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DISSERTATION FINAL VERSION

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DISSERTATION FINAL VERSION

  1. 1.       Stanislas  Emsens         1                       “To what extent is the recycling of glass becoming significant in the development of green energies in Europe? Comparative analysis between the UK and other European countries”. Dissertation in partial fulfillment for a BA in International Business (with Spanish) by: Stanislas S. Emsens (S00500375) Supervisor: Marcelo Paulucci Word Count Body: 10347 (Including Headings etc.) Date Of Submission: 1st May 2015 I declare this is my own unaided work ____________________ Stanislas S. Emsens
  2. 2.       Stanislas  Emsens         2   I. Acknowledgments “Marcelo  Paulucci”     I would like to thank Marcelo, my supervisor, for guiding and supporting me throughout the creation of this dissertation. “Michael Oyelere” I would like to show my appreciation to Michael for the several meeting he took with me in order to show me the right pathways that where necessary. “Jacques Emsens” A special thanks to my father for the guidance he gave me through the creation of this dissertation. “Christian Deltenre“ This dissertation would have not been possible without the help of Christian. He’s knowledge and contacts proved to be crucial to the development of this research paper. A great amount of his time was sacrificed to help me, therefore an exceptional thank you is in order. “My Friends” The biggest thank you of all goes to my friends, who have supported and pushed me through those difficult times. All this could not have been accomplished without them.  
  3. 3.       Stanislas  Emsens         3   II. Confidentiality This dissertation was made to obtain a degree. This research paper is solely for the purpose of the examiner marking this paper for Regent’s University as well as my supervisor Marcelo Paulucci. The content of this dissertation are as a consequence strictly confidential. Thus, the content of this paper can under circumstance be published or distributed. Confidential information means that the content of the dissertation will under any circumstance not be shared with anyone else then the people mentioned above. Unless, the author, gives a written permission the parties agree that: • All information will be kept strictly confidential • The content of this dissertation will remain solely in the property of Regents University and the author • The dissertation will only be used for the purpose of the partial fulfillment for the degree of BA International Business by the author • The University solely has this dissertation for marking purposes  
  4. 4.       Stanislas  Emsens         4   III. Table of Contents I.  Acknowledgments  ..........................................................................................................  2   II.  Confidentiality  ...............................................................................................................  3   III.  Table  Of  Contents  …………………………………………………………………………………4   IV.  List  of  Tables  and  Figures  .........................................................................................  7   V.  Abbreviations  .................................................................................................................  8   VI.  Vocabulary  .....................................................................................................................  9   VII.  Abstract  ......................................................................................................................  10   Chapter  1  –  Introduction  ..............................................................................................  11   1.1 Introduction......................................................................................................11 1.2 Aims and Objectives ........................................................................................13 1.3 Methods.............................................................................................................14 1.4 Significance of the study..................................................................................14 1.5 Limitations........................................................................................................14 Chapter  2  -­‐  Literature  Review  ....................................................................................  15   2.1 Introduction to Literature Review .................................................................15 2.2 Sources of energy .............................................................................................15 2.3 What is “Green energy” and “Green powers”..............................................16 2.4 Reasons behind the increased concern in the environment .........................17 2.7 Reasons why governments are pushing people to recycle............................18 2.8 Glass manufacturing from raw materials process........................................19 2.9 The glass recycling process .............................................................................20 2.10 Problems of Glass recycling (UK) ................................................................23 2.10 Households in the and their Recycling (UK)...............................................24 2.11 Conclusion of Literature review...................................................................24 Chapter  3  -­‐  Methodology  ..............................................................................................  25   3.1 Introduction to methodology ..........................................................................25 3.2 Research Philosophy........................................................................................27
  5. 5.       Stanislas  Emsens         5   3.3 Research Approach..........................................................................................28 3.4 Research Strategy ............................................................................................28 3.4.1 Questionnaires.............................................................................................29 3.4.2 Analysis.......................................................................................................31 3.5 Types of Data....................................................................................................32 3.6 Limitations of Study ........................................................................................33 Chapter  4  -­‐  Findings  and  Discussion  of  Findings  .................................................  34   4.1 Introduction......................................................................................................34 4.2 Data Presentation.............................................................................................34 4.3 The evolution of Glass recycling so far ..........................................................36 4.4 Current status of glass recycling in the European Union ............................37 4.5 Are subsidies a necessary government incentive to boost Industry ............38 4.6 The factors affecting companies to recycle glass...........................................39 4.7 What has made the growth in glass recycling possible.................................40 4.8. The European Union v the UKs recycling rates...........................................41 4.9 The purpose of glass recycling?......................................................................42 2.10 The future of glass recycling.........................................................................43 Chapter  5  –  Conclusion  .................................................................................................  45   5.1 Introduction to Conclusion .............................................................................45 5.2 Reuse and Recycling of glass culets................................................................45 5.3 Environmental benefits of recycling glass .....................................................46 5.4 The Growth of Glass Recycling ......................................................................47 Chapter  6  -­‐  Bibliography  ..............................................................................................  49   6.1 Academic Journals...........................................................................................49 6.2 Books.................................................................................................................51 6.3 Government Publication .................................................................................51 6.4 Magazines .........................................................................................................51 6.5 Reports..............................................................................................................51 6.6 Websites ............................................................................................................52 Chapter  7  -­‐  Appendices  .................................................................................................  54   7.1 Questionnaire Introduction Page ...................................................................54 7.2 Candidates for Questionnaires .......................................................................55
  6. 6.       Stanislas  Emsens         6   7.3 Questionnaire Questions Sample....................................................................55 7.4 Questionnaire 1 ................................................................................................57 7.5 Questionnaire 2 ................................................................................................61 7.6 Questionnaire 3 ................................................................................................65 7.7 Questionnaire 4 ................................................................................................68 7.8 Questionnaire 5 ................................................................................................72 7.9 Questionnaire 6 ................................................................................................75 7.10 Appendix 1 – Recycling amounts (Tones) of wastes ...................................79 7.11 Appendix 2 – Waste Management Percentage............................................79 7.12 Appendix 3 – Job creation through recycling .............................................80 7.13 Appendix 4 - Composition of waste of average household.........................80 7.14 Appendix 5 – Opinion of Glass Recycling in the UK..................................81 7.15 Appendix 6 - Europe Glass Recycling Rates ...............................................81  
  7. 7.       Stanislas  Emsens         7   IV. List of Tables and Figures     Figure 1 - Manufacturing process (Flat Glass) ............................................................20 Figure 2 - Glass Recycling Process .............................................................................21 Figure 3 - Lifecycle of glass as filtration media ..........................................................22 Figure 4 - a) Mixed coloured glas on Kerbside collection b) Commercial glass Collection.............................................................................................................23 Figure 5 - Research Onion...........................................................................................27 Figure 6 - Types of Questionnaires..............................................................................29 Figure 7 - Years of Experience of Candidates.............................................................35 Figure 8 - Illustration of Energy Saved Due to Reuse of Glass Culets........................47 Figure 9 - Evolution of Glass Recycled In Europe......................................................48 Table 1 - Qualitative v Quantitative Methods..............................................................32 Table 2 - Candidates Job Titles....................................................................................36
  8. 8.       Stanislas  Emsens         8   V. Abbreviations   - PET: Polyethylene terephthalate - ILSR: Institute for Local Self reliance - MRF: Material Recycling Facility
  9. 9.       Stanislas  Emsens         9   VI. Vocabulary   - Culet: Scraps of broken or waste glass gathered for re-melting, especially with new material. - Polyethylene terephthalate: Is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers - Green Powers: Green powers are sources of renewable energies - Green Energies: Green Energies are Green powers and other types of energy that are environmentally friendly. (E.g. recycling) - Container Glass: Group of glass, green, brown and yellow glass can all be referred to as types of container glass. - Flat Glass: Is the material that goes into a variety of end products including windows and facades for buildings, windscreens and windows for transport, and solar panels, but also in much lower quantities in many other applications such as furniture, electronics, etc. - Flint Glass: Is optical glass that has relatively high refractive index and low Abbe number (high dispersion) - Kerbside Collection: The collection of wastes outside your doorstep, hence the name. - Commercial Collection System: When the government are hiring third parties to collect the waste from the streets. (On top of the normal waste collectors)
  10. 10.       Stanislas  Emsens         10   VII. Abstract   This dissertation has as an aim to explore the various factors that are driving the evolution and growth of glass recycling. The growth of the industry thus far, has been different for all of the countries within the European Union. The literature argues that factors such as education, subsidies and legislations were the main limitations of growth in the glass recycling industry. But even with those vast amounts of limitations, the industry still managed to grow drastically over the past 40 years. Therefore, the research will look at what the future of the glass recycling industry will be once the previously limitations will have been dealt with. This project will be created and concluded on the hand of its comparison of the collected secondary research with the primary research. The primary data has been gathered by the help of 6 professionals with a large amount of experience of the glass recycling. The primary research concluded that the earth would keep growing. Meaning that current population will expand and grow and as a consequence more production will be needed. The data collected determined that this could become a problem. Firstly, the chance that energy prices will rise over the next 20 years is very much likely. Secondly, the amount of raw materials available to produce glass will shrink. These two factors validate the fact that glass recycling will become a vital green energy in the future. Apart from that the research also brought to light arguments such as that Glass will become too expensive and that therefore the market will use towards the consumption of PET.  
