Beauty & the Beast    Turbulence and Computing    Gianluca Iaccarino    Joe W. Nichols & John Axerio-Cilies    Mechanical ...
Turbulence...the “beauty”Monday, July 23, 12
Turbulence...the “beauty”       The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to       the disor...
Monday, July 23, 12
Monday, July 23, 12
Monday, July 23, 12
Composition VI       Wassily Kandinsky (1913)Monday, July 23, 12
Turbulence...the “beauty”       The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to       the disor...
Turbulence...the “beauty”       The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to       the disor...
Monday, July 23, 12
Monday, July 23, 12
Monday, July 23, 12
Starry Night       Vincent van Gogh (1889)Monday, July 23, 12
Turbulence...the “beauty”       The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to       the disor...
Turbulence...the “beauty”       The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to       the disor...
much	  thinner	  than	  a	  human	  hairMonday, July 23, 12
much	  thinner	  than	  a	  human	  hairMonday, July 23, 12
much	  thinner	  than	  a	  human	  hairMonday, July 23, 12
Great Wave       Katsushika Hokusai (ca 1700)Monday, July 23, 12
Turbulence...the “beauty”       The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to       the disor...
Turbulence...the “beauty”       The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to       the disor...
Studying Turbulence        Over five centuries ago Leonardo was probably the first to use the word        turbulence (in Ita...
Studying Turbulence      Leonardo da Vinci, Codex Atlanticus (ca 1500)                                                    ...
Studying Turbulence      Leonardo da Vinci, Codex Atlanticus (ca 1500)                                                    ...
Studying Turbulence      Leonardo da Vinci, Codex Atlanticus (ca 1500)                                                    ...
Studying Turbulence      The physics of turbulence has been studied extensively. using experiments.      Euler, Navier, St...
Energy spectrum                      Energy                               Eddy SizeMonday, July 23, 12
Energy spectrum                                    Kolmogorov                                      Theory                 ...
Energy spectrum               Where is the                                     turbulence in the                          ...
Energy spectrum               Where is the                                     turbulence in the                          ...
Energy spectrum               Where is the                                     turbulence in the                          ...
Center for Turbulence Research              Prof. William C. Reynolds              Prof. Joel H. Ferziger              Pro...
Computer Simulations @ CTR     1970                1980     1990      2000   2010Monday, July 23, 12
Computer Simulations @ CTR                                                       Illiac IV                                ...
Computer Simulations @ CTR                                                    Cray YMP         Complex Flow               ...
Computer Simulations @ CTR                                                    Cray YMP         Complex Flow               ...
Computer Simulations @ CTR                                                   ASCI White/IBM                               ...
Computer Simulations @ CTR                                                      BGL-P                                     ...
Computing Power                 Illiac IV         BGL-P            BGL-P          64 CPUs, 15Mflops,   100KCPUs, 200Tflops, ...
Computing Power                 Illiac IV         BGL-P                BGL-P          64 CPUs, 15Mflops,   100KCPUs, 200Tflo...
Computing Power                 Illiac IV          BGL-P                 BGL-P          64 CPUs, 15Mflops,   100KCPUs, 200T...
Slow Down a Formula 1 Car        John Axerio Cilies           Quieting A Jet           Joe Nichols       A New Planet in 7...
A Project sponsored by                                   Toyota Motor Corporation                                      Mot...
A Project sponsored by                      Toyota Motor Corporation                         Motor Sport DivisionMonday, J...
A Project sponsored by                      Toyota Motor Corporation                         Motor Sport Division         ...
• Brake pads are air cooled and temperature is controlled   • Flow through the tire has an impact on the wake dynamics  Fl...
Monday, July 23, 12
Monday, July 23, 12
Monday, July 23, 12
Through-­‐Hub	  Flow	  Passages Section view looking vertically upwards from contact patchMonday, July 23, 12
Through-­‐Hub	  Flow	  Passages Section view looking vertically upwards from contact patchMonday, July 23, 12
Impact	  of	  Through-­‐Hub	  Flow	                    CI                          CII                                    ...
