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Green Engineering 101

                     Michael Lepech
                     Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
                     Stanford University

                     2011 Stanford Engineering eDay

                     16 July 2011




2011 Stanford eDay               16 July 2011                            © 2011
Our Environment




2011 Stanford eDay      16 July 2011   © 2011
Our Behavior




2011 Stanford eDay         16 July 2011   © 2011
Why do we do this?




2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
Engineering a greener world
•   Systems Modeling
•   Flow Accounting
•   Impact Assessment
•   Valuation
•   Guided Design
•   Environmental Looping
•   Final Assessment



       2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
Engineering a greener world
•   Systems Modeling
•   Flow Accounting
•   Impact Assessment
•   Valuation
•   Guided Design
•   Environmental Looping
                                       Inputs   Outputs
•   Final Assessment



       2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011                  © 2011
Engineering a greener world
•   Systems Modeling
•   Flow Accounting
•   Impact Assessment
•   Valuation
•   Guided Design
•   Environmental Looping
                                       Inputs         Outputs
•   Final Assessment
                                                Impacts


       2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011                        © 2011
Engineering a greener world
•   Systems Modeling
•   Flow Accounting
•   Impact Assessment
•   Valuation
•   Guided Design
•   Environmental Looping
                                       Inputs       Outputs
•   Final Assessment
                                           Value, $$$$$$


       2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011                      © 2011
Engineering a greener world
•   Systems Modeling
•   Flow Accounting
•   Impact Assessment
•   Valuation
•   Guided Design
•   Environmental Looping
                                       Inputs       Outputs
•   Final Assessment
                                           Value, $$$$$$


       2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011                      © 2011
Engineering a greener world
•   Systems Modeling
•   Flow Accounting
•   Impact Assessment
•   Valuation
•   Guided Design
•   Environmental Looping
                                       Inputs       Outputs
•   Final Assessment
                                      Impacts, Value, $$$$$$


       2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011                       © 2011
Case Study




2011 Stanford eDay        16 July 2011   © 2011
What does it take to make
         chocolate chip cookies?
•   Flour                                  • Eggs
•   Baking Soda                            • Chocolate Chips
•   Salt                    ?
•   Butter
•   Sugar (and Brown Sugar)
•   Vanilla
       2011 Stanford eDay       16 July 2011                   © 2011
What does it take to make
        chocolate chip cookies?
•   Flour                              • Eggs
•   Baking Soda                        • Chocolate Chips
•   Salt
•   Butter
•   Sugar (and Brown Sugar)
•   Vanilla
       2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011                   © 2011
Sugar Production
                                                                      Energy and
Sugar Production Video
                                                                       Materials




 Fields & Harvest             Sugar Cane             Transportation




 Bagging                     Refining           Pressing               Grinding


        2011 Stanford eDay                 16 July 2011                           © 2011
ISO 14040 Life Cycle Modeling
                                         Raw Material
                                         Acquisition
                                                                                                Air pollutants
                                                                                                       (e.g., Hg)

   Primary                                          T
   Materials                                                                                         Water
  (e.g., ores, biotic
                                              Material
                                                          T    Manufacture
     resources)                                                                                    pollutants
                                             Processing        & Assembly                             (e.g., BOD)
  Recycled                          Recycling      Remanufacture
  Materials                                                               T                     Solid waste
                                                                                                    (e.g., MSW)
(open loop recycling)

    Primary                                  Retirement
                                                                    Use
                                             & Recovery   T
    Energy                                                                                         Products
     (e.g., coal)                                                                              (e.g., goods, services)
                                                    T                 T       Reuse


                                              Disposal             Service
                                                                                                Co-products
                                                                                             (e.g., recyclables, energy)



                                                                                      Center for Sustainable Systems (2003)

                        2011 Stanford eDay                     16 July 2011                                         © 2011
Bill of Materials (Batch Recipe)
•   Flour                                  2.25 cups
•   Baking Soda                            1 teaspoon
•   Salt                                   1 teaspoon
•   Butter                                 1 cup (2 sticks)
•   Sugar (and Brown Sugar)                1.5 cups
•   Vanilla                                1 teaspoon
•   Eggs                                   2
•   Chocolate Chips                        2 cups

       2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011                      © 2011
US Electricity Life Cycle Inventory




                                       Kim. S. and Dale, B. (2005)

   2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011                        © 2011
Environmental Footprint of a Batch (24)