  11. 11.       Stanislas  Emsens         11   Chapter 1 – Introduction 1.1 Introduction Sustainability has become a key role for man, corporations and the future human growth on earth. Therefore, issues to tackle are factors like the natural environment, pollution and global warming. Today, there are over 30 kinds of waste affecting the environment, and it is paramount to be addressed accordingly. In this dissertation will focus on one of the ways to handle this through recycling. Indeed, recycling is an important concept as it is a process to change used materials into new materials or products, in order to prevent the waste of materials, which would benefit the good of the planet. As will be explained further in this dissertation, recycling could not only reduce the consumption of raw materials but also reduce energy consumption such as fossil fuels, lower CO2 emissions and cut the usage of landfill sites. Recycling has always been encouraged however, in the past 15 years governments and in particular green political parties are pushing through new policies, have increased pressure on society to be more environmentally friendly and aware. Over the past decade there have been great strides made on the recycling front, these changes can be seen in appendix 1. In Europe the amount of recycling varies significantly from country to country (Appendix 2) and it is arguable that the variable amounts are affected by social and economical factors, which directly affect the behavior of the population. When looking at recycling in the UK, there is an estimate that each household throws away just over a ton of waste on a yearly basis. For every ton of products bought another ten tons is used to produce it. When looking at these figures, it should be noted that 70% of the waste could be recycled or composted. Although the majority of the UK population is regarding recycling as a worthless and tiresome process and consequently only 14.5% of household waste is recycled or composted. (Defra, 2005).
  12. 12.       Stanislas  Emsens         12   Without a doubt recycling and its waste management programmes will be beneficial not only to the sustainability of the planet but it will also provide society with the following benefits: • It will provide new job opportunities and training • Collecting recyclable materials and re-using them will avoid disposal costs and Landfill Tax. • The income from recycling and reuse of raw materials can help reduce the collection costs for the governments. • Recycling and re-using will help towards being more ecological and environmentally friendly. • Through being more environmentally friendly, carbon savings will be made. • The benefits from being more socially responsible do no have to affect just one part of the government but the impacts can be shared across departments. • Recycling and re-usage of materials will help provide the less fortunate with appliances and furniture. After discussing how crucial and important recycling has become, emphasis will be put on the recycling of glass. Glass today is playing a large role in numerous activities of people’s lives, ranging from packaging, vehicles, glazing, electrical equipment and houseware. Apart from being a factor in our daily lives, glass has proven to be a crucial material towards the development of new technologies and science. However glass is nothing new to the world, glass is one of the oldest manmade materials. There is evidence that the production of glass started in ancient Egypt dating to 3000 BC (Farlane, 2002). The recycling of glass is also an activity which has been carried out for many years, Emmins (1991), stated that the recycling of reuse glass has been happening since the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, although large-scale recycling only started in the 1970’s. Glass is an easily recyclable material, in that it can be collected, cleaned and re-used. Furthermore, it can be re-melted and reformed into the same article or moreover, into new products. Another option would be mixing it with other materials to be used in cement or construction of roads.
  13. 13.       Stanislas  Emsens         13   A problem with glass was that, landfill was the only method to dispose of waste for countless Centuries and more recently numerous ethical concerns have appeared and as a consequence governments have started to take drastic action and cut dependency on landfill sites through recycling programs. Secondly in order to create glass, fusions of various minerals such as sand where needed. Again the governments noticed that one day, the earth might run out of minerals and therefore the importance of recycling and reutilization will have to become more and more important.   1.2 Aims and Objectives This research project will aim to analyze the futuristic importance of glass recycling in Europe. In order to answer this question, the researcher will start by making the readers understand the importance of recycling as a whole. Once this explained the aim will be to compare countries that are more advanced in glass recycling (such as Belgium, Netherland, etc.) with countries that are less efficient (such as the UK). This comparative analysis will allow the readers to understand how various countries are performing and why they are over- or under performing. It is also important that the readers understand the glass manufacturing and glass recycling processes. To finalize the research project, the findings, but more specifically the conclusion will evaluate how important the future of this industry will be. In order to achieve the aims and objectives of this dissertation, the researcher will have to focus on the following points: • An in depth on why recycling has become increasingly important • What initiatives are governments undertaking in order to improve recycling o What policies and regulations have they set up in order to do so • What the recycling targets are, and how countries are dealing with them. • The importance of glass recycling and its environmental impact • Analyze the expertise of candidates through the use of questionnaire • How other people see the development of this green power • Where this industry is going towards  
  14. 14.       Stanislas  Emsens         14   1.3 Methods   Research will be conducted using as a first qualitative primary data collected through postal questionnaires to relevant companies and candidates. A variety of secondary resources will be used such as academic journals, books, government publications, magazines and reports. These sources will be compared and contrasted in order to give a critical evaluation of the research question.   1.4 Significance of the study   I anticipate that this project will enlighten me further on glass recycling in the European Union today. Furthermore an insight into the importance of the glass recycling industry and the impact towards sustainability it can have. Finally, the main aim of this project, for me, is to not only convince myself, but the reader as well, that as my research question states, the recycling of glass will become a crucial factor in the futuristic development of this world. 1.5 Limitations   The creation of this research paper proved to be more difficult than expected. As a first, this was due to the reason that the subject chosen was somewhat unknown to the people surrounding me. When starting the Literature, so in other words the secondary research, it proved to be more difficult then imagined too. Limited information on glass recycling was found, most information used and processed came from company websites and governmental reports. Even though this made my data extremely reliable, it meant that there was less to argue about when it came down to the findings and discussion chapter.
  15. 15.       Stanislas  Emsens         15   Chapter 2 - Literature Review   2.1 Introduction to Literature Review   As mentioned in the introduction, being environmentally aware and recycling has become a priority for everyone, as it is the only way forward to sustainability. 2.2 Sources of energy     Currently,   the   sources   of   energy   used   to   generate   electricity   differ,   some   in   having  more  harmful  impact  on  the  environment.  In  Europe,  electricity  is  most   frequently  generated  through  the  use  of  fossil  or  nuclear  fuels,  these  fuels  are   and  always  will  be  very  detrimental  to  the  environment  and  human  health.  This   is   due   to   emissions   in   which   these   fuels   release   creating   environmental   problems.   Even   though   there   have   been   countless   projects   towards   the   improvement  of  pollution  control,  the  use  of  fossil  and  nuclear  fuels  are  still  the   largest   source   of   air   pollution   up   to   present   date.   Today   there   are   various   markets,  which  offer  ways  of  producing  energy  in  a  cleaner  more  efficient  way.   This  gives  the  energy  consumer  a  choice  of  using  the  more  frequently  used  green   powers  or  green  energies.  (European  Environment  Agency,  2013)      
  16. 16.       Stanislas  Emsens         16   2.3 What is “Green energy” and “Green powers”     The word Green power is used in various ways, in the sense that it refers to the use of not only environmentally preferable energy but also the use of energy technologies such as electric and thermal energy. This definition of Green power contains different types of power, from solar energy to fuel cells for automobiles, to wind turbines (Green-e.org, 2015). When referring to Green power, it can be concluded that it is a way of generating electricity, by using a variation of renewable resources. These resources can vary from geothermal, biomass, solar, biogas and wind energies. These resources have a never-ending life span, or at least recover over a short periods of time. Natural resources used to create Green energies include the wind, sun, organic plants, moving water and waste materials, the heat of the earth also known as geothermal heat can also be considered as a natural resource (O’Connor, 2010). It has to be kept in mind that the use of renewable energies, clean powers and green powers may vary marginally. These variations come down the fact that every environmentally preferable energies or powers impact the earth in various ways. (Green-e.org, 2015) The way to differentiate Green powers with Green energies is fairly simple, Green powers; as mentioned above is the creation of energy threw the use of renewable energies (e.g. Wind, sun and biomass) Whilst Green energies, includes the green powers, it also includes other ways to reduce energy consumption, CO2 emissions and the consumption of raw materials. (e.g. Glass, plastic and other waste materials used to generate energy or to reduce energy consumption) (Green-e.org, 2015)  
  17. 17.       Stanislas  Emsens         17   2.4 Reasons behind the increased concern in the environment   Due to a number of reasons there has been an increase in concern towards the social responsibility of society, and as a result there have been incentives in the use of green energies in general. Firstly, One of the reasons is the negative environmental impacts which comes from production processes have (Azzone & Noci, 1998). Examples of companies with high pollution in their production process are mostly electrical, coal, gas and energy production companies such as “Duke Energy”, “Southern”, “Amaren”, “Electrabel”, amongst many others (Yarow, 2009). Secondly, there has been an increase in pressure on enterprises from society to use green energies to help towards the environmental future. Due to the increased pressure from society the governments, are having to update the legal demands that the European Union are constantly setting upon enterprises for example; the EU is forcing companies to collect and reuse many of their products, obligating large companies to use solar panels, and other Green powers (Murphy & Poist, 2003). Another reason for enterprises to pay more attention to their social responsibility is the fact that it gives an increased value to their image or brand (Van Hoek, 1999). Lastly, consumers and companies have changed their preferences, today each are looking for products, which are more ecological and socially responsible. As a result of this, manufacturers and suppliers have had to modify their products and their product placement upon the market (Lampe & Gazda, 1995 & Bloemhof-Ruwaard et al., 1995). Therefore, when looking at new regulations enforced on companies and the fact that one of them, is the reuse and collection of products, means that recycling is seen as an important factor by governments. Their aim could therefore be considered as a strategic environmental view, a strategy to revalue products that have already been used before by a consumer, or in other words to extend the life cycle of that product.
