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Lights, Nano, Action! - Assistant Professor Jennifer Dionne

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Professor Dionne explores the unique and enabling properties of nano-sized materials, with applications ranging from highly efficient solar-renewable technologies to optical computers and cloaks of invisibility.

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Lights, Nano, Action! - Assistant Professor Jennifer Dionne

  1. 1. Lights, Nano, Action! Nano-optics for efficient solar cells, cancer treatments, and invisibility cloaksProf. Jen DionneMaterials Science & Engineering
  2. 2. 930,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 meters (9.3x1026 meters)Size of universe
  3. 3. 150,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 meters (1.5x1023 meters)Virgo supercluster
  4. 4. 1,200,000,000,000,000,000,000 meters (1.2x1021 meters)Milky Way
  5. 5. 5,900,000,000,000 meters (5.9x1012 meters)Solar System (Pluto to Sun)
  6. 6. 13,000,000 meters (1.3x107 meters)Earth
  7. 7. 8,800 meters tall (8.8x103 meters)Mount Everest
  8. 8. 3,000 meters (3x103 meters)Stanford Linear Accelerator
  9. 9. 110 meters tall (1.1x102 meters)Redwood tree
  10. 10. 1.7 meters tall 1.0 metersHuman
  11. 11. 0.055 meters (5.5x10-2 meters = 5.5 centimeters)Chicken Egg
  12. 12. 0.0044 meters (4.4x10-3 meters = 4.4 millimeters)Ant
  13. 13. 0.00005 meters (5x10-5 meters = 50 micrometers)Pollen grain
  14. 14. 0.000007 meters (7x10-6 meters = 7 micrometers)Red Blood Cell
  15. 15. 0.000000009 meters (90x10-9 meters = 90 nanometers)Virus
  16. 16. 0.0000000002 meters (2x10-9 meters = 2 nanometers)Nanoparticle
  17. 17. Electronics & Photonics Biomaterials Samsung Solar Cells & Batteries Profs. Heilshorn & Melosh Catalysis Materials Science & Profs. Cui, McGehee, Brongersma Engineering
  18. 18. Nano: (not to scale)
  19. 19. What I wanted to be when I grew up:
  20. 20. What I wanted to be when I grew up: 1. A skating magician
  21. 21. What I wanted to be when I grew up: 1. A skating magician 2. A Hollywood star
  22. 22. What I wanted to be when I grew up: 1. A skating magician 2. A Hollywood star3. A paranormal researcher
  23. 23. 1 nanometer 1 micrometer 1 meter400 nanometers (nm) 700 nanometers (nm)
  24. 24. 1 μm=100nm
  25. 25. Compared to bulk materials, nanomaterials have very different properties Bulk silver Silver nanoparticles (~10-100 nm diameter)
  26. 26. Compared to bulk materials, nanomaterials have very different properties 2 nmCdS („cadmium yellow‟) CdS nanocrystal
  27. 27. http://personal.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/D.Cox/page2/files/page2-1025-full.htmlhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CApUXcPKX90&feature=player_embedded
  28. 28. The Impact of Nano Weight: 0.5g (0.001 lbs) 2010 Cost: $100 - $150 (32 GB) Size: 11mm x 15mm x 1mm (size of a dime) 1980(20 GB) 1 TB hard Baby grand Ford F-150 drive (~3 lbs) piano (~600 lbs) (~4500 lbs)
  29. 29. The Impact of Nano Weight: 0.5g (0.001 lbs) 2010 Cost: $100 - $150 (32 GB) Size: 11mm x 15mm x 1mm (size of a dime) 1980(20 GB) Ford F-150 McLauren F1 Paul Allen’s yacht (~$30,000) (~$970,000) (~$100 million)
  30. 30. The Impact of Nano Weight: 0.5g (0.001 lbs) 2010 Cost: $100 - $150 (32 GB) Size: 11mm x 15mm x 1mm (size of a dime) Weight: 2,000,000 g (4400lbs) 1980 Cost: $648,000 - $1,137,600(20 GB) Size: 70’’ x 44’’ x 32’’ (for each 2.5 GB cabinet)
  31. 31. 1 μm1947: the first transistor Today: Intel quad core i7 processor (~8 billion transistors)