Impact	  of	  Through-­‐Hub	  Flow	                    CI                          CII                                    ...
Impact	  of	  Through-­‐Hub	  Flow	                    CI                          CII                                    ...
Experimental	  ValidaBon	  of	  Through-­‐Hub	  Flow                       12%	  decrease	  in	  drag	  with	  op3mal	  ch...
Baseline Design                      Drag                                   Brake Cooling EfficiencyMonday, July 23, 12
Design with Maximum Cooling                       Drag                                  Brake Cooling EfficiencyMonday, Jul...
Design with Minimum Drag                      Drag                                 Brake Cooling EfficiencyMonday, July 23,...
Optimal Design                      Drag                                   Brake Cooling EfficiencyMonday, July 23, 12
Design using ComputationsMonday, July 23, 12
Quieting A Jet       Joe NicholsMonday, July 23, 12
Monday, July 23, 12
Rectangular	  nozzles                  Baseline	  (NA2Z)                          Chevron	  (NA2C3)                      D...
Flow	  development	  (Baseline)                       Preferen7al	  spreading	  along	  minor	  axis	  (Zaman,	  1996)Mond...
Flow	  development	  (Chevrons)Monday, July 23, 12
 Typical	  supercomputer	  usage                                    One	  liJle	  square	  =	  128	  processorsMonday, Jul...
Full	  system	  run	  (163,840	  cores)Monday, July 23, 12
Flow	  and	  noise	  visualizaBon                                           FWH                         FWH               ...
Effect	  of	  chevrons                            Upstream                                        Downstream               ...
a new planet in 7 Days       Alan Wray, Javier Jimenez, Parviz Moin, Ali Mani, Lee       Shunn, Frank Ham, Gianluca Iaccar...
BlueGene/L       • DOE/IBM supercomputer at LLNL       • Installation Year: 2005       • #1 on Top 500 list: 280 TFLOPS   ...
Keplerian turbulence       • Protoplanetary disks need to be turbulent to         form planets       • Simplest model is r...
Computations       Simulations       • Grid size: 8192x2048x2048 ~ 34 billion grid points       • Ran on 65536 CPUs (half ...
Range of scalesMonday, July 23, 12
Energy spectrum                      not all eddies are dying!                                      Low-Ro (fast rotation)...
Conclusions       • 7 days on BGL and still no planet       • Now we know what to look for and whereMonday, July 23, 12
Conclusions       • 7 days on BGL and still no planet       • Now we know what to look for and whereMonday, July 23, 12
center for turbulence research                                                    Parviz Moin                             ...
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Turbulence and Computing: Beauty and the Beast - Assistant Professor Gianluca Iaccarino

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Professor Iaccarino provides a window into intriguing physical phenomena, the challenges of extreme-scale computations and simulations illustrating the fascinating beauty of fluid turbulence.

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Turbulence and Computing: Beauty and the Beast - Assistant Professor Gianluca Iaccarino

  1. Beauty & the Beast Turbulence and Computing Gianluca Iaccarino Joe W. Nichols & John Axerio-Cilies Mechanical Engineering Department Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford UniversityMonday, July 23, 12
  2. Turbulence...the “beauty”Monday, July 23, 12
  3. Turbulence...the “beauty” The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to the disorderly motion of a crowd (turba). In the Middle Ages it was frequently used to mean just "trouble", a word which derives from it. Its scientific usage refers to irregular and seemingly chaotic motion of a fluid.Monday, July 23, 12
  4. Monday, July 23, 12