  18. 18.       Stanislas  Emsens         18   Indeed, there are many ways to revitalize a product, such as, reprocessing, renovation, repair, cannibalization, reutilizing or recycling it (Martijn et al. 1995). All these ways of revitalization means returning the products to their former state, therefore you can call this process a reverse logistics chain (Fleischmann et al., 2000). This process is not easy, the relationship between consumer and companies will change, instead of just selling a product, companies will need to collaborate with their clientele, with the goal of recuperating, recycling, reutilizing, and so on when at the reaching the end of their life (Azzone & Noci, 1998). From this you can conclude that there is an increased amount pressure on companies to be more socially responsible. This paper analyses the reasons why recycling, but more specifically glass recycling could become an important factor in the future. 2.7 Reasons why governments are pushing people to recycle   There are several reasons why governments are pushing forward recycling, but only the five most crucial ones will be mentioned next. To start with, recycling will create jobs and strengthen the economy. The Institute for Local Self Reliance (ILSR) investigated the numbers of jobs potentially available through recycling. It came to a conclusion that ten times more jobs were needed for the recycling of one ton of waste, compared to the amount of jobs needed for landfill (Ilsr.org, 2014). When looking at appendix 3 it can be noted that recycling programs have really influenced job creation in the UK (Ray Georgeson Resources Ltd & Friends of the Earth Ltd, 2010). On top of that, through recycling, large amounts of energy will be saved. Today, one of the main goals of many governments is to incorporate new Green powers and Green energies in order to stop dependency on fossil fuels and therefore leading to the sustainability of the planet. As mentioned earlier, fossil fuels release bad toxins which pollute the air and harmful both to the human body and the environment. “Tyskeng and Finnveden” argued that through the hand of recycling big amounts of energy would be saved. Most of the energy saved would be associated with its manufacturing process (Tyskeng and Finnveden, 2010).
  19. 19.       Stanislas  Emsens         19   The third reason is a very obvious one, but often neglected. Recycling will help in the prevention of soil, water, and air pollution. The following point is very closely linked to the previous one, apart from preventing the pollution of water, soil, and air pollution, indeed if recycling is done adequately, less natural resources will be used. The natural resources such as land, minerals, plants and water are being used extensively and recycling will therefore allow these resources to be used more then once. Consequently helping to reduce the amounts of natural resources consumed (Thormark, 2001). As a last point, recycling allows the reduction in the amount of landfill, today. In Europe, the production of waste is increasing on a yearly basis. There has however been major improvements in that area, but more need to be made, it is therefore crucial to try and recycle as much as possible in order to reduce this environmental problem (Marsh & Garnham, 1996). After reading this it is fair to say that recycling is critical, as it will not only help the environment but also people. Its importance is endless and it is an industry which will have to keep developing and growing in order to keep this planet turning, as mentioned by the “NRDC”. 2.8 Glass manufacturing from raw materials process   As previously mentioned this paper will focus on the study of a recyclable material, more specifically glass. Glass is created by the fusion of natural resources, therefore, forms part of nature itself. Glass, is endlessly recyclable, it is like no other product. In order to better understand the benefits of glass recycling and why it is rapidly becoming a more recognizable green power, it is crucial to understand its manufacturing process. Even though recycled glass has already been manufactured once before, it is critical to understand its manufacturing process in order to identify the embodied energy that is within the glass. Indeed the main process of glass recycling is to try and recover as much energy as possible. The raw materials which are used for the production of glass are soda ash, sand, limestone and a trace of dolomite and feldspar. These are then mixed and melted at a temperature of 1600 degrees Celsius, and then through a controlled cooling of approximately 200 degrees Celsius glass is formed. (Figure 1)
  20. 20.       Stanislas  Emsens         20   Figure  1  -­‐  Manufacturing  process  (Flat  Glass)   Source: British Glass, 2014 On the other hand production of green, yellow and brown glass, also referred to as container glass is created in ovens with the same temperature but is then poured into moulds such as bottles and jars. So in the production of glass the melting process is where most energy is consumed resulting in two tons of CO2 being released for each ton of glass produced (British Glass, 2014). 2.9 The glass recycling process     Apart from saving energy in the recycling process of glass there can also be major sustainable implications in the glass recycling process. Consequently it is important to understand the lifecycle of recycled glass. The lifecycle of glass is fairly complex, and it is often mentioned as ‘cradle to grave’, which is from its production to last disposal. Cradle to grave is also referred to, when talking about the factors which affect the process of glass recycling upon the environment, such as solid waste creation, consumption of energy and raw materials and pollution to air and water. When stating the Glass recycling lifecycle, British Glass (2003) sais that glass recycling forms part of the life cycle of glass that starts from the extraction of the raw
  21. 21.       Stanislas  Emsens         21   materials to processing, glass manufacture, distribution and packaging, product use, recycling and re-use. In figure 2, a summary of the current glass recycling lifecycle is produced. Figure  2  -­‐  Glass  Recycling  Process     Source: British Glass, 2003 Glass is recycled through two main points, the first is ‘kerbside’ collection which is outside the door, and the second is the ‘bring system’, which means taking recyclables to bottle banks. A commercial system (Where a third party is hired by the government) can be a third option, but it is calculated that the collection system is more appropriate, less expensive and contributes more to the recycling system. Figure 8 shows you an example of the main recycling schemes in the UK.
  22. 22.       Stanislas  Emsens         22   Figure  3  -­‐  Lifecycle  of  glass  as  filtration  media   Source: Wrap, 2006 When analyzing the collection of glass, it is fair to say that it is easier and less time consuming to collect at drop off locations. The glass collected through the bring system is often just a mixture of all types of glass, rarely it includes other waste such as food, cardboard, paper, etc. So it is easy to say that this type of collection process decreases environmental burdens. The collected glass taken from bottle banks goes either to bulking or is taken straight to the processing plant. Whilst the glass kerbside collection in the UK contains food, cardboard, paper, etc. (Figure 4) Unfortunately the UK lags behind many other European countries in the recuperation of glass. For instance in Belgium, different coloured bags are used for waste, and then they are collected by different waste collectors. Recycled glass has to go to a material recycling facility (MRF) plant, firstly to be separated from other waste and then followed by a separation of colour. This stage can be seen on figure 3. Once the glass has been sorted it will be taken to a transfer point where it will be taken directly to a manufacturer, depending on the use of the glass.
  23. 23.       Stanislas  Emsens         23   Figure  4  -­‐  a)  Mixed  coloured  glas  on  Kerbside  collection  b)  Commercial  glass  Collection   Source: British Glass, 2003 2.10 Problems of Glass recycling (UK)     The UK has two major problems when it comes to glass recycling. First, its rate of recycling should be much higher (Appendix 6). Secondly, the glass, which has been collected, is often mixed with a large variety of other materials (figure 4). This means that the glass needs to go to very technologically advanced plants in order to be separated from the other waste materials (British Glass, 2003). The plants in the UK are modern enough to be able to do this for container glass, but they are unable to recycle flat glass (white glass), it therefore needs to be sent to more advanced plants, which are only available in countries such as Germany, Holland and Belgium. These aforementioned countries have high recycling rates, consequently are generating more turnover, hence more advanced plants (Berryman, 2013). Today the current pathways of recycled glass require; • Transportation of the collected glass to the MRF facilities • Reprocessing of glass • The transportation of the end product to the end markets All of these steps have an actual and potential impact on the environment too. These environmental impacts include air quality, noise, energy consumption, water quality and land use (British Glass, 2005).  
