SCP Presentation. base


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SCP Presentation. base

  1. 1. Coaching Under PressureStress factors in coaching, from elite to collegiate.
  2. 2. Burnout Coaching under stressful conditions can lead to burnout. 35% of coaches in USA Swimming stop coaching each year (Raedeke, 2004) In world class sport, coaching is a stressful job, many studies look at the increasing amount of stress associated with elite sports coaching. Most coaches that are vulnerable to burnout and stress leave the profession before reaching the elite level (Hjalm et. Al, 2007)
  3. 3. Stressors In an ever changing environment, which is often results orientated, coaches are exposed to many pressures. Whatever else changes, coaches and coaching will remain at the heart of sporting performance at every level.(UK Vision of Coaching, n.d., p.2) In one study of UK sports coaches at a world class level, the main stressors identified included Conflict, Pressure and Expectation, managing the competitive environment, athlete concerns, and sacrifice of personal time.
  4. 4. Stressors These were broken down into lower order themes, such as management cohesion (lack of communication with management), interference (from outside influences, parents), Self-imposed pressures, and outcome pressure sourced from a growing “Blame the Coach” culture (Olusoga et. Al, 2009) A coach must perform many roles for an athlete, they can be called on to be a mentor, counsellor, assessor, instructor, educator and a friend (Lyle, 2002)
  5. 5. Stressors Most literature regarding athlete stress cites coaches as stressors to athletes, but the findings of this study by Olusoga et al, suggests that the relationship between the coach-athlete is mutually stressful for both parties. „Chaotic Lifestyle‟ – travelling, long and undefined hours cited as causes of stress in coaches (Surujlal, J. & Nguyen, S., 2011)
  6. 6. Burnout It appears that some coaches are either not prepared psychologically to handle defeat, or that the demands of handling such a defeat are a source of burnout (Hjalm et. Al, 2007) This brings up the necessity for support for coaches, and development of strategies to cope with stress.
  7. 7. Coping Strategies In a study of South African soccer coaches (Surujlal, J. & Nguyen, S., 2011) the coping strategies employed were Maladaptive (5.68% of sample), Emotion Management (51.47% of coaches), and Problem Management (most coaches) This study also suggested that stress management and the considerations of resources should be allocated to match the level of responsibilities, to nurture and maintain a healthy workforce.
  8. 8. Preventing Burnout It is believed that early education on coping strategies will provide the correct tools to reduce the occurrence of burnout. If methods of managing stress and problem-solving are integrated into their formal education as coaches, there is less chance of burnout as they are able to deal with their stressors without it taking a high toll on them individually.
  9. 9. References Fletcher, D. and M. Scott (2010). "Psychological stress in sports coaches : A review of concepts, research, and practice." Journal of Sports Sciences28(2): 127-137. Hjalm, S., G. Kentta, et al. (2007). "Burnout among elite soccer coaches." Journal of Sport Behavior30(4): 415-428. Lyle, J. (2002). Sports coaching concepts: A framework for coaches‟ behaviours. London: Routledge. Olusoga, P., J. Butt, et al. (2009). "Stress in Elite Sports Coaching: Identifying Stressors." Journal of Applied Sport Psychology21: 442-459. Olusoga, P., I. Maynard, et al. (2011). "Coaching under pressure: A study of Olympic coaches." Journal of Sports Sciences30(3): 229-239. Raedeke, T. D. (2004). "Coach Committment and Burnout: A One-Year Follow-Up." Journal of Applied Sport Psychology16: 333-349. Surujlal, J. & Nguyen, S., 2011, „Coping under pressure: Strategies for maintaining confidence amongst South African soccer coaches‟, Health SA Gesondheid 16(1), Art. #537, 7 pages. doi:10.4102/ hsag.v16i1.537