  5. Monday, July 23, 12
  6. Monday, July 23, 12
  7. Composition VI Wassily Kandinsky (1913)Monday, July 23, 12
  8. Turbulence...the “beauty” The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to the disorderly motion of a crowd (turba). In the Middle Ages it was frequently used to mean just "trouble", a word which derives from it. Its scientific usage refers to irregular and seemingly chaotic motion of a fluid.Monday, July 23, 12
  9. Turbulence...the “beauty” The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to the disorderly motion of a crowd (turba). In the Middle Ages it was frequently used to mean just "trouble", a word which derives from it. Its scientific usage refers to irregular and seemingly chaotic motion of a fluid. But chaos/randomness does not completely illustrate the nature of flow turbulence. There is structure in the chaos!Monday, July 23, 12
  10. Monday, July 23, 12
  11. Monday, July 23, 12
  12. Monday, July 23, 12
  13. Starry Night Vincent van Gogh (1889)Monday, July 23, 12
  14. Turbulence...the “beauty” The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to the disorderly motion of a crowd (turba). In the Middle Ages it was frequently used to mean just "trouble", a word which derives from it. Its scientific usage refers to irregular and seemingly chaotic motion of a fluid. But chaos/randomness does not completely illustrate the nature of flow turbulence. There is structure in the chaos!Monday, July 23, 12
  15. Turbulence...the “beauty” The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to the disorderly motion of a crowd (turba). In the Middle Ages it was frequently used to mean just "trouble", a word which derives from it. Its scientific usage refers to irregular and seemingly chaotic motion of a fluid. But chaos/randomness does not completely illustrate the nature of flow turbulence. There is structure in the chaos! Another important characteristic of turbulence is the presence of multiple scales - small eddies and large eddiesMonday, July 23, 12
  16. much  thinner  than  a  human  hairMonday, July 23, 12
  17. much  thinner  than  a  human  hairMonday, July 23, 12
  18. much  thinner  than  a  human  hairMonday, July 23, 12
  19. Great Wave Katsushika Hokusai (ca 1700)Monday, July 23, 12
  20. Turbulence...the “beauty” The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to the disorderly motion of a crowd (turba). In the Middle Ages it was frequently used to mean just "trouble", a word which derives from it. Its scientific usage refers to irregular and seemingly chaotic motion of a fluid. But chaos/randomness does not completely illustrate the nature of flow turbulence. There is structure in the chaos! Another important characteristic of turbulence is the presence of multiple scales - small eddies and large eddiesMonday, July 23, 12
  21. Turbulence...the “beauty” The word turbulence (from the latin word turbulentia) originally refers to the disorderly motion of a crowd (turba). In the Middle Ages it was frequently used to mean just "trouble", a word which derives from it. Its scientific usage refers to irregular and seemingly chaotic motion of a fluid. But chaos/randomness does not completely illustrate the nature of flow turbulence. There is structure in the chaos! Another important characteristic of turbulence is the presence of multiple scales - small eddies and large eddies The inherent beauty of turbulent motion attracts artists, but it is its inherent complexity and ubiquitous presence that interests physicists, mathematicians and engineersMonday, July 23, 12
  22. Studying Turbulence Over five centuries ago Leonardo was probably the first to use the word turbulence (in Italian turbolenza) with its modern meaning and to observe the slow decay of eddies formed behind the pillars of a bridge.Monday, July 23, 12