  24. 24.       Stanislas  Emsens         24   2.10 Households in the and their Recycling (UK)   When looking at households and businesses in the UK, they generate around 100 million tons of waste annually, of which 3.6 million tons of it is glass. The EC Packaging and Waste Directive have put regulations and demands that the UK glass recycling industry had to achieve a recycling target of 73.5% by 2010 (Defra, 2005). Yet it only managed to recycle 1.1 million tons, which is not at all close to the demanded targets. With a total usage of 3.6 million tons of glass, the rate of recycling would be at only 32%, which has been more or less the case for the past 5 years in the UK (Wasteonline, 2005). When looking at the UK recycling rates it is easy to conclude that it is far behind the average European rates as shown in Appendix 6. Bragg (2013) undertook a study with the help of various surveys in order to try and figure out why the UK was struggling with the glass recycling. She concluded, that this came down to two factors, as a first, poor government recycling initiatives. Secondly a lack of education during the informative years played a crucial role and moreover the fact that 50% of people believe that even if they recycled the glass, it would still end up in landfill (Bragg, 2013).   2.11 Conclusion of Literature review   From the above information, it has become clear that everyone, as either an individual or as a company will need increase their environmental awareness and act accordingly. Today, an increased amount of people are working towards a more sustainable future. Governments are enforcing rules and regulations in order too ensure that individuals and companies adhere to the increased use of Green energies and provide incentives to take on board renewable energies. However, as has been seen countries such as the UK are lacking initiative when it comes to recycling in general and in particular to the recycling of glass. Without recycling there will still be reliance upon raw materials, which are exhaustible and therefore threaten the existence of mankind. As stated today one of the largest problems is air pollution through the release of fuels, the emission of CO2 and the exaggerated use of energy. Glass manufacturing produced large of CO2 and consumes a lot of energy and therefore, the recycling of glass is crucial as it consumes much less of the
  25. 25.       Stanislas  Emsens         25   aforementioned. Indeed, increasing recycling measures can solve environmental problems, but some countries argue that they have reached their maximum potential recycling rates. And many countries, such as the UK have failed miserably, in attaining targets. When considering companies, if recycle increases, profits will and as a consequence new investments in technologies will help to increase the amount of glass recycled. This can be linked to the UK as it currently lacks the advanced plants to recycle flat Glass and therefore it needs to be shipped to other countries to be processed.   Chapter 3 - Methodology   3.1 Introduction to methodology   In the previous chapter, the literature review, was critically analyzed in order to understand how to achieve a sustainable future. The main methods on how to tackle the current environmental problems, such as pollution, energy consumption, and the lack of recycling were discussed. The research was carried out in order to have an overall view of sustainability. The purpose of this chapter, the methodology, is to provide an outlined approach of how to collect the researched data in a way that answers the dissertation research question adequately. In other words, the task of a methodology is to expose and explain research assumptions as far and as attainably as possible. The project will be looking at identifying the methods and methodologies employed in the conduction of the research, which will answer the project’s central question.   This chapter will be structured in the following way; the Introduction to the methodology will show what has been done in the previous chapter, the goal of this chapter and a brief explanation of what methodology means. The Research Approach will outline what different philosophies need to be considered, whilst analyzing the data for this project. The Research Strategy will be divided into the tree parts that where used to collect primary data, as a first why Questionnaires were
  26. 26.       Stanislas  Emsens         26   used, followed by how the Snowball Sampling Effect helped with the collection of primary data, and to conclude and analysis on the questionnaires. Then different types of Data will be analyzed in order to give a wider range of sources. Following this, the ethical concerns will take a quick look at ethics and why they are important. The Limitations will describe the problems, which have been faced during the said project and finally a Conclusion will close the project.   When talking about ‘Methods’ tools and techniques used to collect and analyze data are focused on, this is mainly for data such as interviews and surveys, linking this to qualitative and quantitative research. Both research methods will be used, but at the end, the data collected will be based more precisely on the quantitative parts. When talking about the ‘methodologies’ there is an increased focused on how something is carried out, and how knowledge is acquired. When comparing it to the ‘methods’ the methods are focused on the various techniques and the ‘methodology’ focuses on why one used those particular techniques and not others. Summarized, as Berg (2009) said, a Methodology is a study and description of methods. This chapter of Methodology will be based and built with reference to Saunders’ et al., (2012) ‘research onion’, which will give a clear guide and show the vital aspects of the research as can be seen on Figure 5.
  27. 27.       Stanislas  Emsens         27   Figure  5  -­‐  Research  Onion     Source: Saunders et al., 2012   3.2 Research Philosophy   When writing a research of this kind, it is crucial to consider the various research philosophies. Ontology and epistemology are two matters which are crucial, as these describe assumptions, beliefs, perceptions and the reality and truth. They influence the way a dissertation project like this is undertaken, from the design of the project all the way to the conclusion. This is why it is important to discuss and understand these characteristics, terms and concepts of the research philosophy. (Saunders et al., 2012) Saunders et al. (2012) explains that there are four main types of philosophies that could be applied when research is undertaken; Realism, positivism, pragmatism and interpretivism. This research will mainly be formed through the use of realism but it can be assumed that a certain level of Interpretivism will be used, as it cannot be neglected, due to the fact that it is necessary to analyze the collected data. Realism means that there is a certain truth about the existing problem, attitude or practice, the
  28. 28.       Stanislas  Emsens         28   researcher needs to show that he has accepted the situation and has to deal with it responsibly. Interpretivism will be crucial as well as it is related to the interests and values of the researcher. Krapp (1999) mentioned, that when a person has a high level of interest in a particular domain, he will have increased motivation. Pragmatism and Positivism are not useful in the research as, pragmatism has had problems with leaving out valid information, due to the fact that the information had not brought enough success at certain times. While, positivism only focuses on scientific methods that has no leeway and only allows mathematical of logical proof. 3.3 Research Approach When keeping in mind the Saunders’ research onion, the second layer focuses on the process of collection. According to the research onion this process is divided in to, two approaches, the inductive and deductive part. An inductive approach is closely linked with a variation of theories, these theories are grounded upon the outcome of various interpretations and tests. Whereas, a deductive approach is also based around theories, the deductive approach uses already existent theories to confirm other theories. (Saunders et al., 2009) Both these approaches will have to be kept in mind during the collection of data in this paper. 3.4 Research Strategy   Saunders et al. (2009, pp600) defined research strategy as “the general plan of how the researcher will go about answering the research questions”. Bryman (2008, pp698) identified research strategy as “a general orientation to the conduct of research”. And according to Remenyi et al (2003), it provides the overall direction of the research including the process by which the research is conducted. The first step, when carrying out research, is to look at the already existing literature and theories. Once the existing literature and theories have been critically analyzed, models need to be contacted to gain greater knowledge, such models can vary from individuals who have no knowledge about the researched industry to people who have over the years experienced and gained a vast amount of knowledge in the field. Ways of collection could vary from surveys, interviews, questionnaires to statistical analysis. (Saunders et al., 2009)  
  29. 29.       Stanislas  Emsens         29   3.4.1 Questionnaires   The term ‘questionnaire’ has been used in different ways. Some practitioners reserve the term exclusively for self-administered and postal questionnaires, while others include interview schedules (administered, face-to-face or by telephone) under the general rubric of ‘questionnaires’. In a different way the word ‘questionnaires’ is sometimes used to distinguish a set of questions, including perhaps open-ended ones, from more rigidly constructed scales or tests (Oppenheim, 1996). Questionnaires tend to be used for more descriptive or explanatory research. Descriptive research will be using the attitude and opinion of participants, as this enables them to describe and identify different phenomena’s. Whilst explanatory research will be more focused on allowing the researcher to gain information in order to examine cause-and-effect relationships. The main advantages of using questionnaires are: • Low cost of data collection • Low cost of processing • Avoidance of interview bias • Ability to reach respondents who live at widely dispersed addresses or even abroad. These advantages were important in the decision making process of the source of data collection. In Figure 6 it can be see that the researcher has a wide range of questionnaires to choose from, knowing which one will suit each need, as a researcher, can sometimes be perplexing. Figure  6  -­‐  Types  of  Questionnaires       Source: Saunders et al., 2012
  30. 30.       Stanislas  Emsens         30     The decision was taken to use self-administered questionnaires and use the postal method, more specifically; via email. This is due to the fact that the audience trying to be reached where overseas. This method also allowed the researcher to send out questionnaires to large recycling firms and some governments. The researcher originally wanted to use interviews but after profound research found that interviews were time-consuming and expensive to conduct and to process. Reaching a wide and dispersed amount of people would be more complicated by the use of interviews than sending out questionnaires. Therefore, the decision was to go ahead and use questionnaires as, in a way, an interviewer would still be present when responding. It was also concluded that the respondents might interact with the given questionnaires and therefore respond as specifically as they would do in an interview (Oppenheim, 1996)     A crucial factor, which needs to be thought of before sending out the questionnaires, is the layout and design. In this case the design was built on the basis of Oppenheim’s book on ‘questionnaire design’ (1996). The following factors were kept in mind when creating the questionnaire: • Explanation of selection • Confidentiality • Reminders • Anonymity • Appearance • Length • The topic and the degree of interest of the respondent
  31. 31.       Stanislas  Emsens         31   3.4.1.1 The Snowball Sampling Effect Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling method, this method relies on the acquaintances’ of your own acquaintances. Meaning, that this method is often used when aiming at a specific target of people. In this case, the aim was at people who have been in the glass-recycling sector for numerous years. One or two contacts were established beforehand but the researcher relied on these contact to communicate with their own acquaintances (Sedgwick, 2013). The snowball effect allowed the researcher to reach a wider population and therefore gain greater knowledge within the glass recycling industry.   3.4.2 Analysis   In order to fully answer the research question, it is crucial to use the responses given in the questionnaires. This is due to the fact that there is limited information and theories available about what the future of the researched industry holds. Once the questionnaire’s data has been collected and analyzed, recommendations and theories based on the responses of various people working in that industry will have to be put in place. As the responses will come from a range of people, industry specialists, it is important to merge some of the gathered information. Due to the fact that some respondents are specified in the recycling industry and others in the glass creation and cleaning processes.  
