the poor men who sold the property and even officials feigning illness to avoid the continuance of the matter. Every time the Superintendent was shafted or insulted, he demanded an apology from the Viceroy's office until it sunk into the cranial depths of these officials that this lowei was not to be deceived by their stalling tricks or turned aside from his purpose. At last they capitulated and met the “Foreign Devil” to meet at a sight more agreeable to the Superintendent to get down to business. A letter Virgil Hart wrote to Mr. Blackstone who the hospital would be named after relates the magistrates met to hammer out the land bounties and all matters concerned therewith amicably settled. Whereby the mission received more than twice the amount of land as described on the original deeds, resting less than a quarter mile from the Confucian Temple which is the finest structure of its kind in all of China. 那些出卖地产的人有的不敢再抛头露面,有的被逮捕,有的遭到恐吓、监禁,并定期受到质 询。为了不再纠缠此事有些官员甚至装病。每当这位教会负责人觉得受到侮辱,他都要求总督 府道歉,直到总督府的官员们牢牢记住:他们无法欺骗这个老外,他一旦决定的事谁也不能让 他改变。最后官员们终于有条件地让步,以和善的态度去与教会负责人而不是“洋鬼子”进行 谈判。Virgil Hart 给 Mr. Blackstone(这家医院就是以他的名字命名)写了一封信介绍几位 熟悉的地方官去标识地界。结果,所有的问题都随之友善地得到解决,教会得到的实际面积比 地契上标记的面积大了一倍多。这块地距离孔庙不到四分之一英里。要知道孔庙可是中国当时 的最好建筑。
  27. 27. With negotiations settled Virgil Hart turned his attention to contracting the materials and workers needed to complete the hospital by the end of the year. By personally managing the process of construction, he was able to save thousands of dollars that otherwise would have gone into the pockets of a Chinese contractor and his middlemen. With a command of the Chinese language there could be no misunderstanding between boss and laborer. Old Nanking, the “Devil’s” stronghold, shall yield! 为了在年底建成医院,谈判刚刚结束,Virgil Hart 就开始关注建筑材 料和建筑工人的问题。他通过亲自参于建筑过程的管理,为中国建筑商和捐资人节省了成千上 万美元。因为他熟练地掌握了汉语,所以老板和员工之间的交流很顺畅。古老的南京城,这个 中国帝王的堡垒深深地为这位传教士所折服。 Just when Virgil Hart thought his most pressing problems were over new ones cropped up. There was the issue of half the workmen coming form another province causing dissension amongst the Nanking artisans who strenuously objected to workers employed alongside them. One day a fight broke out between the opposing groups and for a couple of hours bedlam was unleashed with the pulling of braided hair and bloody disfigurement of faces. A missionary attempted to intervene, yet he too suffered the wrath and was pulled badly beaten from the chaos. Soldiers finally came to quell the riot. Virgil Hart was unfortunately away on pressing issues in Chunking and quickly returned and began an investigation, demanding the ringleaders be punished and compensation for damages done to both the building and missionary injured. A day later when Virgil Hart came to see if retribution was carried out he was assured by his foreman those who were guilty each faced two hundred lashes with a cat-of-9-tails before being fired for insubordination. The men did not leave on their own accordance, but where hauled out by stretcher as the pain of punishment set in. When Virgil Hart arrived later and offered to mend the men’s wounds, all feigned to be in too excruciating a pain, but after he removed the girdle from one and seeing not so much as a scratch on the mans flesh, realized the master trickery and charade being a bunch of humbug. 就在哈特以为最紧迫的问题已经得到解决时,新的问题又出现了。有一半建筑工人来自江苏省 以外的地方,而南京的工匠们又极力反对与外省个人共事,这就引起了纠纷。有一天两派工人 之间发生了两个小时的争斗。他们相互拉扯辫子,打得血流满面。有位传教士想从中调停,结 果也被打伤。最后军队来平息了这次内讧。不巧的是当时 Virgil Hart 正在重庆处理紧急事务, 他得知这一消息后迅速返回调查此事。要求对带头闹事者进行处罚并赔偿建筑损失和给传教士 带来的伤害。一天过后,Virgil Hart 来过问处罚的执行情况。工头向他确证那些不听话的人将 被解雇,而且在解雇之前每人将面临 200 大鞭的处罚。这些人不是自己离开工地的,因为鞭打 得很厉害,他们不得不被放在担架上拖抬走。后来 Virgil Hart 到工地给在打斗中受伤的工人疗 伤。他们装出非常痛苦的表情。Virgil Hart 解开一个人的腰带,发现不过是一处抓伤,这才识 破他的花招。 Virgil Hart’s troubles did not end with the workmen; those higher up the chain of command gave trouble and demanded a share for their efforts. "Even his trusted tutor Tai had to be dismissed after it was learned he was squeezing everyone from the hod carrier, gate-man, carpenter, mason and even the tattered beggar asking for alms out front had to pay for the privilege to this Chinese Shylock....The Tammany Braves of New York in their halcyon days are but just children in comparison with the Nanking grafters”.