  23. Studying Turbulence Leonardo da Vinci, Codex Atlanticus (ca 1500) areneg is auqcalled aznelobrut al euoD ohgulp eneitnam is aucalled aznelobrut al euoD asopiris auqcalled aznelobrut al euoDMonday, July 23, 12
  24. Studying Turbulence Leonardo da Vinci, Codex Atlanticus (ca 1500) areneg is auqcalled aznelobrut al euoD ohgulp eneitnam is aucalled aznelobrut al euoD asopiris auqcalled aznelobrut al euoD Doue la turbolenza dellacqua si genera Doue la turbolenza dellacua si mantiene plugho Doue la turbolenza dellacqua siriposaMonday, July 23, 12
  25. Studying Turbulence Leonardo da Vinci, Codex Atlanticus (ca 1500) areneg is auqcalled aznelobrut al euoD ohgulp eneitnam is aucalled aznelobrut al euoD asopiris auqcalled aznelobrut al euoD Doue la turbolenza dellacqua si genera Doue la turbolenza dellacua si mantiene plugho Doue la turbolenza dellacqua siriposa Where is the turbulence in the water generated? Where does the turbulence in the water persist for long time? Where does the turbulence in the water come to rest?Monday, July 23, 12
  26. Studying Turbulence The physics of turbulence has been studied extensively. using experiments. Euler, Navier, Stokes, and later Taylor, Kolmogorov and many others built the theoretical & mathematical foundations Leonhard Euler George Gabriel Stokes Geoffrey Taylor Andrei Kolmogorov 1700s 1800s 1900s 1900sMonday, July 23, 12
  27. Energy spectrum Energy Eddy SizeMonday, July 23, 12
  28. Energy spectrum Kolmogorov Theory -5/3 Energy Dissipation into heat Eddy SizeMonday, July 23, 12
  29. Energy spectrum Where is the turbulence in the water generated? Kolmogorov Theory -5/3 Energy Dissipation into heat Eddy SizeMonday, July 23, 12
  30. Energy spectrum Where is the turbulence in the water generated? Kolmogorov Theory -5/3 Energy Where does the turbulence in the water come to rest? Dissipation into heat Eddy SizeMonday, July 23, 12
  31. Energy spectrum Where is the turbulence in the water generated? Kolmogorov Theory -5/3 Energy Where does the turbulence in the water come to rest? Dissipation into heat Eddy SizeMonday, July 23, 12
  32. Center for Turbulence Research Prof. William C. Reynolds Prof. Joel H. Ferziger Prof. Parviz Moin 1987Monday, July 23, 12
  33. Computer Simulations @ CTR 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Monday, July 23, 12
  34. Computer Simulations @ CTR Illiac IV 64 CPUs, 15Mflops, $33M (1972) Turbulent Flow in a Channel 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Monday, July 23, 12
  35. Computer Simulations @ CTR Cray YMP Complex Flow 16CPUs, 1Gflops, $5M (1988) 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Monday, July 23, 12
  36. Computer Simulations @ CTR Cray YMP Complex Flow 16CPUs, 1Gflops, $5M (1988) 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Monday, July 23, 12
  37. Computer Simulations @ CTR ASCI White/IBM 8KCPUs, 5Tflops, $10M (2000) Turbulent Flames 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Monday, July 23, 12
  38. Computer Simulations @ CTR BGL-P 100KCPUs, 200Tflops, $70M (2005) End-to-End Aircraft Jet Engine 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010Monday, July 23, 12
  39. Computing Power Illiac IV BGL-P BGL-P 64 CPUs, 15Mflops, 100KCPUs, 200Tflops, $33M (1972) $70M (2005)Monday, July 23, 12
  40. Computing Power Illiac IV BGL-P BGL-P 64 CPUs, 15Mflops, 100KCPUs, 200Tflops, $33M (1972) $70M (2005) iphone 4 1CPU, 36Mflops, $200 (2010)Monday, July 23, 12
  41. Computing Power Illiac IV BGL-P BGL-P 64 CPUs, 15Mflops, 100KCPUs, 200Tflops, $33M (1972) $70M (2005) iphone 4 sequoia 1CPU, 36Mflops, 1.57MCPUs, 16.2Pflops, $200 (2010) $? (2012)Monday, July 23, 12
  42. Slow Down a Formula 1 Car John Axerio Cilies Quieting A Jet Joe Nichols A New Planet in 7 Days Gianluca IaccarinoMonday, July 23, 12
  43. A Project sponsored by Toyota Motor Corporation Motor Sport Division Slow Down a Formula 1 Car John Axerio CiliesMonday, July 23, 12
  44. A Project sponsored by Toyota Motor Corporation Motor Sport DivisionMonday, July 23, 12