  32. 32. Tomorrow: Chip-sized supercomputers with optical computing IBM’s CMOS Integrated Silicon Nanophotonics Chip
  33. 33. William Adams and Richard Day – the first solar cell (Se, 1876) (below: The first solar powered battery at Bell labs, 1954)
  34. 34. Nanorod array solar cell, from Plass, Filler, et al., Advanced Materials 2009
  35. 35. Nanomaterials also enable more light absorption in solar cells • Sunlight outside of the visible frequency range is Solar cell usually poorly absorbed by solar cells 30-50% of sun‟s energy cannot be absorbed5 % Ultraviolet 43 % Visible 52 % Infrared
  36. 36. Nanomaterials also enable more light absorption in solar cells Solar cell Solar cell Insulator Upconverter 30-50% of sun‟s energy Utilize low-energy cannot be absorbed transmitted photons5 % Ultraviolet 43 % Visible 52 % Infrared
  37. 37. Cell efficiency (%) With upconverter 44 30 Solar cell 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Solar Cell bandgap (eV)
  38. 38. Cancer therapy with nanoparticles
  39. 39. Cancer therapy with nanoparticles Y. Xia, Acc. Chem. Res 44 (2011)
  40. 40. Cancer therapy with nanoparticles Atwater, “The Power of Plasmonics,” Scientific American
  41. 41. Cloaks of Invisibility Smith, Pendry, Schurig (2007)
  42. 42. Cloaks of Invisibility and Perfect Lenses object image Z. Xhang AFM Image of Pentacene (1.4 nm long), Science 2009, IBM Zurich Smith, Pendry, Schurig (2007)
  43. 43. Dolling, Optics Express 14 (2006)
  44. 44. Negative Refractive Index Materials Dolling, Optics Express 14 (2006)
  45. 45. http://spie.org/x34206.xml?ArticleID=x34206
  46. 46. http://spie.org/x34206.xml?ArticleID=x34206
  47. 47. http://spie.org/x34206.xml?ArticleID=x34206
  48. 48. Engineering challenges for your generation oHighly efficient, cost effective solar cells o Improved battery technology o Environmental materials engineering (e.g., water purification) oAdvanced computing (optical computing, spin computing) oImaging and visualization (display technology) o Biomaterials for medical imaging and therapeutics “What the world does in the coming decade will have enormous consequences that will last for centuries. It is imperative that we begin without further delay.” – Steve Chu
  49. 49. How to be a successful engineer: 1. Stay curious Julian Wever
  50. 50. How to be a successful engineer: 1. Stay curious 2. Help others
  51. 51. How to be a successful engineer: 1. Stay curious 2. Keep an open mind 3. Have fun
  52. 52. “Work hard, be kind, and amazing things will happen.” (Conan O‟Brien)
  53. 53. What I learned about in later years:Show me your achievement - and theknowledge will give me courage for mine (AnnRand) – the importance of good mentorsThe time is always right to do the right thing(MLK)Work hard, be kind, and amazing things willhappen. (Colbert)
  54. 54. What I wanted to be when I grew up: 1. A skating magician 2. A Hollywood star
  55. 55. The Dionne Group: We are a team ofundergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral researchers exploring new nanomaterials with properties that ‘go beyond’ naturally- occurring materials
  56. 56. s.com/forum/viewtopi9ef6c0d9f22326a1eca http://www.nisenet.org/catalog/assets/scien tific-images/blue-morpho-butterfly http://thefu incredible-
  57. 57. 4,200,000 meters (4.2x106 meters)United States
  58. 58. 4th Century AD: Lycurgus Cup
  59. 59. 4th Century AD: Lycurgus Cup
  60. 60. Electronics & Photonics Biomaterials Samsung Solar Cells & Batteries Catalysis 4th Century AD: Lycurgus Cup

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