Green Engineering 101                     Michael Lepech                     Department of Civil and Environmental Enginee...
Our Environment2011 Stanford eDay      16 July 2011   © 2011
Our Behavior2011 Stanford eDay         16 July 2011   © 2011
Why do we do this?2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
Engineering a greener world•   Systems Modeling•   Flow Accounting•   Impact Assessment•   Valuation•   Guided Design•   E...
Engineering a greener world•   Systems Modeling•   Flow Accounting•   Impact Assessment•   Valuation•   Guided Design•   E...
Engineering a greener world•   Systems Modeling•   Flow Accounting•   Impact Assessment•   Valuation•   Guided Design•   E...
Engineering a greener world•   Systems Modeling•   Flow Accounting•   Impact Assessment•   Valuation•   Guided Design•   E...
Engineering a greener world•   Systems Modeling•   Flow Accounting•   Impact Assessment•   Valuation•   Guided Design•   E...
Engineering a greener world•   Systems Modeling•   Flow Accounting•   Impact Assessment•   Valuation•   Guided Design•   E...
Case Study2011 Stanford eDay        16 July 2011   © 2011
What does it take to make         chocolate chip cookies?•   Flour                                  • Eggs•   Baking Soda ...
What does it take to make        chocolate chip cookies?•   Flour                              • Eggs•   Baking Soda      ...
Sugar Production                                                                      Energy andSugar Production Video    ...
ISO 14040 Life Cycle Modeling                                         Raw Material                                        ...
Bill of Materials (Batch Recipe)•   Flour                                  2.25 cups•   Baking Soda                       ...
US Electricity Life Cycle Inventory                                       Kim. S. and Dale, B. (2005)   2011 Stanford eDay...
Environmental Footprint of a Batch (24)                                                   Baking Soda, Salt, VanillaEcoPoi...
Carbon Footprint of a Batch of Cookies                                  78g CO2-eq per cookie     2011 Stanford eDay   16 ...
Environmental Impact Flow                     One Chocolate Chip Cookie2011 Stanford eDay    16 July 2011               © ...
Environmental Impact Flow2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
ISO 14040 Life Cycle Modeling                                         Raw Material                                        ...
Environmental Footprint of a Batch (24)EcoPoints                                                                          ...
Carbon Footprint of a Batch of Cookies          310g CO2-eq per cookie     2011 Stanford eDay     16 July 2011   © 2011
Environmental Impact Flow                       One Chocolate Chip Cookie                                      US Energy  ...
Our First Design Conclusion…NO BAKE COOKIES! 2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
Design Challenge2011 Stanford eDay      16 July 2011   © 2011
Design Challenge• Designing a “green” no bake dessert…  – Design constraint    CO2-eq < 78g  – Must use one graham cracker...
Design Challenge• Designing a “green” no bake dessert…  – Parts list….     Item                                     Impact...
How do we use this at Stanford?  2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
Advanced Materials for Green Infrastructure                          ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composite)     2011 Stan...
Ductile Cement-based Materials                                  HPFRCC (ECC)                                             N...
Nanotailoring of Green ECC     •                   Increasing                                                             ...
ECC Link Slab Concept     Links two adjacent bridge      spans through continuous      deck     ECC material accommodate...
Life Cycle Model                         MOBILE6.2             NONROAD                  KyUCP                         Emis...
Detailed Impact Flow (CO2-eq)• Full life cycle model is comprehensive and detailed   – 203 nodes visible of 36 908       2...
Infrastructure Sustainability Indicators                              Total Primary Energy Consumption                    ...
Plastics from Waste Methane 2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
OFU Gimsøystraumen BridgeTotal span: 839 meters       Maximum clearance to the sea: 30 metersSpans: 9                     ...
Management Results                     CO2 Accrual                                              CO2 Impact Budget         ...
Targeting “Sustainability”• Target reductions to achieve a stabilized atmospheric carbon-  equivalent concentration of 490...
Design Challenge• Designing a “green” no bake dessert…  – Design constraint    CO2-eq < 78g  – Must use one graham cracker...
Final Thoughts…• We need to take better care of our  planet.• Engineers are a big part of that!  – Green design is a big p...
Thanks!                     Questions?                                    Michael D. Lepech                               ...