  45. A Project sponsored by Toyota Motor Corporation Motor Sport Division Brake Cooling...Monday, July 23, 12
  46. • Brake pads are air cooled and temperature is controlled • Flow through the tire has an impact on the wake dynamics Flow in Flow outMonday, July 23, 12
  47. Monday, July 23, 12
  48. Monday, July 23, 12
  49. Monday, July 23, 12
  50. Through-­‐Hub  Flow  Passages Section view looking vertically upwards from contact patchMonday, July 23, 12
  51. Through-­‐Hub  Flow  Passages Section view looking vertically upwards from contact patchMonday, July 23, 12
  52. Impact  of  Through-­‐Hub  Flow   CI CII D A A BMonday, July 23, 12
  53. Impact  of  Through-­‐Hub  Flow   CI CII D A A B CIII A BMonday, July 23, 12
  54. Impact  of  Through-­‐Hub  Flow   CI CII D A A B CIII CIV A A BMonday, July 23, 12
  55. Experimental  ValidaBon  of  Through-­‐Hub  Flow 12%  decrease  in  drag  with  op3mal  choice  of  fairing!Monday, July 23, 12
  56. Baseline Design Drag Brake Cooling EfficiencyMonday, July 23, 12
  57. Design with Maximum Cooling Drag Brake Cooling EfficiencyMonday, July 23, 12
  58. Design with Minimum Drag Drag Brake Cooling EfficiencyMonday, July 23, 12
  59. Optimal Design Drag Brake Cooling EfficiencyMonday, July 23, 12
  60. Design using ComputationsMonday, July 23, 12
  61. Quieting A Jet Joe NicholsMonday, July 23, 12
  62. Monday, July 23, 12
  63. Rectangular  nozzles Baseline  (NA2Z) Chevron  (NA2C3) Design  taken  from  the  “Extensible  Rectangular  Nozzle   Model  System”  (Frate  &  Bridges,  2011) 2:1  aspect  ra3o,  matching  experiment  precisely  Monday, July 23, 12
  64. Flow  development  (Baseline) Preferen7al  spreading  along  minor  axis  (Zaman,  1996)Monday, July 23, 12
  65. Flow  development  (Chevrons)Monday, July 23, 12
  66.  Typical  supercomputer  usage One  liJle  square  =  128  processorsMonday, July 23, 12
  67. Full  system  run  (163,840  cores)Monday, July 23, 12
  68. Flow  and  noise  visualizaBon FWH FWH LES LES Baseline  (NA2Z) Chevrons  (NA2C3)Monday, July 23, 12
  69. Effect  of  chevrons Upstream Downstream baseline baseline chevrons chevrons Chevrons  have  two  (good)  effects  on  noise: 1.Reduc3on  of  shock-­‐associated  noise  (upstream) 2.Reduc3on  of  turbulent  mixing  noise  (downstream)  Monday, July 23, 12
  70. a new planet in 7 Days Alan Wray, Javier Jimenez, Parviz Moin, Ali Mani, Lee Shunn, Frank Ham, Gianluca IaccarinoMonday, July 23, 12
  71. BlueGene/L • DOE/IBM supercomputer at LLNL • Installation Year: 2005 • #1 on Top 500 list: 280 TFLOPS • Theoretical peak: 370 TFLOPS • Compute nodes: 65536 (131072 CPUs) • I/O nodes: 1024 • Memory: 32768 GBMonday, July 23, 12
  72. Keplerian turbulence • Protoplanetary disks need to be turbulent to form planets • Simplest model is rotating, sheared box of turbulence x2 Ω x1 x3Monday, July 23, 12
  73. Computations Simulations • Grid size: 8192x2048x2048 ~ 34 billion grid points • Ran on 65536 CPUs (half of the machine) • 10-20 Mhours/CPU • FFT transforms require large data (full volume) communication multiple times per time-step Data processing • Each saved data field: 384 GB • Inverse FFT on entire dataset must be performed to visualize solution in physical spaceMonday, July 23, 12
  74. Range of scalesMonday, July 23, 12
  75. Energy spectrum not all eddies are dying! Low-Ro (fast rotation)Monday, July 23, 12
  76. Conclusions • 7 days on BGL and still no planet • Now we know what to look for and whereMonday, July 23, 12
  77. Conclusions • 7 days on BGL and still no planet • Now we know what to look for and whereMonday, July 23, 12
  78. center for turbulence research Parviz Moin Gianluca Iaccarino Joe. W. Nichols John Axerio-Cilies Frank Ham Heinz Pitsch Marcus Herrmann Thank You Turbulence & Computing Beauty and the BeastMonday, July 23, 12

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