Outreach Magazine Day 6


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Outreach Magazine Day 6

  1. 1. inside: Sustainable Energy for All: A civil society perspective Hong Kong, China & nuclear development: Implications from Fukushima a multi-stakeholder magazine on climate change and sustainable development out reach. 30 April 2012www.stakeholderforum.org/sf/outreach/ pic: Derek Purdy
  2. 2. contents. 1 Sustainable Energy for All. What the developed world needs to do. 2 Hong Kong, China and nuclear development: Implications from Fukushima 3 Sustainable Energy for All: A civil society perspective 2 National implementation of the Rio conclusions: 4 The role of National Sustainable Development Councils Rio+20 can and should deliver concrete commitments 5 on fossil fuel subsidy reform 6 Sustainable Energy for All Civil Society Statement Stakeholder Forum announces appointment of new Executive Director 8 Future Africa: Prospects for Democracy and Development under NEPAD 3 9 Rio+20: Setting out a shared vision on clean energy access 10 Sustainable energy for whom? 11 Japan’s eco renewal 13 Rio+20 Side Event Calendar 6 14 Reflections on the negotiations pic: John Moore OUTREACH IS PUBLISHED BY: Outreach is a multi-stakeholder publication on OUTREACH EDITORIAL TEAM climate change and sustainable development. It is the longest continually produced Editorial Advisors Felix Dodds Stakeholder Forum stakeholder magazine in the sustainable development arena, published at various Farooq Ullah Stakeholder Forum international meetings on the environment; Editor Georgie Macdonald Stakeholder Forum including the UNCSD meetings (since 1997), UNEP Governing Council, UNFCCC Conference Co-editor Amy Cutter Stakeholder Forum of the Parties (COP) and World Water Week. Editorial Assistant Jack Cornforth Stakeholder Forum Published as a daily edition, in both print and web form, Outreach provides a vehicle Print Designer Jessica Wolf Jessica Wolf Design for critical analysis on key thematic topics in Web Designer Thomas Harrisson Stakeholder Forum the sustainability arena, as well as a voice of regional and local governments, women, Web Designer Matthew Reading-Smith Stakeholder ForumAbout Stakeholder Forum indigenous peoples, trade unions, industry, youth and NGOs. To fully ensure a multi- CONTRIBUTING WRITERSStakeholder Forum is an international stakeholder perspective, we aim to engageorganisation working to advance sustainable a wide range of stakeholders for article Christine Loh Civic Exchange Pascoe Sabido Friends of the Earthdevelopment and promote democracy at a contributions and project funding.global level. Our work aims to enhance open, Simon Trace Practical Action If you are interested in contributing Bridget Brady Mount Holyoke Collegeaccountable and participatory international Traci Romine Oil Change Internationaldecision-making on sustainable development to Outreach, please contact the team Farooq Ullah Stakeholder Forumthrough enhancing the involvement (gmacdonald@stakeholderforum.org or Clare Coffey ActionAid UK Warren Karlenzig Common Currentof stakeholders in intergovernmental acutter@stakeholderforum.org)processes. For more information, visit: You can also follow us on Twitter: Derek Osborn Stakeholder Forumwww.stakeholderforum.org @OutreachLive
  3. 3. Sustainable Energy for All. Derek Osborn What the developed world needs to do. Stakeholder Forum The Secretary General’s Sustainable Energy for All initiative proposes three goals for 2030: • Achieving universal access to modern energy services • Doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency from 1.2% to 2.4% per annum • Doubling the share of renewable energy in the global mix from 15% to 30%. Much of the discussion of this This needs to change. It is excessive consumption and over-production in the developed world that is primarily initiative so far has focused responsible for most of the damage to the world’s primarily on the developing environment and natural resources. It is foot-dragging in the developed world on promoting efficiency in countries and how the first use of energy and other resources, and in promoting goal could be achieved. This is renewables, that is most responsible for the growing likelihood of failing to meet the world’s targets forrightly seen as the top priority limiting the growth of CO2 and other greenhouse gases for those, mostly in the in the atmosphere. It is this failure that is causing the most damage to the world’s basic ecosystems – and developing countries, who are making the task of achieving sustainable developmentstill without access to adequate in the developing world substantially harder. energy at present. So my plea to all concerned is:But the achievement of the latter two goals must dependprimarily on the domestic efforts of the developed Let the Secretary General’s initiative for universal access tocountries, which are responsible for the vast majority modern energy services be pursued urgently in developingof the consumption of energy in the world, and the countries, with generous support from the North, as manygreatest rates of energy production from unsustainable are urging (with some qualifications about the approachsources. It is they who need to take on most of the to be adopted as described in this edition of Outreach).burden of increasing energy efficiency through improvingthe operation of their own economies, and who need to But at the same time, let the initiative’s calls foraccelerate the penetration of renewable energy sources in accelerating