                                                   Baking Soda, Salt, Vanilla
EcoPoints




                           Butter
                                    Chocolate


                                                Eggs
            Flour                                          Sugar

            Greenhouse Gases              Eutrophication           Summer Smog
            Ozone Depletion               Heavy Metals             Winter Smog
            Acidification                 Carcinogens

             2011 Stanford eDay             16 July 2011                         © 2011
Carbon Footprint of a Batch of Cookies

                                  78g CO2-eq per cookie




     2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011                    © 2011
Environmental Impact Flow
                     One Chocolate Chip Cookie




2011 Stanford eDay    16 July 2011               © 2011
Environmental Impact Flow




2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
ISO 14040 Life Cycle Modeling
                                         Raw Material
                                         Acquisition
                                                                                                Air pollutants
                                                                                                       (e.g., Hg)

   Primary                                          T
   Materials                                                                                         Water
  (e.g., ores, biotic
                                              Material
                                                          T    Manufacture
     resources)                                                                                    pollutants
                                             Processing        & Assembly                             (e.g., BOD)
  Recycled                          Recycling      Remanufacture
  Materials                                                               T                     Solid waste
                                                                                                    (e.g., MSW)
(open loop recycling)

    Primary                                  Retirement
                                                                    Use
                                             & Recovery   T
    Energy                                                                                         Products
     (e.g., coal)                                                                              (e.g., goods, services)
                                                    T                 T       Reuse


                                              Disposal             Service
                                                                                                Co-products
                                                                                             (e.g., recyclables, energy)



                                                                                      Center for Sustainable Systems (2003)

                        2011 Stanford eDay                     16 July 2011                                         © 2011
Environmental Footprint of a Batch (24)
EcoPoints




                                                                          Baking
                                    Baking Soda, Salt, Vanilla


               Butter           Chocolate

                                      Eggs                         Trucking
            Flour                            Sugar             Mixing
              Greenhouse Gases                Eutrophication             Summer Smog
              Ozone Depletion                 Heavy Metals               Winter Smog
              Acidification                   Carcinogens

               2011 Stanford eDay               16 July 2011                           © 2011
Carbon Footprint of a Batch of Cookies
          310g CO2-eq per cookie




     2011 Stanford eDay     16 July 2011   © 2011
Environmental Impact Flow
                       One Chocolate Chip Cookie




                                      US Energy
                                      Production




2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011              © 2011
Our First Design Conclusion…

NO BAKE COOKIES!




 2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
Design Challenge




2011 Stanford eDay      16 July 2011   © 2011
Design Challenge
• Designing a “green” no bake dessert…
  – Design constraint



    CO2-eq < 78g
  – Must use one graham cracker and one spoon of
    frosting!

     2011 Stanford eDay      16 July 2011          © 2011
Design Challenge
• Designing a “green” no bake dessert…
  – Parts list….
     Item                                     Impact (g CO2-eq)

     Graham Cracker                           25
     Chocolate Frosting (1 spoon)             15
     Vanilla Frosting (1 spoon)               13
     Marshmallow                              6
     Chocolate Chips                          1
     Sprinkles (1 spoon)                      5
     Hershey Kiss                             8

      2011 Stanford eDay       16 July 2011                       © 2011
How do we use this at Stanford?




  2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
Advanced Materials for Green Infrastructure
                          ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composite)




     2011 Stanford eDay               16 July 2011             © 2011
Ductile Cement-based Materials

                                  HPFRCC (ECC)




                                             Normal Fiber
                                          Reinforced Concrete




                       Concrete


                                                                w or
  2011 Stanford eDay                      16 July 2011                 © 2011
Nanotailoring of Green ECC
     •                   Increasing                                                                Stress vs. Crack Opening Relation
                         carbon content
                         decreases                                                 7
                         interfacial                                               6
                         friction

                                                                Stress, s(MPa)
                                                                                   5
     •
                                                                   Stress, (MPa)
                         40% reduction                                                                                                                      M45
                         in                                                        4                                                                        21%
                         complimentary                                             3                                     `                                  13%
                         energy                                                                                                                             8%
                                                                                   2

                             Stress vs. Crack Opening Relation
                                                                                   1               Increasing Carbon Content
                 7
                                                                                   0
                 6                                                                      0          0.01           0.02                0.03       0.04
Stress, s(MPa)
   Stress, (%)




                 5
                                                                                                          Crack Opening, m )(mm)
                                                                                                          Crack Opening, d (m
                                                                                             M45
                 4                                                                           8%
                 3                                                                           14%
                                                                                             21%
                 2