  28. 28. Virgil Hart 的麻烦可不止工人闹事。各级官僚机构层层盘剥,都想从工程中渔利。连他信任的 顾问 tutor Tai 在被告发后也不得不辞职。被他压榨的人包括搬运工,看门人,木匠,泥瓦匠。 衣衫褴褛的乞丐要获得挨门乞讨的权利甚至也得向这位中国的吸血鬼进贡。与南京的这些贪污 受贿者相比,纽约的坦幕尼派真是不值一提。 The red letter day arrived on May, 28 1886, when the hospital opened its doors to receive its first patients. Thirteen high Chinese mandarins graced the occasion with their presence along with the Honorable Commander Charles Denby, the United States Minister to China, Mr. E.S. Smithers who was the Consular General of the U.S. in Shanghai, along with the officers and sailors of the USS Marion, as its brass band provided the musical accompaniment. As everyone sat for the feast it was the mandarin delegation that provided the entertainment with their unfamiliarity in the use of western tableware or manners. It was a shocking surprise to have women not only at the table, but seated next to them with their own wives and daughters denied this simple western etiquette. Two days after the banquet, Dr Beebe was called upon to the home of one of the mandarins where two of his wives attempted to commit suicide by swallowing opium. Without the missionary’s care the two women would have certainly died, proving the wealth of relief the new mission hospital did provide the native Chinese. 1886 年 5 月 22 日是个重要的日子。医院在这一天开业并接收了第一批病人。在铜管乐队悠扬的 乐曲声中,前来捧场的有十三名满清高官、美国驻华大使尊敬的指挥官 Charles Denby、美国驻 上海总领事 Mr. E.S. Smithers, 以及美国军舰马里恩号上的水手和官员。大家坐定用餐时,许多 满清官员第一次见识了西方的餐桌礼仪。让他们大为吃惊的是西方的妇女竟然能与男士同席用 餐,这种情况在中国很少出现。两天后,其中一位官员的两个太太吞鸦片自杀。Dr Beebe 被请 去救治,使她们脱离了生命危险。这所刚成立的教会医院的确减轻了中国人民的病痛。 XIII "Turned Back" 十三:故里难归 In the spring of 1887, after four years' absence from his wife and family, Virgil Hart boarded a steamer to return to the United States for only a second time in the twenty one years of being away. As he was walked the ships gangplank he received a telegram from Bishop C.H. Fowler which informed him of his new role as superintendent of the West China Methodist Missions, and requested him to return to Chunking at once to re-establish the mission there which was so tragically brought to a close by the anti-foreigner riots. Torn between the a well deserved furlough and the pressing plea from his associate, he prayed for a few minutes, then had his baggage withdrawn to shore, his ticket canceled and preparations made for the long, tedious and perilous journey to Chunking. Virgil Hart was accompanied by three other men whose steadfastness of mission work took precedent over matters personal. At Hankow they spent several days with fellow mission members before continuing on their trip. The ship was the antiquated “Kunting” which was at a disadvantage with the rapids of the upper Yangtze, for every time it blew its whistle the boat would cease its forward momentum. 1887 年春,Virgil C. Hart 登上了返回美国的轮船,他已经有四年没与妻子和家人团聚了。在离 开美国的 21 年间,这是他第二次回归祖国。就在登船之际,他收到一封来自福勒主教的电报, 通知他刚刚被任命为美以美会传教团中国西部地区的教区负责人,并要求他立即返回重庆去重 建教会,因为原来的教会因反教风波而被迫遗憾地关闭了。是心安理得地去休假,还是不辜负 同事热烈的期盼?这实在让他左右为难。他祈祷了几分钟,然后让人把行李拿上岸,退了船 票,预备踏上漫长、枯燥而又危险的重庆之行。与 Virgil Hart 同行的还有三个虔诚的信徒,对他