energy efficiency and renewable energytheir own economies, if the global targets are to be met. be heard more clearly, and addressed more vigorously, where they are most needed – in the developed worldSo far, the developed countries have been conspicuously that is responsible for most of the problems that over-silent about how they propose to raise their own game on consumption of energy from traditional sources cause. Andenergy efficiency and renewables, in order to meet the ensure that the new, universal Sustainable DevelopmentSecretary General’s challenge. This is in line with their Goals, to be established at Rio, set demanding targets onfailure to come forward with stretching new targets for these matters for the developed world, at the same timethemselves on the rest of the sustainable consumptionand production agenda. And the developing countrieshave been too slow to challenge the developed world’s needs of the developing world . as focusing renewed attention on the central developmentcomplacence and shortfallings in this regard. 1 RIO+20
  4. 4. Hong Kong, China & nuclear development: Christine Loh CEO of Civic Exchange Implications from Fukushima The events at Fukushima took place at a time of Following Fukushima, nuclear power has been typically global revival in nuclear power development, with an viewed in one of the four following ways. estimated 360 GW of additional generating capacity projected to be developed by 2035, on top of the 390 1. Nuclear energy is unsafe. GW already in use. The renewed interest arose mainly due to technological advances in nuclear power, and its 2. Nuclear energy itself may be safe, but the residual risks potential as a low carbon energy source. are just too high when something goes wrong. 3. Nuclear energy can be safe but the nuclear industry, Of particular relevance to Hong Kong, at the time of governments and regulators cannot be trusted to the Fukushima disaster in Japan, China already had manage risks responsibly. a substantial nuclear expansion programme in place, with half the committed reactors planned in the 4. Nuclear energy is safe and systems and institutions neighbouring Guangdong Province. operating and regulating it can be well-managed. Hong Kong has purchased nuclear power from the Daya Bay nuclear plant in Guangdong since 1994, which As a result, countries with nuclear power have had different contributes approximately 23% of the city’s electricity responses to the disaster. Japan, Germany and Italy, for supply. To reach its carbon reduction goals, the Hong example, are withdrawing their support of nuclear power, Kong government had proposed to increase nuclear focusing on the associated risks; while China, the US energy imported from China to 50% of its energy mix, and France are focused on the need to reduce carbon along with augmenting the share of natural gas used in emissions and improve energy security. In many cases, its own power plants. thorough reviews of nuclear plants are underway. In response to Fukushima, the Chinese government Countries also differ in how they finance these plants. announced a full safety review of its existing plants, Britain relies on private sector funding alone, the US although its continuing commitment to nuclear energy offers conditional loan guarantees and in China, the was not in doubt. The review was completed in October development, expansion and financing of nuclear energy 2011, and Beijing is expected to publish reports covering is tightly controlled by state authorities. Irrespective of safety, governance, and plant expansion. who owns the investment, Fukushima reminds us that in the event of a serious accident, a public response will be The Hong Kong government is expected not to push needed, which in turn requires the use of public resources. ahead until the national government’s position is clear, particularly as public acceptance of nuclear power may The degree of public acceptance of nuclear power differs well have been shaken by what happened at Fukushima. from country to country. Where reactors are sited also make a difference – when proposed sites are on or near to But despite the absence of nuclear plants in the existing reactors, they may be more acceptable. Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong does have a role to play in nuclear safety and governance as an Hong Kong cannot avoid taking a position on nuclear importer of nuclear electricity, an investor in one of energy, because it is already a major nuclear user. The China’s nuclear plants, and – most importantly – as government and public must play an active and positive Guangdong’s neighbour, since any major accident role as the outcome affects the city’s energy future. To could affect a large number of people in the Pearl River participate effectively in these deliberations, however, Delta Region, which includes Hong Kong. requires an understanding of energy and basic literacy in nuclear issues. Hong Kong should take an active interest in nuclear safety and nuclear governance issues – irrespective of whether, or how much, it imports from its neighbour – as nuclear energy exists and is expanding in Guangdong. Hong Kong should consider exploring how pic: kmichiels it may be able to play a positive and constructive role in China’s management and development of nuclear power .2 RIO+20