  32. 32.       Stanislas  Emsens         32   3.5 Types of Data   There are two types of data, qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research can be defined as, a research method to gain and the understanding of opinions or facts. But qualitative data does not measure the various attributes, assets or characteristics. Therefore, in some ways it could help develop the quantitative research. ‘’Qualitative data collection methods emerged after it has become known that traditional quantitative data collection methods were unable to express human feelings and emotions’’ (Davidson, 2007) Whilst quantitative research can be defined as data which can be checked, and it is often based on numbers and charts; statistical information. ‘’The collection of numerical data and exhibiting the view of relationship between theory and research as deductive, a predilection for natural science approach, and as having an objectivist conception of social reality’’ (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p.154). In a way a differentiation of the two can be explained by saying that qualitative data describes, whilst quantitative data defines, as can be seen in figure 7. Table  1  -­‐  Qualitative  v  Quantitative  Methods   Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods • Emphasis on understanding • Emphasis on testing and verification • Focus on understanding from respondent’s point of view • Focus on facts and/or reasons for social events • Interpretation and rational approach • Logical and critical approach • Explorative orientated • Hypothetical-deductive; focus on hypothesis testing • Holistic perspective • Particularistic and analytical • Observations and measurements in natural settings • Controlled measurement • Process orientated • Result orientated Source: Reichardt and Cook (1979)
  33. 33.       Stanislas  Emsens         33   In the case of this report, qualitative data will be collected online. This is due to the fact that the easiest way to get qualitative data is through surveys. Unfortunately, surveys cannot be carried out by the researcher, as people filling in the surveys would need knowledge on the topic, which only people in the field have. But many studies have been done in the past and they will be of great use in the development of this report. On the other, hand quantitative data will be collected with the use of questionnaires. The results of the quantitative data will not give the researcher directions but most of the arguments in the following chapter, the discussion chapter, will stem from these results. Furthermore having in-depth answers from specialized people will allow a better understanding of the issues at hand of environment today. 3.6 Limitations of Study   I believe that this subject has faced limitations when it came to data collection. When collecting primary data, the limitation of for this project could be the amount participants. Although having a good range of contacts, getting the correct information may be hard. In this case the main participants would be; people working in glass recycling companies; governments pushing through recycling programs. Indeed this range of contacts can be hard to reach. When looking at the limitations for secondary data collection, it will be difficult, as a limited amount of books have been written about the recycling of glass. Which only leaves the researcher to work mainly websites, news articles, government publications and a academic journals. Even so the amount of academic journals are limited due to the fact that it is industry where development is currently happening, but where future uncertainty reigns. Most secondary data used will come from academic journals, which had been written by a wide range of governmental programs. The main issue therefore, is that the content of those journals will mainly consist of statistics rather then rather explanations.
  34. 34.       Stanislas  Emsens         34   Chapter 4 - Findings and Discussion of Findings 4.1 Introduction   In this chapter a critical analysis will be evaluated on the research question on the hand of the gathered information. Evans, Gruba and Zobel, in their book “How to Write a Better Thesis”, describe the finding and discussion chapter as the place where you: “critically examine your findings in the light of the previous state of the subject as outlined in the background, and make judgments as to what has been learnt in your work”. Therefore, this chapter will give me the opportunity to present, analyze and discuss the gathered primary and secondary data. This chapter will provide a detailed presentation of facts and date that have been gathered by the use of the research methodology. To do this clear links to research question, literature review and presents arguments will have to be made. The primary and secondary data collected will not only be presented in an adequate way, but also cross-referenced with the literature review. It is important not to mystify the secondary data with the literature review, the secondary data includes all the collected information during the research process. The primary data presented will be derived from the questionnaires that are attached in the Appendices section. (Chapter 7) 4.2 Data Presentation As mentioned in the methodology the data gathered in order to conduct this chapter was done by the hand of questionnaires. A total of 6 questionnaires where answered by experienced people within the glass recycling industry. The researched found, that when selecting the appropriate people to answer the questionnaires, experience and position within a firm where two main factors to consider. When looking at the people who have taken the time to answer the questionnaires, together they accumulate for 81 years of experience in the glass recycling industry, as can be seen in Figure 8
  35. 35.       Stanislas  Emsens         35   Figure 7 - Years of Experience of Candidates Source: the author, 2015 From the above-mentioned data, it can be concluded that all candidates have a vast amount of experience. This experience is the key towards developing a well- formatted discussion and findings section. The glass recycling industry is an industry that has evolved drastically over the last 20 years, being able to collect data from candidates that have seen those changes personally will benefit the credibility of this dissertation. Apart from experience the candidates offer, it is also important to mention the diversity of jobs within the candidates, as can be seen in appendix... Every job within the glass recycling industry sees different things and will therefore have different approaches on the questions asked within the questionnaire.
  36. 36.       Stanislas  Emsens         36   Table 2 - Candidates Job Titles Candidates Job Title Candidate 1 General Manager (Minérale and High 5) Candidate 2 Head Of Glass Recycling (Sibelco) Candidate 3 General Secretary (Verver) Candidate 4 Comercial & Marketing Director (Sibelco) Candidate 5 Retired CFO Candidate 6 Head Of Manufacturing Source: The author Those two factors will be crucial when developing the arguments within the findings. As a first, certainty can be made that the received information is reliable. Secondly it can also be assumed that a wide range of diversified answers will be given. 4.3 The evolution of Glass recycling so far   As Martin and Mac Farlane (2002) mentioned, the recycling of glass has been happening since 3000 BC, this was due to the fact that the creation process of glass bottles was much more complicated and time-demanding. When comparing it to today, uncountable amounts of glass bottles are created all over the world on a daily basis. For years, the used bottles where used as landfill and the consideration of recycling them was limited. As Baccani (2015) mentioned in questionnaire 2, the inhabitants on this earth will keep growing in numbers, as a result more and more raw materials will be consumed. Raw materials are not endless, it will therefore become imperative to recycle. When comparing the secondary data with the primary data collected, Candidate 5 (2015) referred in questionnaire 5 that the Swiss where the first to attempt large scale glass recycling in 1994. The reasons for them attempting this rather then others was a reaction to the fact that they had scarce amounts of raw materials to produce the glass and high transportation costs to import manufactured glass. The first attempts to recycle glass, as Delterne (2015) explained in questionnaire 1, consisted of putting waste on a conveyor belt and remove the glass manually. Grün, a German company, were the first to push the creation of a well-
  37. 37.       Stanislas  Emsens         37   organized collection method in order to improve the German recycling rates. When looking at the recycling rates today, a direct link can be made with the improved technologies. Before, the Kerbside collected waste, had to be manually separated. This led that only 10 % of the glass waste was recycled. Today through the improved technologies, up to 90% of glass waste can be recycled. Next to the improved technologies, the improved collection methods also allowed the industry to evolve promptly.   4.4 Current status of glass recycling in the European Union     The European commission has set very clear targets for its members to achieve in a certain period of time. Each country in particular has its individual glass-recycling targets that suit their profile. As mentioned in questionnaire 2 by Baccani (2015), West European countries are more advanced then the East and Mediterranean Europe. The West are pushing towards the reduction of energy and mineral consumption whilst East and Mediterranean need to improve their waste collection in order to improve those targets. Previously mentioned in the Literature, the UK had set targets to recycle 73% of their glass consumption by 2010, which it failed to achieve. These targets were very closely linked with the European ones. Ska (2015) mentioned in questionnaire 3 that if all EU-members would apply the packaging recycling rules everyone would eventually achieve their set targets. But as mentioned in both the Literature review and the primary data some, most of the countries lack initiatives and as a result are behind their targets. Candidate 5 (2015) confirmed the secondary data with mentioning that the UK is far behind the rest of Europe. The literature argued that the UK had not achieved those targets due to reasons such as bad waste collection, people not knowing where their waste was going and most people presumed their recycled glass would just be used as landfill anyways. When comparing this to the primary data, Candidate 5 (2015) argued that this is a result of the glass industry being very concentrated in East Europe. Secondly, Deltenre and candidate 6 (2015) both pointed out that countries such as Belgium and the Netherlands are highly populated countries that are currently recycling at maximum levels due to highly effective and profitable recycling routes. Even though primary
  38. 38.       Stanislas  Emsens         38   and secondary data are arguing different points, they both come to the conclusion that countries are not delivering the required outcome of their recycling targets.   4.5 Are subsidies a necessary government incentive to boost Industry     When looking at government’s incentives today, they are aimed at persuading people of using renewable energies as mentioned in the Literature. Renewable energies are there to help population reduce the amount of pollution in the creation process of energy. Glass is recycled for the same purpose: not only will it save energy, but it will also reduce the carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy. The question we could ask ourselves is why do governments not give subsidies in order to motivate people to recycle more? Well, the literature argued that if subsidies were given, evidently more people would recycle. It is unfortunate yet true to say that people act better when money is involved, even though the essential motivation should be securing next generations of a clean planet. When looking at the primary data collected, opinions on giving incentives in order to increase the glass recovering process varied a great deal. Even within certain firms, people felt different about the subject. Firstly, in questionnaire 1, Deltenre (2015) was of the opinion that no subsidies were needed. According to him, the industry could easily self- regulate itself as the demand for raw materials would increase and subsequently the price which would sooner or later lead recycling in order to keep the industry going. This answer is very much parallel with what Baccani (2015) mentioned about raw materials having an end- period. But both questionnaires respondents, Candidate 5 (2015) and Baccani (2015), agreed that giving subsidies was not a necessary cause of action when it comes to pushing forward the recycling of glass. But an interesting point came to light by candidates 5 and 6. They mentioned that incentives should be used to motivate the glass collectors to recycle rather than the citizens itself, referring to the UK where collectors are only picking up one type of waste bag rather then employing more waste collectors and collect different waste separately. In the Literature can be seen that only one sort of waste is collected on ‘Kerbside’. Countries such as Belgium, on the other hand, recycle different waste in