  29. 29. 们而言,教会的需要永远比个人的利益重要。为了与汉口的传教士会面,他们停留了几日,然 后继续赶路。他们乘坐的是“Kunting”号客轮,这艘老旧的轮船显然不适宜在水流湍急的长江 上游航行,每次鸣笛轮船都会损失前冲的力量。 The boat was a considerable amount of amusement or irritation depending upon the mood of the passengers. The distance between Hankow and Ichang where steamers are halted is three times longer by river than air, and the captain declared it would take between five to ten days depending on the fogs, with no mention about the possible delays on account of the worn-out tub they were aboard. People walking alongside the road near the river, would gain forward ground at a quicker pace than the wheezing, coughing and sputtering steam engine. The head engineer came on deck pleased to see how she was tacking at about four knots per hour. The year previous when the boat was full during high water season he commented on how the boat was falling astern from the load it was hauling. Just after saying those words a pyrotechnic explosion was heard from the engine room as the engineer raced frantically back to the aft parts of the ship to find out its cause. Virgil Hart threw his hands into the air in disgust to return to his cabin and attempted to sleep off the frustration. Another story about the cruise was when the “Kaiting” was hugging the shore due to high water and as the boat began falling astern, all hands were called on deck as people jumped ashore with lines thrown to them, pulling the boat forward to round a bend in the river. 乘客们情绪好的时候,常会拿这条船打趣;而当他们心情不佳时,则会对船牢骚满腹。从汉口 到轮船停靠的宜昌之间,坐船比坐飞机多走两倍的距离。船长说这段航行需要五天还是十天得由 江面起雾的情形决定,而对这只“破澡盆”自身的原因可能造成的延误他却只字未提。老船噼 噼啪啪喘着粗气,速度甚至还比不上河边步行的人。轮机长来到甲板上,看到船以每小时 4 节的 速度缓慢行驶,竟然很满意。他解释说船慢是因为船承载过重,而水位却不如去年的高。话音 刚落,就听见轮机舱里突然发出剧烈的爆炸声,轮机长立即发疯地冲向船尾去查看原因。Virgil Hart 厌恶地一甩手,径直走回船舱,试图用睡觉来排遣心中的无奈。还有一次,轮船被湍急的 水流冲得紧紧地靠在了江岸边,别的船只都把我们抛在了后面。于是所有的水手被动员到甲板 上。他们手中握着绳子跳上岸,拼命用力向前拉才使船绕过了这道河湾。 The scenery above Hankow is dotted with the occasional hill, its fertile plains annually deposited with silt from the previous years flooding spread on them. As one approaches Ichang, the hills close in upon the river, constricting its channel by walls of limestone and granite. Fleets of Chinese junks sauntered in motion or at anchor gave the appearance of resource-thrift management rarely seen anywhere else on the river. The men observed oxcarts with loads of timber weighing down heavily on their rough hewn beds, as wheels big as a man slowly turn with the rotating joints crying out in pain through the spikes and rims made of iron as wooden dowels fasten the spindles together. Ascending narrow, steep water rutted pathways to hug the fog- blanketed cliffs till recesses within its walls were reached and a turn of several rocking agitations brought the team to reverse the process till the summit was attained. Not another large valley or plain was seen for over several hundred miles until reaching the Chengtu plains. They saw nothing but mountains or every type of configuration one can imagine. Nestled between karst rock formations were the temples, dagobas and pagodas protruding from their recesses. The ear splitting drum and cymbals pounded, mouth organs and bamboo flutes squelched out uneven
  30. 30. staccatos of rhythm with chimes tuning in when their delicate notes were required like a songbird. 汉口上游零星分布着一些小山,洪水多年冲积带来的淤泥在这里形成了肥沃的平原。船行至宜 昌境内的时候,江面群山环立,石灰石和花岗岩构成的山体形成峡谷。众多的中国舢板在江面 或走或停,这种简便的方式在沿江其它地方很少见到。岸边许多做工粗糙的牛车满载沉重的木 材。木榫将车轴和车轮紧紧地固定在一起,一人高的车轱轳四周包着铁圈,随着车轴向前缓缓 地滚动,便传出吱吱呀呀痛苦的呻吟声。峡谷里的激流冲击着雾锁的峭壁,在上面形成了许多 凹槽。江水冲刷着几处突出的峭壁,形成一个巨大的漩涡,船经过漩涡时一路后退,后来好不 容易才从漩涡中爬了出来。宜昌距成都平原有几百英里,其间就再也没有出现过大型峡谷或平 原了。沿途所见不是山脉就是千奇百怪的岩石群。寺庙、佛堂、宝塔在喀斯特溶岩的环绕之中 时隐时现。那喧闹的锣鼓声与口琴、竹笛合奏出杂乱的音符,远处偶尔传来阵阵钟声,好似夜 莺在婉转歌唱。