                 1

                 0
                                                                                                                             L f / 2 cos
                     0      0.1      0.2        0.3       0.4                          0.5
                                                                                                                    Vf   1
                                  Crack Opening, d (mm)
                                                                                                            ( )                     P( , Le ) g ( ) p( ) p( z )dzd
                                                                                                                    Af   0      z 0
                                       Virgin PVA Fiber                                                            Nanocoated PVA
                                  2011 Stanford eDay                                                      16 July 2011                                            © 2011
ECC Link Slab Concept
     Links two adjacent bridge
      spans through continuous
      deck
     ECC material accommodates
      adjacent span deformations
     Combined flexural, axial, and
      environmental loads

                                       Shear Stud                       Deck Interface
    Continuous Reinforcement
          Continuous Reinforcement     Shear Stud    ECC Link Slab
                                                     ECC Link Slab       Deck Interface   Concrete DeckDeck
                                                                                          Concrete




                    Concrete Railing    Steel Beam
                                        Steel Beam        Debonding PaperPaper
                                                          Debonding                Concrete Sidewalk



              2011 Stanford eDay                         16 July 2011                                         © 2011
Life Cycle Model

                         MOBILE6.2             NONROAD                  KyUCP
                         Emissions             Emissions              Traffic Flow
                           Model                 Model                   Model

                                                                                       Environmental
Model Parameters                                                                       Sustainability Indicators
                                                                                       - Resource Depletion
 User Input and System                Life Cycle Assessment Model                      - Energy Use
        Definition
                                                                                       - Global Warming Potential


                                         Life Cycle Cost Model

Agency Cost Factors                                                                    Social Cost Factors
- Construction Material                                                                - Agency Activity Emissions
- Distribution                                                                         - Vehicle Emissoins
                                      Agency Costs    Social Costs
- Construction (Labor & Equip)                                                         - Vehicle Operating Costs
- End of Life Costs                                                                    - User Delay




                                                            Keoleian et al, Journal of Infrastructure Systems March 2005 51-60


                 2011 Stanford eDay                  16 July 2011                                                      © 2011
Detailed Impact Flow (CO2-eq)




• Full life cycle model is comprehensive and detailed
   – 203 nodes visible of 36 908

       2011 Stanford eDay      16 July 2011             © 2011
Infrastructure Sustainability Indicators
                              Total Primary Energy Consumption                                 • Total primary
                                      by Life Cycle Stage                                        energy
                   90000                                                                         consumption is
                                                                                                 dominated by
                   80000                                                                         traffic-related
                                                                                                 energy
                   70000

                   60000
 Gigajoules (GJ)




                                                                                EOL
                   50000                                                        Distribution
                                                                                Materials
                   40000                                                        Construction
                                                                                ΔTraffic
                   30000

                   20000

                   10000

                       0
                                                                                                     Keoleian et al, Journal of
                                    ECC           Conventional                                       Infrastructure Systems
                                                                                                     March 2005 51-60


                           2011 Stanford eDay                    16 July 2011                                           © 2011
Plastics from Waste Methane




 2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011
OFU Gimsøystraumen Bridge




Total span: 839 meters       Maximum clearance to the sea: 30 meters
Spans: 9                     Opened in 1981
Main span: 148 meters

        2011 Stanford eDay       16 July 2011                          © 2011
Management Results

                     CO2 Accrual

                                              CO2 Impact Budget

                                     Environmental Impact
                                     Budgets




2011 Stanford eDay                 16 July 2011                   © 2011
Targeting “Sustainability”




• Target reductions to achieve a stabilized atmospheric carbon-
  equivalent concentration of 490ppm -535ppm (Scenario II) by
  Year 2050 (Year 2000 baseline).
                                                             IPCC AR4

       2011 Stanford eDay        16 July 2011                     © 2011
Design Challenge
• Designing a “green” no bake dessert…
  – Design constraint



    CO2-eq < 78g
  – Must use one graham cracker and
   one spoon of frosting!
     2011 Stanford eDay      16 July 2011   © 2011
Final Thoughts…
• We need to take better care of our
  planet.
• Engineers are a big part of that!
  – Green design is a big part of Stanford
    Engineering
  – Lots of ways to design “green” that respect
    the choices and values of many people



     2011 Stanford eDay       16 July 2011        © 2011
Thanks!

                     Questions?