  39. 39.       Stanislas  Emsens         39   different colored waste bags, which are then picked up separately by the waste collectors. As a conclusion, it can be said that incentives within the glass recovering industry is definitely needed. Even though a part of the market is able to auto- regulate, subsidies could boost the recycling industry and therefore have a major positive impact in the short term in some countries. As East European countries’ recycling rates have already reached 80% according to Hourquebie (2015), they would need less or no motivation compared to countries like the UK, that score very badly. Nonetheless, no exception should be made: every government should encourage their communities and industries by introducing or evolve existing subsidies. 4.6 The factors affecting companies to recycle glass   As argued over and over in the literature, the main problems affecting the environment today are the pollution that is generated from the creation of energy and the use of fossil fuels. When looking at the creation process of glass, high levels of energy are needed next to that, it also emissions large amounts of CO2. Candidate 5 mentioned that the first to recycle glass in large scale where the Swiss, due to the lack of raw materials and high transportation costs. Well, when analyzing all candidates’ responses, this has now happened almost everywhere. They are referring to the fact that raw materials are not endless and that companies slowly but surely come to the realization that reuse of glass culets is crucial if they want to keep up the current pace of industry. The literature argued that the recycling of glass is solely done for environmental benefits such as reducing CO2 emissions, lowering energy consumption and reducing landfills. All candidates agree with these factors, although Deltenre (2015) mentioned in questionnaire 1 that the main purpose of companies enrolling themselves in the recycling process is actually profit- related. Companies recycle and reduce costs of production when reutilizing culets and therefore make room for more profit. Additionally to that, the more percentage of culets placed in the ovens/furnace, the less energy is consumed, which is yet again one of the main goals. Companies such as Sibelco successfully manage to buy large amounts of waste (from the UK for example) for a fairly cheap price. Their highly technological plants
  40. 40.       Stanislas  Emsens         40   enables them to then separate the inserted waste up to 90%, to eventually resell the culets to other large companies such as Vidralla for a much higher price. At the end of the day, apart from being a money- making business, it can be concluded from the literature and questionnaires that glass recycling should be encouraged even more for the main reasons of reducing the exploitation of new mineral resources and reducing the energy consumption. 4.7 What has made the growth in glass recycling possible   The glass recycling industry has evolved drastically over the last 25 years. Governments have pushed recycling forward and in many countries collection and recycling of waste has become a normal daily routine. Communities and households in Western European countries have set up channels of recycling that are extremely efficient and are now recycling up to 60% of the population’s waste, as mentioned by Hourquebie (2015) in questionnaire 4. Technology has yet again played a substantial role in the evolution of the industry so far, and will continue to be the main factor affecting the evolution of glass recycling. Delterne (2015) explains that a few years ago, culets smaller then 10 mm could not be recycled, whereas today advanced technologies have made it possible for culets of 3 mm to be recycled. A direct consequence of these new technologies is that larger amounts of glass can be recycled and reused. Those larger amounts that will be recycled due to the technologies can support Hourquebies’ (2015) statement of saying that Western Europe can and will achieve 80% glass recycling. The Literature and the candidates again agreed that some European countries have still got some growing margins, yet they are close to achieving their highest possible glass recycling rates (container glass). Hourquebie (2015) and Candidate 6 (2015) have both mentioned that Central European countries yet present a tremendous growth potential. From the literature and candidates can therefore be concluded that for these countries where recycling rates are below the average, there is more than enough room to grow. It is important to keep in mind that this data is based on container glass (green, brown and yellow glass). When comparing the growth potential of flat and flint glass, there is still tremendous growth possible, as today the highest recycling rate of flat glass in a country is 30%.
  41. 41.       Stanislas  Emsens         41       4.8. The European Union v the UKs recycling rates   The literature mentioned that The EC Packaging and Waste Directive have put regulations and demands that the UK glass recycling industry had to achieve a recycling target of 73.5% by 2010. This target had been set for all European Union countries, yet only very few managed to achieve those targeted rates. In appendix 6 you can see how those various countries did. The UK will be evaluated next do to the fact they are far behind there recycling targets. The literature argued that, for the UK, this came down to three factors. Firstly, poor government recycling initiatives was a reason for this failure. Secondly, a lack of education during the informative years also played a crucial role. Furthermore, the fact that 50% of people believe that even if they recycled the glass it would still end up in landfill did not help either. The final reason was the fact that the collection system was not as it should be. When comparing this to the primary data gathered, it came down to more then just what was mentioned in the Literature. Deltenre (2015) argued that the main problem was the organization of a good collection system, but this system can only be imputed once the people have been made aware of a separated collection and the different types of waste on which this collection is based. (Examples of such collection systems can be seen in the Netherlands & Belgium). Deltenre (2015) was supported by the opinion of Ska (2015) & Candidate 6, they argued that the reason for the different recycling rates came down to a combination of several factors; the will of the legislator (enforcement aspects are crucial), the discipline of the citizens (need for long term education), a well developed logistic, the presence of glass factories, the density of population, etc. These are all factors that explain why recycling rates are not steady through the European Union. Next to those societal factors, for countries to achieve better results it is also important to increase the government policies and legislations towards glass recycling (Hourquebie (2015). As a conclusion it is fair to say that every country can improve when it comes to glass recycling, but some more then others. Both Literature and Primary data came to the same outcome that societal factors need to be looked at if a country is underperforming (such as the UK) and the government needs to put its foot down in order to increase the recycled rates.
  42. 42.       Stanislas  Emsens         42   4.9 The purpose of glass recycling?   All industries today are focused on being profitable, this is done by finding a great product and selling it. Or at least it used to be the only focus of companies, as their clients were not looking further than that. Today, this has profoundly changed, costumers are looking more and more into using products that are manufactured threw ecological processes, only buying products in companies who are environmentally friendly, etc. It is therefore that this dissertation questions the motives for glass recyclers: are they doing this for solely profitable reasons or are they looking to create an image in order to attract more clients? Well, according to the literature, companies are being more environmentally friendly with the sole purpose of increasing their costumer base. Comparing this to the primary data, the most complete answer came from Candidate 6 (2015). He argued that companies rarely made decisions based on only ecological and non-profitable reasons, even though social responsibility, in the latter of things, is becoming more and more real. Hourquebie (2015) argued that in the long term, the combination of companies’ economic and environmental interest of the states would develop and sustain the recycling of glass. These answers were written by company members, when comparing to Ska (2015) who works for Verver, a glass recycling commission, who confirmed that on an industrial level, the main reasons were economical, sometimes also for the image, as industries are put under pressure of the consumers who are increasingly becoming more environmentally friendly. Due to the fact the primary and secondary date collided perfectly it is strait forward to conclude that the increased pressure of governments and the consumers, companies are motivated to recycle. Even so, companies not entirely willing recycle glass unless for the main objective of increasing their profits. As mentioned by Baccani (2015), head of glass recycling at Sibelco, for them undertaking glass recycling is a way to balance its quarrying activities (social responsibility), and at the same time making a business and creating profits out of it.    
  43. 43.       Stanislas  Emsens         43   2.10 The future of glass recycling   After all the argued points and different opinions on where the glass recycling started, if governments are doing enough to promote glass recycling, on the reason why glass recycling should be done, etc., it al comes down to this main point that will answer the research question: does the glass recycling industry have a bright future? As concluded in the literature, today, an increased amount of people are working towards a more sustainable future. Governments are enforcing rules and regulations in order to ensure that individuals and companies adhere to the increased use of green powers and provide incentives to take on board renewable energies. As a first answer to this conclusion, Candidate 5 & 6 (2015) argued that if the price of glass becomes too high, people would increasingly towards the use of PET. Ska (2015) also mentioned that he is sure that the future of glass recycling in Europe is more and more under pressure because of the plastic packaging industry (or even aluminum). Yet he trusts that the environmental future of glass is huge whilst plastic will only be underlined as harmful packaging. Deltenre (2015), on the other hand, is arguing that the future is yet the present. This statement refers to the fact that glass consumers, glass recyclers and glass producers have a common target (use of glass for packaging). As a result, glass recyclers use the best available technologies in order to produce high quality culets. A consequence of these high quality culets is that the industry is continuously increasing the rate of culets in the furnace. Hourquebie (2015) also mentioned that the rate of incorporation of culets in the furnaces drastically increased over the 40 past years. As mentioned through this whole dissertation and as Ska (2015) is reinforcing in questionnaire 3, the inertia and recyclability of glass is unlimited, its use in buildings is unavoidable, and the techniques to recycle it are well developed. It is now only a question of putting this into action, to enforce it, and to segregate the material as much as possible at the source.