  31. 31. Yangtze river Chinese sailors Virgil Hart arrived in Ichang on an evening of festivities with red lanterns studded for miles, suspended from any resource capable of their support to resist the pull of gravity. Loud-reporting strands of fire-crackers were a constant agitation to the ear. Ichang had been an open port since 1877 with a population of one hundred thousand natives and 50 foreigners of which a dozen are of mission stock representing three or four different societies. Several days were passed as a nerve-wracked Virgil Hart searched for a river worthy flat bottomed boat suitable to take them past the remaining rapids and up to Chunking. It was about seventy feet long, eleven wide with a draft of four feet, low and flat at the bow with a grotesquely carved stern. It had two aft cabins, one for the “louban” (Captain) & family, the other for the foreign guests. The thirty crew-mates, cargo and any other native passengers aboard rode out on the open deck. It had a bamboo awning which could be spread out at night under the safety of anchor, but it was ill advised to keep it so during the day to impede the suns rays, in case quick rope handling was needed to assure the boat didn’t capsize. 一天夜晚,Virgil Hart 一行到达宜昌。当天正是中国的传统节日,极目望去,数英里内只要能 挂灯笼的地方都点缀着红红的灯笼。耳畔传来串串的爆竹声,令人倍感节日的喜悦气氛。1877 年宜昌就被辟为通商口岸。当地人口 10 万。外籍人士共 50 名,其中有十二人分别来自国外几 个不同的宗教机构。随后的几天,为了穿越急流险滩,前往重庆,Virgil Hart 一直在疲于寻找 一艘可以搭载所有同行人员的平底船。最终他找到了一艘长 70 英尺、宽 11 英尺、吃水 4 英尺 的船,船头低平,船尾雕刻着奇异的图案。船上有两间船舱,一间是船长室,另一间住着 Virgil Hart 和同行人员。30 名船员和本地乘客被安排在甲板过夜,货物也堆放在甲板上。船上 有竹制的顶棚可供夜间抛锚时遮风挡雨,但是为了确保船的平衡,有时需要快速操作绳索,所 以白天不能为了遮挡阳光而把顶棚打开。 The bow held a huge coil of rope to pull the boat through the rapids and a long oar to facilitate direction. Along its sides were two yiulo (oars), that required the strength of several men to manipulate and at the stern a rudder of several timbers lashed and spiked together that protruded several feet below the keel. The strange craft would be home for the missionaries for a month after the captain walked every inch inspecting it to assure its readiness. A chicken was killed as an offering to the river gods, its blood and feathers smeared along the bow, incense was lighted, gongs beaten and sails hoisted. The little launch eased away from port to face the eighty five rapids above them. 船头巨大的绳盘可以用来拉船穿越急流险滩,还有一柄操纵方向的长桨。船头两边有两柄摇橹 (桨),需要好几个身强力壮的船员同时操作。船尾的船舵由很多木料捆扎成锥形,就在龙骨 下方几英尺的地方。船长彻底地检查了这艘奇特的船,以确定各项工作准备就绪。这里即将成 为传道士们旅居一个月的家园。现场宰杀了一只公鸡来祭拜河神,鸡毛和鸡血飞溅船头。燃起 熏香,敲锣打鼓,小船扬帆启航,慢慢离开了港口,驶向前方的 85 个急流险滩。
  32. 32. The glories of the upper Yangtze are its gorges; its torments are the rapids. Its awe-inspiring walls sculpted by water and wind climb some three thousand feet from the depths of their foundations of where the Yangtze breeches them, with foliage clinging to their sides for miles at a stretch. The upper end of Bellows Gorge had evidence of offensive and defensive military maneuvers done over a thousand years before. Huge iron cables were strung across the gorge supported by