  5. 5. Sustainable Energy for All: Simon Trace CEO of Practical Action A civil society perspective For the past 7 months, a High Level Group, nominated However, areas of concern for NGOs do remain. Among by the Secretary General, have been trying to convert the environmental NGOs, there is a sense that the goals vision of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative for energy efficiency and renewables are not ambitious into a programme of action that could be endorsed and enough and may be out of line with the goal of keeping built upon at Rio+20. To this end, a series of events have global warming within 2°C (although a forthcoming seen the initiative start to gather momentum, including Global Energy Assessment report by the International a high level energy summit in Brussels last week at Institute for Applied Systems Analysis is expected which the President of the European Commission, Jose to conclude that the three goals are consistent with a Manuel Barroso, announced the Commission’s intention pathway towards 2°C, but would require further action to support 500 million people getting access to modern between 2030 and 2050, such as the introduction of energy supplies by 2030. The German Government added rigorous carbon pricing, to complete the job). a pledge to finance the expansion of services to a further 100 million by the same date. There is also an issue around the ‘technology neutral’ stance that the initiative has taken and whether the Last week, the SE4All High Level Group met in the margins unintended consequence of this will be to allow contested of the Clean Energy Ministerial meeting hosted in London by technologies such as nuclear, biofuels and large scale the UK Government. Deputy Prime Minister, Nick Clegg and hydropower to be promoted as sustainable alongside Secretary of State for International Development, Andrew other, less controversial, technologies. Mitchell, addressed the group and made their own modest pledge of a further £25 to £50 million to support access to Finally, there is a sense amongst NGOs that the High renewable energy supplies in the developing world. Level Group has so far put too much emphasis on the role of large scale private sector actors. Whilst it is not The High Level Group also met with civil society for a disputed that without private capital and expertise the consultation on the initiative last Wednesday (25th April), goals are unachievable, there is concern that the part of which was hosted by international NGOs Practical Action, national governments, civil society and small scale social ONE and Christian Aid. Six of the members, led by Helen enterprises have not been given enough emphasis and that Clark, ex-Prime Minister of New Zealand and current their voices have not been heard sufficiently to date. NGOs head of UNDP met with around 60 representatives from , argue that without their fuller inclusion in the process, the environmental and development NGOs in London, to long term success of the initiative is in doubt. exchange views on the initiative and explore the role for civil society in the project. The panel accepted the notion that goals could be more ambitious and consultations more inclusive, but argued There was almost universal agreement amongst the civil that the process to date had been dictated by the pace society organisations present that the goal of universal and politics necessary to try to force the issue onto the energy access is progress in itself and that the initiative Rio+20 agenda, an outcome that is by no means assured. taken by the UN Secretary General to promote this – and The event concluded by looking at better mechanisms the issues of renewables and energy efficiency – in the for the High Level Group to engage with civil society and political agenda, is to be welcomed. national governments in the developing world, which were seen as a pre-requisite for future progress. And, for some, the lack of clarity on the science behind the . energy efficiency and renewables goals, together with the technology neutral stance, will remain an obstacle MORE INFO Practical Action uses technology to challenge poverty, working with poor women and men around the world. Visit: www.practicalaction.orgpic: Lollie-pop 3 RIO+20
  6. 6. National implementation of the Rio conclusions: Derek Osborn The role of National Sustainable Development Councils Stakeholder Forum As June approaches, it will be • High level membership of Councils in leading sectors of society, and ready access and respect increasingly important to consider how at top levels of Government, Parliament and other the various initiatives and agreements sectors of society. agreed at Rio+20 can be carried • Sufficient independence from government to be able forward and implemented on the ground. to raise issues and challenges, but sufficient closeness to government to be regarded as helpful advisers. The primary responsibility for implementation will, of course, remain at national level. It will be for each country to • Sufficient resources and capacity to be able interpret and prioritise how global goals should be applied at to commission authoritative studies of key home, to establish the means for pursuing those objectives sustainability policy issues, and offer evidence-based and monitoring progress and to establish appropriate recommendations. institutional arrangements to engage both government and • Sufficient capacity to monitor indicators and civil society actors in the implementation work. other evidence of advancements on sustainable development, including progress on national and At the same time, no country exists in perfect isolation, international sustainable development goals. and all have much to learn from the