  44. 44.       Stanislas  Emsens         44   From this we can conclude that there is still a serious potential in the glass industry in Europe. Reasons such as the collection processes improving on a daily basis, the growing density of population, etc. are all reasons that reinforce Deltenres’ (2015) opinion. As Hourquebie (2015) and Candidate 6 (2015) have concluded their questionnaires by stating that “there is real room for improvement in the glass recovery process in some countries that are have currently fallen behind, while more mature countries can develop the collection of industrial glass that is almost zero”. It is very likely that energy will be more expensive in 20 years, the amount of mineral resources are shrinking and that laws on pollution will harden; the future of the recycling of glass and other materials have great potential ahead and are far from mature in Europe, let alone worldwide.
  45. 45.       Stanislas  Emsens         45   Chapter  5  –  Conclusion       5.1 Introduction to Conclusion   Throughout this dissertation, the researcher has been focusing on the importance of glass recycling. This was done, by specifically looking at container glass, as this is the glass with the largest production rates. This specific Glass, as mentioned is manufactured by melting a combination of raw materials that suit the needs of glass. These raw materials where melted in a furnace and subsequently melted in the required shapes such as jars and bottles. Glass is a material that in almost all of its forms is reusable. On top of that it is crucial to know that glass has no end date, it can be re-melted and reused, as many times as needed, this is especially true for container glass as quality is not a crucial factor. This has led to manufacturers, governments and companies identifying that savings on energy, CO2 emissions and resources could be attained through the recycling and reusing of glass. 5.2 Reuse and Recycling of glass culets Before discussing the recycling of glass, it is worth mentioning other options for the reuse of glass briefly. For instants in the UK, high volumes of returnable glass where reused, this process seemed very beneficial and sustainable, as no reprocessing prior to reutilization was needed. The shift towards this type of reutilization process, did not work out. The main reason for this was a consequence of the shift towards globalization. Referring to the fact after exportation of glass containers, empty containers had to be returned. This proved to be highly uneconomical, and as a consequence, many countries decided that the recovery of glass bottles was superfluous and too expensive. Following the decrease in reuse of returnable glass, governments and companies started to focus on the recycling of culet. These processes consisted of recycling as many culets as possible and reintroduce them to the furnaces. This would mean that the already used glass culets would be re-melted and mixed with the other raw
  46. 46.       Stanislas  Emsens         46   materials, this process could be performed indefinitely as no loss in performance would be made. (This was only possible for container glass, other types of glass such as flat glass would lose quality) This process was not as easy for everyone, as explained throughout this dissertation, the development of this process depended on the waste collection schemes and rates of various countries. For instance in Western European countries, the separation and collection of waste was highly efficient. Whilst for other countries such as the UK and Eastern European countries have more difficulty recycling as all the waste collection is mixed. The following requirements are crucial before entering the culets in the furnace: • Color Sorting of glass • 90% is culet limit that can be re-entered in furnace • Electronic Eye needs to be used before reuse These requirements are crucial due to the fact that even in the best regulated countries when it comes to recycling, such as Belgium & Netherlands, glass will be mixed with other wastes. These other materials will vary from plastic, metals and paper. The use of the electronic eye is therefore crucial before re-entering the culets back into the furnace as this sorting equipment threw the help of air jets will be able to identify other waste (rogue particles) and remove them. 5.3 Environmental benefits of recycling glass   The recycling of glass has many environmental benefits, as a first the fact that a raw material will be reused and thrown back into the product life cycle, is a custom that is an indispensable aspect of sustainable expansion. Yet, there are obviously more meaningful benefits of recycling glass. Glass for hundreds of years when used, was then used as landfill, this was harmful to the earth due to the fact that glass does not decompose. As a consequence in order to move towards a more sustainable future, reduction in landfill is crucial. The last and most crucial benefit of glass recycling will be in the return of culets to the glassmaking process. This process will reduce the energy consumption and the CO2 emission of the glass creation method. Figure 8 gives an estimate of the energy that can be saved.
  47. 47.       Stanislas  Emsens         47   Figure  8  -­‐  Illustration  of  Energy  Saved  Due  to  Reuse  of  Glass  Culets     Source: Glassforeurope.com, 2015 5.4 The Growth of Glass Recycling As a conclusion to this dissertation an analysis on the growth potential of the glass industry and to what extent is the recycling of glass becoming significant in the development of green energies in Europe. The recycling of glass, as mentioned started in the 1970s, this movement was like now driven by increased environmental concerns. Through the years the levels of glass recycling have increased steadily, in a vast amount of European countries. For example, the Netherlands, by 1994, had achieved to recycle 77% of their glass consumption. The Netherlands has therefore achieved the highest glass-recycling rate of the whole of Europe. The UKs performance was still far behind the set regulations. By 2001, the UK had achieved their all time high rates of 50%, this increase were driven by new regulations set by the Packaging and waste directive. Those new regulations meant that increased responsibilities were placed upon producers and handlers of packaging. These new
  48. 48.       Stanislas  Emsens         48   legislations proved to be effective as recycling rates where reaching new highs. But these ended up dropping back to 25-40%. (British Glass, 2003) When looking at the secondary data mentioned here above, it is clear to see that governments have been pushing forward the recycling for many years and will keep doing so. And as industry specialists such as Hourquebie (2015) and Candidate 6 (2015) keep mentioning throughout their questionnaire answers, that as a first it is very likely that energy, will be more expensive in 20 years. And secondly the most important point in my opinion is that the amount of mineral resources available for production will continue to shrink. This will keep happening whilst the population of the world will increase and demand more glass products. Therefore as the primary data explains over and over, the recycling of glass will become imperative in the future development of this earth. Figure 9 shows the development of the glass recycled from 1980 up to 2010, as can be seen the curve is solely moving upwards, from all mentioned above, it should be clear and certain that it will keep moving that direction. Figure  9  -­‐  Evolution  of  Glass  Recycled  In  Europe   Source: Glassforeurope.com, 2015  
  49. 49.       Stanislas  Emsens         49     Chapter 6 - Bibliography 6.1 Academic Journals Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M. et al. 'Interactions Between Operational Research And Environmental Management'. European Journal of Operational Research 85.2 (1995): 229-243. Web. Bragg L. 'Glass Bottle Recycling Benefits And Barriers'. GlassWorks (2013): n. pag. Print. Bryman A. 'Of Methods And Methodology'. Qual Research in Orgs & Mgmt 3.2 (2008): 159-168. Web. Bryman A. And Bell, E. (2011) Business research methods. Oxford: Oxfor Univ. Press. Davidson L. 'Qualitative Research Methods In Psychology: Introduction Through Empirical Studies'. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 38.1 (2007): 151-154. Web. Fleischmann M. et al. 'A Characterisation Of Logistics Networks For Product Recovery'. Omega 28.6 (2000): 653-666. Web. Giovanni A. and Noci G. 'Seeing Ecology And “Green” Innovations As A Source Of Change'. Journal of OrgChange Mgmt 11.2 (1998): 94-111. Web. Krapp A. 'Interest, Motivation And Learning: An Educational-Psychological Perspective'. European Journal of Psychology of Education 14.1 (1999): 23-40. Web.
  50. 50.       Stanislas  Emsens         50   Lampe M. and Gregory M. Gazda. 'Green Marketing In Europe And The United States: An Evolving Business And Society Interface'. International Business Review 4.3 (1995): 295-312. Web. Marsh A.H. and Garnham A. 'Investigation, Hazard Assessment And Remediation Of Existing Landfills'. Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publications 11.1 (1996): 3-7. Web. Murphy P.R. and Richard F.P. 'Green Perspectives And Practices: A “Comparative Logistics” Study'. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 8.2 (2003): 122-131. Web. Reichardt C.S. and Cook T.D. Qualitative And Quantitative Methods In Evaluation Research. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1979. Print. Remenyi, D. and Brown A. European Conference On Research Methodology For Business And Management Studies. [Reading]: [MCIL], 2003. Print. Sedgwick, P. 'Snowball Sampling'. BMJ 347.dec20 2 (2013): f7511-f7511. Web. Thierry M. et al. 'Strategie Issues In Product Recovery Management'. California Management Review 37.2 (1995): 114-135. Web. Thormark, C. 'Conservation Of Energy And Natural Resources By Recycling Building Waste'. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 33.2 (2001): 113-130. Web. Tyskeng, S. and Finnveden G.. 'Comparing Energy Use And Environmental Impacts Of Recycling And Waste Incineration'. Journal of Environmental Engineering 136.8 (2010): 744-748. Web. Van Hoek R.I. 'From Reversed Logistics To Green Supply Chains'. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 4.3 (1999): 129-135. Web.