equally massive posts, to impede any boat that dared to challenge it. Men Lang the Hupeh military commander ordered the drilling of holes into the perpendicular cliff of seven hundred feet so beams could be fitted into them and thus made a zigzag ladder his men could climb up the precipice and surprise the enemy. Thus Wolfe at Quebec was preceded and surpassed many centuries before his time. Those holes of six inches square and fourteen deep remained visible until the recent creation of the Yangtze River reservoir. 长江上游的峡谷举世闻名,水道曲折险滩众多。在常年的风蚀和河流冲击下,两岸遍布悬崖绝 壁。陡峭连绵的山峰,一般高出江面 3000 英尺左右。郁郁葱葱的植物顽强地生长在两岸峭壁 上,绵延数里。风箱峡在过去的数千年里一直是战略要地。数条巨大的铁索拦江捆在两岸石盘 的铁柱上,用来截住来犯之敌的舟舰。孟良是湖北的一名军事将领,他命令士兵们在 700 英尺 高的悬崖上穿凿石孔,插上木桩,做成曲线天梯。士兵们可由此爬上陡峭的悬崖突袭敌人。这 样看来,在魁北克战役中大胜的英国将军乌尔夫所采取的战术,早在数百年前的中国就已经被 运用了。这些面积 6 平方英尺、深 14 英尺的石孔,直到三峡工程蓄水前都清晰可见。 The ascent of the rapids was a life entrusting experience that could never be forgotten. The boat pitched to and fro while bobbing up and down as in a pot of boiling water. A man on deck beat a gong as if his very life depended on it while another set off fire-crackers to scare away the river demons. Another two men were at the bow working its oar and shouting commands between the shore and tiller operators. A team of men called trackers, whose only clothing was a loin-cloth, pulled like mules on the tow rope a thousand feet in length. They jumped from rock to rock with the agility of squirrels, creeping along the cliff-sides hundreds of feet above the river like mountain goats. A man called the whipper with a split cane of bamboo raced along the line of trackers and beat the rope at appropriate times, though seldom striking any man. He would rush ahead of the team and kowtows to them; then jump to his feet and frantically yell from the top of his lungs flying past them, beating his stick about and acting like howling Dervisher in heat. You would enjoy a repeat of this performance over and again till gaining the heights these menacing obstacles of rock confronted. A tracker's reward for
  33. 33. their services was $2.00 each trip, a bowl of rice per meal and a boat ride on down river traffic to once again flex their muscles. Western coaches and those who are bodybuilders could take a bit of advice from these “appreciative” occupations of labor. Rudyard Kipling was correct in saying, “the yellow clay the China-man is made from has much iron in it”. 逆流而上的经历让人终生难忘。船只在急流中上下颠簸、左右摇摆,如同在沸水滚滚的壶中一 样。一个船员在甲板上奋力敲锣,另外一个则燃放鞭炮以便吓走河怪。另外两名船员一边拼命 地在船头划桨,一边大声地向岸边和掌舵者发号施令。一群被称为纤夫的人们,上身裸露,腰 间缠着腰带,像骡子一样拉着一千英尺长的绳索。他们像松鼠般在岩石间敏捷地跳跃,像山羊 般在几百英尺高的悬崖上攀爬前行。一个手握藤条的人在队伍周围紧紧跟随,他总是不失时机 地敲击绳索,但是几乎从来不鞭打纤夫。他会冲到队伍前面向纤夫们磕头,然后跳跃着、声嘶 力竭地大喊着穿越队伍,敲着他的藤条,像伊斯兰教信徒一样激昂地表演。每当遇到暗礁、非 常危急的时侯,你就会再次看到他这样的表演。一个纤夫每次拉纤的报酬是 2 美元,每顿一碗 米饭以及免费坐船回到长江下游,以便等待下一次拉纤。西方的教练和健身爱好者们可以从这 些“有美感的”劳动者身上获取一些灵感。吉卜林(译者注:男 1865-1936 英国小说家、诗 人,1907 年获诺贝尔文学奖。)的话很正确:“黄土地孕育的中国人有着铁打的血肉之躯”。 