experience of others. In the last 20 years, many different national approaches • Mandate and ability to reach out to all sectors have been adopted to try to advance sustainability. And of civil society and to local and regional levels as there are still common elements needed everywhere for appropriate to build effective partnerships for dialogue effective implementation of the sustainable development and action on sustainable development issues. agenda. The emerging text for the Rio Summit has already identified a number of positive recommendations about how countries can carry forward implementation, including: The primary focus of national sustainable development councils will naturally be on progress towards sustainability in their own countries. But they may have a good deal to • National strategies for sustainable development learn from sharing experience between themselves, and and greening economies to guide decision-making may on occasion have good reason to collectively pursue and implementation of sustainable development particular issues at the international level with the UN or goals and other commitments at all levels; in other international fora. The meeting noted that there is some convergence of objectives and functions between • Capacity building at all levels, including in these national economic and social committees and particular at regional, sub-regional and local levels; national sustainable development bodies, as the former • Redefining and redirecting the role and are tending towards adding a concern for the environment responsibilities of the corporate sector and others to and for sustainable development to their earlier agendas, give greater weight to sustainability objectives; and whilst the latter are seeking to move away from a primarily environmental focus, towards managing the economy as • Establishing or strengthening appropriate multi- a whole in a more sustainable manner. Those present stakeholder institutions such as national sustainable at Saturday’s meeting, therefore gave full support to the development councils to promote and disseminate the idea of developing an international network of national sustainable development approach more widely, enable sustainable development councils, and asked for a more participation of all stakeholders and hold governments developed concept paper about the network and how to account on their sustainability performance. it would function, to inform more detailed discussion amongst national sustainable development councils represented at Rio+20. At a meeting held on Saturday (28th April), organised by the Government of Finland and Stakeholder Forum This evolution could both assist and be assisted by the and partners, experience was shared about the role and creation of a new UN Council for Sustainable Development function of existing national sustainable development or a reformed UN ECOSOC if either emerges from the councils in countries around the world. A new proposal Rio+20 negotiations. Such a new UN structure might for establishing a Global Network of National Councils convene regular dialogues with the Network as part of its for Sustainable Development was launched (www.ncsds. outreach to major groups and civil society around the world org). And principles of key elements or success criteria on sustainable development issues, and work together to . for these councils were identified; these included: ensure the outcomes of Rio+20 are implemented at the level it is needed the most; on the ground4 RIO+20
  7. 7. Rio+20 can and should deliver concrete commitmentsTraci Romine on fossil fuel subsidy reformInternational Finance Campaign Director, Oil Change International A global consensus is emerging Scale of fossil fuel subsidies on the need to eliminate the Some work is now underway to quantify global fossil estimated US$750 billion - but fuel consumption and production subsidies. Producer potentially US$1 trillion – in country subsidies are up to US$100 billion, and consumer subsidies are estimated by the International Energy public funds spent each year on Agency to top US$630 billion in 2012. It should be notedfossil fuel subsidies. This year, that these estimates do not include the public funding of Rio+20 presents an important more than US$15 billion that multilateral and national development banks direct towards fossil fuels each year. opportunity to solidify this Furthermore, there are large gaps in these numbers, consensus and turn political resulting in uncertainty in the current dollar amounts of subsidies going to fossil fuels. This uncertainty highlights commitments into action. the need for transparency and an agreed international reporting process.Since 2009, when G20 leaders – followed by APEC –called for the removal of inefficient subsidies, there havebeen numerous statements calling for their elimination. The benefits of eliminating fossil fuel subsidiesSome 53 countries have committed to removing fossilfuel subsidies over the medium term. Echoing these In a Global Subsidies Initiative review of six respectedcalls, the UN Secretary General’s High Level Panel on modeling and empirical studies of fossil fuel subsidyGlobal Sustainability (GSP) unequivocally called for the reform, all of the studies examined ‘found that fossil-removal of fossil fuel subsidies in their consensus report, fuel subsidy reform would result in aggregate increasesResilient People Resilient Planet: A Future Worth Choosing. in gross domestic product (GDP) in both OECD andCo-chaired by the presidents of Finland and South non-OECD countries. The expected increases among theAfrica, the panel was comprised of major policy makers studies ranged from 0.1% in total by 2010 to 0.7% perfrom 20 nations, including the European Union, United year to 2050.’ In a world rocked by fiscal and economicStates, Brazil, India, China, the Russian Federation and crisis, fossil fuel subsidy reform is a smart strategy.others. The report make recommendations to ‘phase outfossil fuel subsidies and reduce other perverse or trade The abolishment of fossil fuel subsidies would also reducedistorting subsidies by 2020’. greenhouse gas emissions that lead to global warming. The IEA, in their World Energy Outlook in 2011, foundThe Rio+20 outcome document, The Future We Want, can that if fossil fuel consumption subsidies in developinggo a long way towards advancing international action and countries only were phased out by 2020, global primarysupport for fossil fuel subsidy phase out. A coalition of energy demand would be cut by nearly 5% and CO2civil society organisations are calling on governments to emissions by 5.8%, or 2.6 gigatons.retain and strengthen the Rio outcome text with: Finally, reducing fossil fuel subsidies would also create • A strong reaffirmation of the political local environmental benefits. Although there is less commitment to phase out production and research quantifying these benefits, reducing point consumption fossil fuel subsidies. source pollution, often associated with fossil fuel • Agreement to full transparency, including regular energy sources, could provide substantial air quality ongoing reporting of existing fossil fuel subsidies, as well as expenditures and actions to phase out subsidies. greenhouse gas emissions . and water quality improvements, in addition to reduced • Commitment to assistance and safeguards for developing countries, as well as poor and vulnerable groups. • Establishment of a deadline for fossil fuel subsidy phase out by 2015. • Agree to the establishment of a platform or centre of excellence to equitably and transparently guide fossil fuel subsidy reform. 5 RIO+20
  8. 8. Sustainable Energy for All Civil Society Statement The undersigned agencies would like to bring the following urgent issues to the attention of the United Nations Secretary General’s High Level Group on Sustainable Energy for All and of governments who can support effective sustainable outcomes for people living in poverty and speed the transition towards a zero-carbon global energy sector. UN Goals for Sustainable Energy for All by 2030: • Achieving universal access to modern energy services; • Doubling the rate of improvement in energy efficiency; and • Doubling the share of renewable energy in the global mix Increased access to clean, SE4All commitments made from 2012 should clearly demonstrate how they will deliver its objectives through an safe, reliable and affordable accountability framework with effective and transparent energy is essential for monitoring and evaluation (see below). poverty reduction. For this International leadership and support: Poor countries and reason we strongly support the world’s poorest people will need substantial assistance to achieve universal energy access from clean, safe, reliable the aspirations of the and affordable sources, as well as moving their energy UN International Year of sectors away from dirty fossil fuels. Industrialised countries must lead by providing poor countries with the appropriate Sustainable Energy for All finance, technology and capacity building to deliver local (SE4ALL) and welcome the development within the framework of an ambitious SE4All increased political attention Initiative, as well as ensuring that their own energy sectors are on track to be zero-carbon by 2050. that this Initiative brings to this issue. However, we also note that the goals as they currently stand are inadequate to achieve the level of change required to tackle both energy poverty and dangerous climate change. In light of this, we call on the Panel to view the current SE4All goals as a starting point for the higher levels of ambition needed to bring about effective change. Universal access: The UN Year of SE4All must prioritise universal access and the eradication of energy poverty. This must focus on access to the full range of energy services, and recognise that decentralised systems with community participation are often the least-cost and most effective way to deliver clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy. Successful development requires access programmes to be integrated with wider development strategies and tailored to suit local needs and realities. Delivering climate targets: The three goals must be commensurate with the agreed goal of keeping the global temperature rise as far below 2oc as possible, recognising that even this agreed limit is not safe for many countries and people in the developing world. New commitments: SE4All should deliver additional benefits, including financing, rather than simply serving as an umbrella for existing projects. New pic: Reto Fetz6 RIO+20