2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
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Green Engineering 101: Building a Sustainable Planet, Michael Lepech, Stanford Engineering

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Engineers are leading the push to create greener products that will help us meet current and future sustainability challenges. Stanford Engineering Professor Mike Lepech discusses the impact of green engineering on our planet and on our daily lives.

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Green Engineering 101: Building a Sustainable Planet, Michael Lepech, Stanford Engineering

  1. 1. Green Engineering 101 Michael Lepech Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Stanford University 2011 Stanford Engineering eDay 16 July 20112011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  2. 2. Our Environment2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  3. 3. Our Behavior2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  4. 4. Why do we do this?2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  5. 5. Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping• Final Assessment 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  6. 6. Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs• Final Assessment 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  7. 7. Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs• Final Assessment Impacts 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  8. 8. Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs• Final Assessment Value, $$$$$$ 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  9. 9. Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs• Final Assessment Value, $$$$$$ 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  10. 10. Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs• Final Assessment Impacts, Value, $$$$$$ 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  11. 11. Case Study2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  12. 12. What does it take to make chocolate chip cookies?• Flour • Eggs• Baking Soda • Chocolate Chips• Salt ?• Butter• Sugar (and Brown Sugar)• Vanilla 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  13. 13. What does it take to make chocolate chip cookies?• Flour • Eggs• Baking Soda • Chocolate Chips• Salt• Butter• Sugar (and Brown Sugar)• Vanilla 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  14. 14. Sugar Production Energy andSugar Production Video Materials Fields & Harvest Sugar Cane Transportation Bagging Refining Pressing Grinding 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  15. 15. ISO 14040 Life Cycle Modeling Raw Material Acquisition Air pollutants (e.g., Hg) Primary T Materials Water (e.g., ores, biotic Material T Manufacture resources) pollutants Processing & Assembly (e.g., BOD) Recycled Recycling Remanufacture Materials T Solid waste (e.g., MSW)(open loop recycling) Primary Retirement Use & Recovery T Energy Products (e.g., coal) (e.g., goods, services) T T Reuse Disposal Service Co-products (e.g., recyclables, energy) Center for Sustainable Systems (2003) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  16. 16. Bill of Materials (Batch Recipe)• Flour 2.25 cups• Baking Soda 1 teaspoon• Salt 1 teaspoon• Butter 1 cup (2 sticks)• Sugar (and Brown Sugar) 1.5 cups• Vanilla 1 teaspoon• Eggs 2• Chocolate Chips 2 cups 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  17. 17. US Electricity Life Cycle Inventory Kim. S. and Dale, B. (2005) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  18. 18. Environmental Footprint of a Batch (24) Baking Soda, Salt, VanillaEcoPoints Butter Chocolate Eggs Flour Sugar Greenhouse Gases Eutrophication Summer Smog Ozone Depletion Heavy Metals Winter Smog Acidification Carcinogens 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  19. 19. Carbon Footprint of a Batch of Cookies 78g CO2-eq per cookie 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  20. 20. Environmental Impact Flow One Chocolate Chip Cookie2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  21. 21. Environmental Impact Flow2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  22. 22. ISO 14040 Life Cycle Modeling Raw Material Acquisition Air pollutants (e.g., Hg) Primary T Materials Water (e.g., ores, biotic Material T Manufacture resources) pollutants Processing & Assembly (e.g., BOD) Recycled Recycling Remanufacture Materials T Solid waste (e.g., MSW)(open loop recycling) Primary Retirement Use & Recovery T Energy Products (e.g., coal) (e.g., goods, services) T T Reuse Disposal Service Co-products (e.g., recyclables, energy) Center for Sustainable Systems (2003) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  23. 23. Environmental Footprint of a Batch (24)EcoPoints Baking Baking Soda, Salt, Vanilla Butter Chocolate Eggs Trucking Flour Sugar Mixing Greenhouse Gases Eutrophication Summer Smog Ozone Depletion Heavy Metals Winter Smog Acidification Carcinogens 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  24. 24. Carbon Footprint of a Batch of Cookies 310g CO2-eq per cookie 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  25. 