A wreck on the Yangtze was an everyday occurrence as accidents between slow ascending ships and quick descending ones on a confined space of water. Hundreds of lives were lost at a time as trackers with strained muscles and set faces tugged with every ounce of strength they possessed. Suddenly an eddy would tack the boat uncontrollably or rip a seam open, pulling all involved into the depths of the raging torrent, never to be seen or heard from again. It is no wonder as to the superstitions and odd customs the river-men acquired, such as beating instruments of music, employing gun-powder and even bribing these river demons with cash as they tossed it overboard, along with the occasional piece of fruit to satiate their hunger. 在江面上的狭窄水域,缓慢溯江而上的船只与快速顺流而下的船只每天都会发生相撞的事故。 纤夫们面无表情,肌肉绷紧,使尽浑身力气拉纤,而船上的人们却时时有丧生的危险。漩涡会 使得船只突然间失去控制,或者把船撕开一道裂缝,把所有的东西卷入滚滚激流,永无踪影。 河边的居民认为是河神摇晃船只让他们跌入水中的,每当这时他们会敲打乐器、引爆火药、甚 至用金钱向河神进行贿赂,有时也会拿一些水果来让河神充饥。当时民间这些迷信的做法和离 奇的风俗是很常见的。 The Chinese government had at strategic points along the river a coast guard to provide things like clothing, food, bedding and coffins at their stations. Only once in the many assents Virgil Hart made of the gorges was the boat he was prone to any real danger. The skipper made a terrible blunder at the height of one rapid that caused the boat to turn on its side, nearly capsizing it. The cargo shifted, bottles smashed, tables overturned and wood splintered with food, red-hot stove ash and personal possessions were all mixed together. 中国政府从战略高度出发,在长江沿岸设立了巡逻警卫队。巡逻队的驻地备有衣物、食物、床 具以及棺材等物品。Virgil Hart 多次赞美峡谷,而只有一次谈到峡谷差点对他乘坐的船只造成 致命的危险。当时船行至一段急流的最危险处,因为船长犯了一个可怕的错误,结果导致船只 失去平衡。船虽然没有倾覆,但是船上货物散落,瓶子摔碎,桌子翻倒,桅杆断裂,食品、炽 热的炉灰和个人物品混作一团。
  34. 34. Every three to four miles the skyline was breeched by white pagodas that were built more than five hundred years before Christ. These were smoke tower beacons in times of war to warn of advancing enemy. These towers are still religiously kept in repair and strangely served as lines of communication with the then modern telegraph wire strung between them, its operator and courier residing next to the Buddha. It could be jokingly said that the messages were divine transmissions delivered at lightning speed. 每隔三四英里,就可见几座公元前 500 多年建造的的白塔,这些白塔耸立在天空中映现出清晰 的轮廓。它们是战争时期用来警告敌人来袭的烽火台。这些塔被完好地保存至今。连接各白塔 的电报线路在当时很先进,今天被再次用作通讯线路,这是人们没有想到的。电话接线员和通 讯员与佛像为邻。有人开玩笑地说,各种信息是神在以光速传递的。 There were days to wait out in ascending the rapids and forays to see the botany and geological formations of the surrounding hills as a way to kill time. One day after spying a small home high up on the hill, the three missionaries decided to make a call and found an old man and young boy scratching at the soil trying to encourage the meager vegetables to grow. How surprised with fear to have white men come falling out of the sky to startle and harass them! Their fears were allayed after a few words of Chinese were spoken, but not understanding the local dialect, Virgil Hart could only make himself partially understood. They were intrigued by the silver watch and chain and were convinced it allowed one to see over one thousand li. Attempts were made to explain, but the natives assured each other they were not to be fooled so easily. When Virgil held the watch up to the man’s ear, the efforts to summit the hill were worth it to see the facial expressions the man and boy shared after listening to it. They were directed to a spring where the Chinese were entertained by the means at which the lo-wei drank. The young boy ran to a tree and picked its leaves to fashion them into a cup. Virgil Hart attempted to duplicate the boys’ efforts in vain and how content the boy was after he saw he could do something the foreigner with the living clock could not. 