  9. 9. Ensuring Success active role in all stages of policy design as well as implementation, especially within priority countries. Civil society should also be fully supported inTo date, the initiative has not provided clear definitions of devising and implementing its own scalable projectsits objectives and implementation plan. To be successful, to deliver an ambitious SE4All initiative.the initiative needs to address: • Definitions of access • National targets and plans Universal access must be defined in terms of While global energy access targets are needed access to clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy to ensure global cooperation, further detail at a services with demonstrable development benefits, national level will ensure successful implementation. measured in terms of achievement of minimum SE4All should give financial and non-financial standards for each of the principal energy services support to governments who wish to engage to people need (a total energy approach including formulate clear, executable plans to deliver on lighting, cooking, water heating, space heating, nationally-appropriate short- and mid-term targets, cooling, information and communications and small, developed through multistakeholder processes medium and micro enterprises). Simple power with a focus on local, people-centred development supply metrics are insufficient. outcomes. • Technology neutral policy and safeguards • Accountability SE4All must ensure the selection of technology To ensure effective delivery, SE4All needs to identify to deliver the three goals adheres to clear social an appropriate, inclusive forum to coordinate and environmental criteria that protect people and and review progress towards achieving energy ecosystems from negative impacts. In particular, we access for poor people. SE4All also needs to have would be extremely concerned over the inclusion of defined channels of accountability, based on clear large scale hydro power and industrial biofuels in the progress indicators and a clear and transparent definition of sustainable energy. Technologies should process of monitoring and evaluation. Indicators be locally appropriate and reflect the needs of poor must recognise that energy access does not simply people at household, enterprise and community mean ‘number of homes electrified’ or ‘number of level. The default option should be towards clean, cookstoves distributed’, and should be formulated sustainable solutions, allowing poor countries and from the knowledge and expertise of those on the communities to leapfrog dirty development pathways. ground, including energy users, local communities and energy access practitioners. • Civil society participation To date, there has been very limited engagement We trust that the Secretary General, the High Level Panel of civil society in outreach around SE4All, in and supportive governments will take our comments in particular in the global South. This has greatly the constructive spirit they are intended, with the aim that weakened the legitimacy of the initiative as well as SE4All becomes a truly transformational initiative meeting undermining the credibility of proposed projects the urgent challenges of energy poverty and climate change. and the possibility of their success. If the Initiative is to gain widespread support, global civil society needs to be fully consulted through a clear and accountable process which recognises Rio Principle MORE INFO To contact the coalition of above-signed civil society . 10, that ‘environmental issues are best handled with participation of all concerned citizens, at organisations, please contact Pascoe Sabido (pascoe. the relevant level’. Civil society should play an sabido@foe.co.uk) or Alison Doig (adoig@christian-aid.org) 7 RIO+20
  10. 10. Stakeholder Forum announces appointment of new Executive Director The Board of Directors of Stakeholder working towards the Rio+20 Earth Summit for a number Forum for a Sustainable Future – an of years. Ullah has been key in positioning Stakeholder international organisation working Forum as a bridge between civil society and governments to advance sustainable development to ensure successful outcomes of Rio+20. – is pleased to announce the appointment of Farooq Ullah as the Before joining Stakeholder Forum in September new, incoming Executive Director. 2011, Ullah was at the UK’s Sustainable Development Commission (SDC) for nearly five years. Ullah worked Ullah is currently the Head of Policy and Advocacy at on strategic assessment at the SDC; analysing public Stakeholder Forum. He will take over from the outgoing policy, sustainable operations and procurement, strategy, Executive Director, Felix Dodds, on the 1st September governance and decision making, in order to hold the UK 2012. Dodds is stepping down after 20 years in the post. Government to account and improve its sustainability performance. Key elements of this work included policy “I could not be more pleased with this appointment,” advice, stakeholder engagement and capability building. says Philip Dobie, Chair of Stakeholder Forum’s Board In all, Ullah has eight years of public sector experience at of Directors. “Farooq has an extensive background and international, national and local government levels, as well understanding of sustainable development and the issues as private sector consultancy experience. facing the Earth and its people. He also has the vision and determination to take Stakeholder Forum into a new era.” Currently, Ullah is also Specialist Advisor to the UK Parliaments Environmental Audit Committee and Dobie also praised outgoing the Executive Director, a member of the Alliance for Future Generations. “Felix’s tireless dedication as a champion of international Additionally, he is a founding member of Brighter Future; sustainable development over the years has made a climate-change action group in London. Stakeholder Forum a leading organisation in the field.” Ullah holds