                                    Michael D. Lepech
                                    mlepech@stanford.edu
                                    stanford.edu/~mlepech


2011 Stanford eDay        16 July 2011                      © 2011
2011 Stanford eDay   16 July 2011   © 2011

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Green Engineering 101: Building a Sustainable Planet, Michael Lepech, Stanford Engineering

  • 1. Green Engineering 101 Michael Lepech Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Stanford University 2011 Stanford Engineering eDay 16 July 2011 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 2. Our Environment 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 3. Our Behavior 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 4. Why do we do this? 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 5. Engineering a greener world • Systems Modeling • Flow Accounting • Impact Assessment • Valuation • Guided Design • Environmental Looping • Final Assessment 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 6. Engineering a greener world • Systems Modeling • Flow Accounting • Impact Assessment • Valuation • Guided Design • Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs • Final Assessment 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 7. Engineering a greener world • Systems Modeling • Flow Accounting • Impact Assessment • Valuation • Guided Design • Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs • Final Assessment Impacts 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 8. Engineering a greener world • Systems Modeling • Flow Accounting • Impact Assessment • Valuation • Guided Design • Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs • Final Assessment Value, $$$$$$ 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 9. Engineering a greener world • Systems Modeling • Flow Accounting • Impact Assessment • Valuation • Guided Design • Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs • Final Assessment Value, $$$$$$ 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 10. Engineering a greener world • Systems Modeling • Flow Accounting • Impact Assessment • Valuation • Guided Design • Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs • Final Assessment Impacts, Value, $$$$$$ 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 11. Case Study 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 12. What does it take to make chocolate chip cookies? • Flour • Eggs • Baking Soda • Chocolate Chips • Salt ? • Butter • Sugar (and Brown Sugar) • Vanilla 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 13. What does it take to make chocolate chip cookies? • Flour • Eggs • Baking Soda • Chocolate Chips • Salt • Butter • Sugar (and Brown Sugar) • Vanilla 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 14. Sugar Production Energy and Sugar Production Video Materials Fields & Harvest Sugar Cane Transportation Bagging Refining Pressing Grinding 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 15. ISO 14040 Life Cycle Modeling Raw Material Acquisition Air pollutants (e.g., Hg) Primary T Materials Water (e.g., ores, biotic Material T Manufacture resources) pollutants Processing & Assembly (e.g., BOD) Recycled Recycling Remanufacture Materials T Solid waste (e.g., MSW) (open loop recycling) Primary Retirement Use & Recovery T Energy Products (e.g., coal) (e.g., goods, services) T T Reuse Disposal Service Co-products (e.g., recyclables, energy) Center for Sustainable Systems (2003) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 16. Bill of Materials (Batch Recipe) • Flour 2.25 cups • Baking Soda 1 teaspoon • Salt 1 teaspoon • Butter 1 cup (2 sticks) • Sugar (and Brown Sugar) 1.5 cups • Vanilla 1 teaspoon • Eggs 2 • Chocolate Chips 2 cups 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 17. US Electricity Life Cycle Inventory Kim. S. and Dale, B. (2005) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 18. Environmental Footprint of a Batch (24) Baking Soda, Salt, Vanilla EcoPoints Butter Chocolate Eggs Flour Sugar Greenhouse Gases Eutrophication Summer Smog Ozone Depletion Heavy Metals Winter Smog Acidification Carcinogens 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 19. Carbon Footprint of a Batch of Cookies 78g CO2-eq per cookie 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 20. Environmental Impact Flow One Chocolate Chip Cookie 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 21. Environmental Impact Flow 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 22. ISO 14040 Life Cycle Modeling Raw Material Acquisition Air pollutants (e.g., Hg) Primary T Materials Water (e.g., ores, biotic Material T Manufacture resources) pollutants Processing & Assembly (e.g., BOD) Recycled Recycling Remanufacture Materials T Solid waste (e.g., MSW) (open loop recycling) Primary Retirement Use & Recovery T Energy Products (e.g., coal) (e.g., goods, services) T T Reuse Disposal Service Co-products (e.g., recyclables, energy) Center for Sustainable Systems (2003) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 23. Environmental Footprint of a Batch (24) EcoPoints Baking Baking Soda, Salt, Vanilla Butter Chocolate Eggs Trucking Flour Sugar Mixing Greenhouse Gases Eutrophication Summer Smog Ozone Depletion Heavy Metals Winter Smog Acidification Carcinogens 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 24. Carbon Footprint of a Batch of Cookies 310g CO2-eq per cookie 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 25. Environmental Impact Flow One Chocolate Chip Cookie US Energy Production 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 26. Our First Design Conclusion… NO BAKE COOKIES! 