为了跨越这段急流,他们不得不安心的等待了几天。为了打发时间,他们就去观察周围小山的 植被和地质构造。一天,三个传教士发现山顶上有一座小房子,立即决定去走访。在那里他们 看到一老一少正在奋力刨地,企图让枯瘦的蔬菜茁壮成长。 面对几个白人的突然惊扰,那两人 非常惶恐。直到对方说出几句中文后,他们的心才放下。然而,由于 Virgil Hart 不会当地的方 言,沟通并不顺畅,双方都是似懂非懂的。他们携带的银质怀表和表链勾起两位山民的好奇, 他们坚信,透过这块表可以看到千里之外。无论三人怎么解释,他们就是不信。他们表示,自 己可不会轻易被骗的。Virgil 把表放在他们的耳边,听着表针的走动声,他们的表情也渐渐发 生了变化,那种惊喜的神情让 Virgil 觉得爬上山顶所付出的所有辛劳都很值得。山民把他们带 到一处用来待客的泉水旁。小男孩从树下捡来叶子,把它卷成杯子的形状。Virgil Hart 照着做 但没有成功。男孩见自己能做到的事,连拥有活钟表的外国人都做不到,心里别提有多得意 了。
  35. 35. 高强度工作的纤夫 长江上游用人拉纤通过激流的画面
  36. 36. XIV "The Chinese Tartarus" "阴曹地府" After the perilous rapids were passed, the river widened and a broad valley was found with the city of Fengtu at its shores. A well worn footpath that had been in use for over a thousand years connected the temples that dot its hillsides. Virgil Hart observed in one temple nine coiled serpents whose bodies were draped over the roof beams with heads dangling above the worshipers below. The serpents were objects of homage and veneration, with eyes wide and mouths flared. The chief object of pilgrimage to Fengtu was to see Yen Lo Wang, the king of infernal 地域 regions who holds the life and destiny of every mortal 凡人 in his hands. Before his image were many species and types of varied offerings including eyes, paws, hands and other parts as thankful tributes 贡品 for miraculous cures. 船跨越几处急流过后,江面开阔起来。眼前出现一处宽阔的峡谷,丰都就位于峡谷的两岸。古 老的人行道使用了一千多年,将点缀在小山边的许多寺庙连接起来。Virgil 在一座庙里注意到 有九条盘曲的巨蛇,它们的身体悬挂在庙顶的横梁上,蛇头高高地悬吊在香客的头顶。这些巨 蛇是圣物,它们都瞪着眼睛,嘴巴张开着。香客去丰都的主要目的是去朝拜阎罗王,他是阴间 的主宰,掌管人的生死和轮回。阎王像前供着各种各样的贡品,有动物的眼睛、爪子、脚掌等 等,这些都是香客祈求灵丹妙药时敬献的。 Another unique feature was the incarnation of Yen Lo Wang’s wife who is said to have been a beautiful maiden who came to pay homage and lost one earring exquisitely wrought 加工 and inlaid from precious metals and stones, emblematic of her purity. She searched in vain with the aid of a priest and after she left the priest returned and found it in the hand of Yen Lo Wang. He also received a revelation that the maiden's fate was tied to the sacred Yen. After returning home she told her parents how she was to become the spiritual bride of the god. The time of her death announced and she was made ready as if it was a wedding. As she became weaker towards the appointed time a violent storm frightened her parents out of the home and when they returned, she was gone. Remembering her words they ran to the temple to see their daughter’s body in possession by the priests who recognized it by the earring and now was spiritualized flesh which must be enshrined in the temple as Yen’s wife. She was presented with fine robes of satin and gilded her face to preserve it from contamination. Every year thereafter descendants of the Chen family made a pilgrimage to the shrine to replace the robes, with new and remove the old ones. 庙里供奉的阎罗王妻子的道成肉身也很有特色。据说她是来朝拜阎罗王的一名美丽少女。她丢 失了一只做工精美的耳环,这只耳环上面镶嵌着金银和宝石,象征她的纯洁。祭祀、道士一起 帮忙也没找到耳环。送走她后,道士回到庙里发现耳环在阎罗王的手中。他也被告知少女命中 注定要与神圣的阎罗王在一起。少女回家后告诉父母她将成为阎罗王的心上人。阎王宣布了她 的死期,她做好了准备,就象在准备一场婚礼。她的身体越来越虚弱,与阎王约定的时间就快 到了。少女的家突降剧烈的风暴,她的父母吓得跑出了家门,回来时发现女儿已经不见了。想 起女儿的话,他们赶紧往阎王庙里跑,发现女儿在道士那里,已经成了道成肉身。庙中庄严宣

×