25. Environmental Impact Flow One Chocolate Chip Cookie US Energy Production2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  26. 26. Our First Design Conclusion…NO BAKE COOKIES! 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  27. 27. Design Challenge2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  28. 28. Design Challenge• Designing a “green” no bake dessert… – Design constraint CO2-eq < 78g – Must use one graham cracker and one spoon of frosting! 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  29. 29. Design Challenge• Designing a “green” no bake dessert… – Parts list…. Item Impact (g CO2-eq) Graham Cracker 25 Chocolate Frosting (1 spoon) 15 Vanilla Frosting (1 spoon) 13 Marshmallow 6 Chocolate Chips 1 Sprinkles (1 spoon) 5 Hershey Kiss 8 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  30. 30. How do we use this at Stanford? 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  31. 31. Advanced Materials for Green Infrastructure ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composite) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  32. 32. Ductile Cement-based Materials HPFRCC (ECC) Normal Fiber Reinforced Concrete Concrete w or 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  33. 33. Nanotailoring of Green ECC • Increasing Stress vs. Crack Opening Relation carbon content decreases 7 interfacial 6 friction Stress, s(MPa) 5 • Stress, (MPa) 40% reduction M45 in 4 21% complimentary 3 ` 13% energy 8% 2 Stress vs. Crack Opening Relation 1 Increasing Carbon Content 7 0 6 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04Stress, s(MPa) Stress, (%) 5 Crack Opening, m )(mm) Crack Opening, d (m M45 4 8% 3 14% 21% 2 1 0 L f / 2 cos 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Vf 1 Crack Opening, d (mm) ( ) P( , Le ) g ( ) p( ) p( z )dzd Af 0 z 0 Virgin PVA Fiber Nanocoated PVA 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  34. 34. ECC Link Slab Concept Links two adjacent bridge spans through continuous deck ECC material accommodates adjacent span deformations Combined flexural, axial, and environmental loads Shear Stud Deck Interface Continuous Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Shear Stud ECC Link Slab ECC Link Slab Deck Interface Concrete DeckDeck Concrete Concrete Railing Steel Beam Steel Beam Debonding PaperPaper Debonding Concrete Sidewalk 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  35. 35. Life Cycle Model MOBILE6.2 NONROAD KyUCP Emissions Emissions Traffic Flow Model Model Model EnvironmentalModel Parameters Sustainability Indicators - Resource Depletion User Input and System Life Cycle Assessment Model - Energy Use Definition - Global Warming Potential Life Cycle Cost ModelAgency Cost Factors Social Cost Factors- Construction Material - Agency Activity Emissions- Distribution - Vehicle Emissoins Agency Costs Social Costs- Construction (Labor & Equip) - Vehicle Operating Costs- End of Life Costs - User Delay Keoleian et al, Journal of Infrastructure Systems March 2005 51-60 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  36. 36. Detailed Impact Flow (CO2-eq)• Full life cycle model is comprehensive and detailed – 203 nodes visible of 36 908 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  37. 37. Infrastructure Sustainability Indicators Total Primary Energy Consumption • Total primary by Life Cycle Stage energy 90000 consumption is dominated by 80000 traffic-related energy 70000 60000 Gigajoules (GJ) EOL 50000 Distribution Materials 40000 Construction ΔTraffic 30000 20000 10000 0 Keoleian et al, Journal of ECC Conventional Infrastructure Systems March 2005 51-60 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  38. 38. Plastics from Waste Methane 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  39. 39. OFU Gimsøystraumen BridgeTotal span: 839 meters Maximum clearance to the sea: 30 metersSpans: 9 Opened in 1981Main span: 148 meters 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  40. 40. Management Results CO2 Accrual CO2 Impact Budget Environmental Impact Budgets2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  41. 41. Targeting “Sustainability”• Target reductions to achieve a stabilized atmospheric carbon- equivalent concentration of 490ppm -535ppm (Scenario II) by Year 2050 (Year 2000 baseline). IPCC AR4 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  42. 42. Design Challenge• Designing a “green” no bake dessert… – Design constraint CO2-eq < 78g – Must use one graham cracker and one spoon of frosting! 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  43. 43. Final Thoughts…• We need to take better care of our planet.• Engineers are a big part of that! – Green design is a big part of Stanford Engineering – Lots of ways to design “green” that respect the choices and values of many people 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  44. 44. Thanks! Questions? Michael D. Lepech mlepech@stanford.edu stanford.edu/~mlepech2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  45. 45. 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011

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