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 27. Design Challenge 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 28. Design Challenge • Designing a “green” no bake dessert… – Design constraint CO2-eq < 78g – Must use one graham cracker and one spoon of frosting! 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 29. Design Challenge • Designing a “green” no bake dessert… – Parts list…. Item Impact (g CO2-eq) Graham Cracker 25 Chocolate Frosting (1 spoon) 15 Vanilla Frosting (1 spoon) 13 Marshmallow 6 Chocolate Chips 1 Sprinkles (1 spoon) 5 Hershey Kiss 8 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 30. How do we use this at Stanford? 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 31. Advanced Materials for Green Infrastructure ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composite) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 32. Ductile Cement-based Materials HPFRCC (ECC) Normal Fiber Reinforced Concrete Concrete w or 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 33. Nanotailoring of Green ECC • Increasing Stress vs. Crack Opening Relation carbon content decreases 7 interfacial 6 friction Stress, s(MPa) 5 • Stress, (MPa) 40% reduction M45 in 4 21% complimentary 3 ` 13% energy 8% 2 Stress vs. Crack Opening Relation 1 Increasing Carbon Content 7 0 6 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 Stress, s(MPa) Stress, (%) 5 Crack Opening, m )(mm) Crack Opening, d (m M45 4 8% 3 14% 21% 2 1 0 L f / 2 cos 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Vf 1 Crack Opening, d (mm) ( ) P( , Le ) g ( ) p( ) p( z )dzd Af 0 z 0 Virgin PVA Fiber Nanocoated PVA 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 34. ECC Link Slab Concept  Links two adjacent bridge spans through continuous deck  ECC material accommodates adjacent span deformations  Combined flexural, axial, and environmental loads Shear Stud Deck Interface Continuous Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Shear Stud ECC Link Slab ECC Link Slab Deck Interface Concrete DeckDeck Concrete Concrete Railing Steel Beam Steel Beam Debonding PaperPaper Debonding Concrete Sidewalk 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 35. Life Cycle Model MOBILE6.2 NONROAD KyUCP Emissions Emissions Traffic Flow Model Model Model Environmental Model Parameters Sustainability Indicators - Resource Depletion User Input and System Life Cycle Assessment Model - Energy Use Definition - Global Warming Potential Life Cycle Cost Model Agency Cost Factors Social Cost Factors - Construction Material - Agency Activity Emissions - Distribution - Vehicle Emissoins Agency Costs Social Costs - Construction (Labor & Equip) - Vehicle Operating Costs - End of Life Costs - User Delay Keoleian et al, Journal of Infrastructure Systems March 2005 51-60 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 36. Detailed Impact Flow (CO2-eq) • Full life cycle model is comprehensive and detailed – 203 nodes visible of 36 908 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 37. Infrastructure Sustainability Indicators Total Primary Energy Consumption • Total primary by Life Cycle Stage energy 90000 consumption is dominated by 80000 traffic-related energy 70000 60000 Gigajoules (GJ) EOL 50000 Distribution Materials 40000 Construction ΔTraffic 30000 20000 10000 0 Keoleian et al, Journal of ECC Conventional Infrastructure Systems March 2005 51-60 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 38. Plastics from Waste Methane 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 39. OFU Gimsøystraumen Bridge Total span: 839 meters Maximum clearance to the sea: 30 meters Spans: 9 Opened in 1981 Main span: 148 meters 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 40. Management Results CO2 Accrual CO2 Impact Budget Environmental Impact Budgets 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 41. Targeting “Sustainability” • Target reductions to achieve a stabilized atmospheric carbon- equivalent concentration of 490ppm -535ppm (Scenario II) by Year 2050 (Year 2000 baseline). IPCC AR4 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 42. Design Challenge • Designing a “green” no bake dessert… – Design constraint CO2-eq < 78g – Must use one graham cracker and one spoon of frosting! 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 43. Final Thoughts… • We need to take better care of our planet. • Engineers are a big part of that! – Green design is a big part of Stanford Engineering – Lots of ways to design “green” that respect the choices and values of many people 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 44. Thanks! Questions? Michael D. Lepech mlepech@stanford.edu stanford.edu/~mlepech 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
  • 45. 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011