  51. 51.       Stanislas  Emsens         51   6.2 Books   Atkinson, W, and R New. An Overview Of The Impact Of Source Separation Schemes On The Domestic Waste Stream In The UK And Their Relevance To The Government's Recycling Target. Stevenage: Warren Spring Laboratory, 1993. Print. Saunders et al., Research Methods For Business Students. Harlow, England: Pearson, 2012. Print. Berg B.L. Qualitative Research Methods For The Social Sciences. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2009. Print. 6.3 Government Publication   Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs,. Glass Packaging Recycling: Proposed Changes To Business Target. London: DEFRA, 2005. Print. 6.4 Magazines   Schab T. 'How Long Does It Take For A Glass Bottle To Degrade In A Landfill?'. Global Post. Web. 6 Mar. 2015. 6.5 Reports Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy,. Guide To Purchasing Green Power. U.S. Department of Energy, 2010. Web. 17 Apr. 2015. Renewable Electricity, Renewable Energy Certificates, And On-Site Renewable Generation.
  52. 52.       Stanislas  Emsens         52   European Environment Agency,. Reducing Air Pollution From Electricity-Generating Large Combustion Plants In The European Union. Demmark: European Environment Agency, 2013. Web. 17 Apr. 2015. An Assessment Of Potential Emission Reductions. O’Connor C. Group SIE,. Green Power Initiative At HWS. 2010. Web. 17 Apr. 2015. Green Powers. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology,. Recycling Household Waste. London: POCT, 2005. Web. 20 Apr. 2015. Recycling. Ray Georgeson Resources Ltd & Friends of the Earth,. More Jobs, Less Waste. UK: URSUS Consulting, 2010. Web. 17 Apr. 2015. Potential For Job Creation Through Higher Rates Of Recycling In The UK And EU. 6.6 Websites Britglass.org.uk,. 'Glass Manufacturing - British Glass'. N.p., 2014. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. Britglass.org.uk,. Glass Recycling Lifecycle - British Glass'. N.p., 2003. Web. 20 Apr. 2015. Conserve-Energy-Future,. 'Importance Of Recycling'. N.p., 2013. Web. 3 Apr. 2015. Glassallianceeurope.eu,. 'Glass Industries - Glass Alliance Europe'. N.p., 2015. Web. 6 Mar. 2015. Glassforeurope.com,. 'Flat Glass Industry Facts And Figures'. N.p., 2015. Web. 24 Apr. 2015. Green-e.org,. 'Welcome To Green-E!'. N.p., 2015. Web. 17 Apr. 2015.
  53. 53.       Stanislas  Emsens         53   Ilsr.org,. 'Institute For Local Self-Reliance | Building Community, Strengthening Economies'. N.p., 2014. Web. 17 Apr. 2015. Nrdc.org,. 'NRDC: The Past, Present And Future Of Recycling'. N.p., 2015. Web. 20 Apr. 2015. Unknown. (2013). Facts on Glass and Glass Recycling. Available: http://www.berrymanglassrecycling.com/glass-recycling/facts-on-glass-glass- recycling/. Last accessed 21th Apr 2015. Unknown. (2005). Waste Management to Zero Waste to Landfill Waste Prevention. Available: http://www.valpak.co.uk/waste-recycling. Last accessed 21th Apr 2015. Wasteonline.org.uk,. 'Waste Online Homepage'. N.p., 2005. Web. 20 Apr. 2015. Yarow, Jay. 'The 15 Worst Companies For The Planet'. Business Insider. N.p., 2009. Web. 4 Apr. 2015.
  54. 54.       Stanislas  Emsens         54   Chapter  7  -­‐  Appendices     7.1 Questionnaire Introduction Page   My name is Stanislas Emsens, I am currently undertaking an International Business degree at the Regent’s University in London. This International Business degree consists of undertaking a dissertation as part of the final semester to our program. In order to conduct a well-structured dissertation secondary data will have to be collected from sources such as books, reports, academic journals, etc. Simultaneously, primary data will need to be collected, I have decided to do this through the hand of questionnaires. The primary data collected will help me gain greater understanding of the problems and challenges the industry is facing. My research question is based upon analyzing the future of the glass recycling industry with on insight of current glass recycling market in Europe compares to the UK glass recycling at the moment. At the end of the dissertation if will need to conduct a discussion and findings chapter where I will need to discuss the arguments that have been created on the basis of comparing the primary and secondary data. This is where your help in answering the following questions will help my judgment, and allow me to give a more critical and in depth perspective on this subject. It is therefore why I ask you to answer this questionnaire to the best of your ability. If you wish to answer them in a language other then English, please feel free to do so. Please return the answers to the following e-mail address; emsens.stanislas@gmail.com The use of my responses to the questionnaires, can be used in the dissertation, and referred back to myself: Yes / No Thank you very much in advance, Stanislas Emsens
  55. 55.       Stanislas  Emsens         55   7.2 Candidates for Questionnaires Name Position Company Date Delterne Christian General Manager Minérale and High 5 17-05-2015 Baccani Corrado Head Of Glass Recycling Sibelco 21-05-2015 Ska Boadouin Secretary General Verver (European Commision) 16-05-2015 Hourquebie Sylvain Comercial and Marketing Director Sibelco Green Solutions 24-05-2015 Candidate 5 Retired CFO / 20-05-2015 Candidate 6 Head Of Factory / 12-05-2015 7.3 Questionnaire Questions Sample   1. To your knowledge how long has it been since companies have started to put effort in the recycling of glass rather then just producing new glass? How long has it been where you are working now? 2. How has the glass recycling industry evolved since you have been working in it? 3. Has the Manufacturing process of flat and container glass changed since you started?
  56. 56.       Stanislas  Emsens         56   4. Do you think European countries are pushing the recovery and recycling of glass enough, or should governments do more? 5. Governments are giving subsidies towards the use of renewable energies, do you think they should do the same and give subsidies to companies in order to motivate them to recycle their glass? 6. Through the recycling of glass there are many environmental benefits, what is, in your opinion the greatest advantage and reasons for pushing forwards glass recycling? 7. Is the glass recycling industry reaching its highest point or is there still a lot of room for the industry to evolve? 8. Some countries in Europe are already quite developed when looking at the glass recycling statistics. (E.g. Benelux, Germany, France) Are these countries achieving better results due to higher government policies or is it something else? What can countries do to increase the recycling and the reutilization of their glass? 9. Is the recycling of glass done solely for profitable reasons, or are companies trying to push forward the fact that they are becoming more environmentally friendly. 10. What is the future of the glass recycling in Europe? Does it have a lot of potential or is it just too expensive and is something that will never grow much more then the levels the industry is achieving today?
  57. 57.       Stanislas  Emsens         57   7.4 Questionnaire 1 Name, Job title and organisation name: Candidate 1, Deltenre Christian, General Manager at Minérale and High 5 The use of my responses to the questionnaires, can be used in the dissertation, and referred back to myself: Yes 1. To your knowledge how long has it been since companies have started to put effort in the recycling of glass rather then just producing new glass? How long has it been where you are working now? I think that since the beginning of the history of the Humanity, the human being recycles. I think that when the “Grün” took some importance in Germany, this country organized quickly the collection and this was the start of the glass recycling in Europe. Personally, my first contact with the recycling of glass happened in the year 1996. It was very raw: one conveyor belt and ten people removing manually the main impurities… The glass industry has always been interested by the use of culets, but at the start of this history, the collection of raw material was poor and the technical possibilities of the recyclers were also very weak. 2. How has the glass recycling industry evolved since you have been working in it? I’m involved in the glass business (part time since 1 996) and full time since 2006. The glass industry has drastically involved and took all the possible actions to get more and more culets in the furnace. As the evolution of the technology by the glass
  58. 58.       Stanislas  Emsens         58   recyclers, the glass industry increases systematically his requirements regarding the quality of the culets. It’s sure now that the evolution of the quality of the culets is especially dependent of the evolution of the technology of the optical sorters. Because these machines are based on computer technology, the possibilities remain very impressive. As result, how more quality culets are available by the glass recyclers, how more the glass industry will use in his furnace. 3. Has the Manufacturing process of flat and container glass changed since you started? Basically, not very much, for so far I know. It’s an old industry and the always use a furnace but it ‘sure that a lot of improvements have been done by the glass industry…. It’s sure that the energy consumption has been optimized, that the process control is now largely done by sophisticated programs and we can see that the diversity and the high quality of the products are widely used, especially the flat glass 4. Do you think European countries are pushing the recovery and recycling of glass enough, or should governments do more? Some countries with a high density of population are collecting and recycling at maximum levels (Belgium, the Netherlands). It’s today a general interest to collect and recycle more glass. The demand of culets is high, it’s a common interest to collect and recycle this type of waste. As result, other European countries (France, Spain) and countries of East Europe will see more and more opportunities (also economic) to collect more.

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