a BComm in Management Science from the Stakeholder Forum has been engaging with UN processes on sustainable development since 1987, and has been London School of Economics . University of Alberta and an MSc in Public Policy from the Future Africa: Prospects for Democracy & Development under NEPAD Book by Hesphina Rukato, former Co-chair importantly domestic, is a key thrust of NEPAD, as are of Stakeholder Forum International Advisory the principles of African ownership and leadership of the Board (2000-2001), former Deputy Chief NEPAD process. Most critical to the attainment of the AU Executive Officer of NEPAD Secretariat vision, is the commitment by African leaders to create the (2005-2009), and Advisor for Environment preconditions for Sustainable Development, focusing on and Tourism to the South African Government democracy and good governance. (2002-2005). The purpose of this book is to therefore record and document Set up in 2001, The New Partnership for Africas the processes, dynamics, and factors that have influenced the Development (NEPAD) is a socio-economic programme of evolution, successes, and challenges of NEPAD over the past the African Union, whose priority is poverty eradication and eight years. The book analyses these processes, dynamics regional integration, as envisioned in the Constitutive Act of and factors, with a view to make recommendations on how the African Union (AU). Amongst many strategies, regional the AU and related processes and structures should take into integration is to be attained through the implementation of account the integration of NEPAD into AU structures and specific sectoral programmes, particularly in the area of processes. It highlights the decisiveness and sacrifices that infrastructure development, as well as intra-African trade. have to be made by Africans, if Africa is to claim the 21st Regional economic communities (RECs) were designated Century. The book also serves as a contribution to Africa’s as regional pillars for delivering on NEPAD objectives. In knowledge generation agenda. addition, capacity building of RECs, and member states were identified as critical ingredients for the success of NEPAD. Resource mobilisation, both external, and more under NEPAD is now available in paperback . Future Africa: Prospects for Democracy and Development8 RIO+20
  11. 11. Rio+20: Setting out aPascoe Sabido shared vision on clean energy accessInternational Climate Campaigner, Friends of the EarthLast week, London was the epicentre of The role of civil society and energy users will be key for the initiative’s success and the panel recognised that their clean energy access, with a meeting exclusion has been damaging for legitimacy, as well as of the High Level Group from the UN’s reinforcing the ‘single solution’, business-led approach seen in the official documentation. The inclusion of these Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) voices requires an effective process at country-level and initiative and the Third Clean Energy depends on governments working with all stakeholders.Ministerial (CEM), which had 23 energy Brew-Hammond gave examples from Ghana of clean cooking and productive uses of energy, which were greatly ministers from leading economies helped by strong existing civil society networks – whichattending. To pull these two important brought women’s empowerment organisation, such as Abantu, alongside local business. meetings together, Friends of the Earth and the All Party Parliamentary Exploring alternatives Climate Change Group brought together Friends of the Earth asked the question ‘what would a participants from both, to join civil people-centred approach to energy look like?’ The answer society organisations from North and was clean, decentralised, access-driven and delivered with empowered local communities, not just by business. Clark South, in exploring how to reach acknowledged that community-based approaches are Rio+20 with a shared clean energy indispensable and could be the best departure point, and called for a mix of solutions in delivery and financing, with access vision. countries given direct access to finance. Jeremy Leggett emphasised its importance, underlining that access toThe speakers were: credit was vital, given the high upfront costs of renewableHelen Clark, Administrator, UNEP and Ex Prime technology, and remains a major barrier.Minister, New Zealand (SE4All); Abeeku Brew-Hammond, Board Chairman, Energy Commission ofGhana (SE4All); Geoffrey Kamese, Senior Climate and Learning on the road to RioEnergy Programme Officer, National Association of As many of the panel members agreed, the messageProfessional Environmentalists (NAPE) Uganda; Jeremy from London was that engagement of civil society andLeggett, Founder and Chairman, Solar Century and Solar involvement of community voices at all levels is vital to theAid (CEM); Pascoe Sabido, Sustainable Energy Advisor, success of the SE4All initiative. The next step is to ask howFriends of the Earth Europe; Chaired by Joan Walley, MP we can do this and what lessons – both good and bad –(Chair, Environmental Audit Committee). and existing examples of best practice, can we learn from. For example, the Forest Law Enforcement and GovernanceShared vision Treaty, signed between the European Commission and countries fighting illegal logging, gives civil society an equalThe challenge of creating a shared vision was underlined voice alongside government and industry and has helpedthe day before, at the SE4All civil society consultation: establish extensive civil society networks.Friends of the Earth’s Executive Director, Andy Atkins,spoke on behalf of environmental NGOs on the risk of As Andrew Steer, special envoy for climate change at theSE4All’s low targets and acceptance of fossil fuels as World Bank and High Level Group member, eloquently‘sustainable energy’ – which could lock-in generations summarised: if we want energy access on the agenda in Rio,of carbon emissions and make it impossible to stop we need to work together. That’s why including the voicesdangerous climate change. NAPE’s Geoffrey Kamese – of civil society and energy users at the community levelrelating it to his native Uganda – called for clean, safe, is so important. Without them we will see no meaningfulaffordable technologies to avoid destroying millions collaboration, no legitimacy and no long-lasting sustainableof lives and livelihoods across Africa. High Level Group solutions to energy poverty and climate change. Butmember and UNDP head, Helen Clark, accepted that include them, and Rio+20 could mark the beginning of aaccess should be as sustainable as possible, while Abeeku clean energy revolution that could meet the needs of theBrew-Hammond showed that, in Ghana, energy access wasoften met through renewable energy and energy efficiency. planet and its inhabitants. The first step: a clear, defined and inclusive process for engagement and participation . 9 RIO+20
  12. 12. Sustainable energy for whom? Clare Coffey Policy Advisor, ActionAid UK Momentum seems to be gathering around the Rio+20 been taken globally for biofuels. Biofuels have also played energy discussions, thanks to the UN Secretary General’s a significant factor in world food price spikes and volatility initiative on Sustainable Energy for All. The initiative sets – with the IMF World Bank and eight other international , out three specific objectives on doubling renewables and organisations calling on G20 countries to remove biofuels energy efficiency improvement rates, as well as securing mandates and subsidies. Hundreds of millions of people universal access to energy. The three objectives could well have been adversely affected by biofuels, undermining be reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals, which poverty reduction and economic development efforts. are tipped as being the main outcome of the June Summit. Staggeringly, biofuels are also no answer to climate While a true commitment to securing energy for all change. For the EU alone, official biofuel plans could has to be welcomed as a means to fulfil basic human result in annualised additional emissions of 65 million rights, there is justifiable concern that the initiative will tonnes CO2, which would be like putting another 29 not in fact achieve that. Instead, the fear is that the million cars on Europe’s roads. sustainable energy initiative will be used as a way of promoting inappropriate industrial scale energy facilities In fact, there is much to be learned from the EU. In in developing countries, worsening the situation of the 2008, the EU reached an agreement for 20% renewable world’s poorest and only benefitting big companies. energy by 2020, including a 10% sub-target for renewable energy in transport. This has turned into a There are particular concerns around the inclusion of de facto biofuels target and has been the cause of huge large scale biofuels and hydro, as well as nuclear among controversy ever since, with governments now struggling ‘renewable’ energy definitions. Human rights abuses to extricate themselves from the situation. The Rio+20 linked to EU biofuels policy are the subject of an ActionAid negotiators must learn from these mistakes and ensure report, Fuel for Thought: addressing the social impacts of EU biofuels policies, launched last week in Brussels. According to this, biofuels are the most significant driver of that biofuels are ruled out of the sustainable energy discussions. Anything else would be unforgivable . global land acquisitions, with International Land Coalition MORE INFO data suggesting that 37 million hectares of land have www.act.ai/fuel4thought10 RIO+20
  13. 13. Japan’s eco renewal Warren Karlenzig President of Common Current This article was previously published in China Dialogue: I was joined by experts from five countries: Japan, www.chinadialogue.net Australia, Bangladesh, Thailand and the United States. One fellow American represented the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It seems our contingent From rolling blackouts to was somewhat of a novelty. I was told by the UN and the radioactive soil, post-tsunami US Embassy in Tokyo that we were one of the first (if not the first) from outside the three affected prefectures reconstruction faces many to meet with local leaders on reconstruction and post- challenges. But the path to disaster management planning. recovery is looking distinctly The tsunami-scoured coastal cities where some 20,000 green. I’ve returned from a died – even now, bodies are being discovered by white sobering United Nations-led tour ships trolling the coast and on land by locals – are focused on the future of survivors. We visited temporary of six tsunami-damaged communities housing and retail developments, modular constructed and two radiation-impacted cities units complete with such personal flourishes as lanterns, public benches and landscaping. They house locally in northern Japan. The obvious owned businesses, from bars to barbers to fishmongers, conclusion: the tnuclear accident which were wiped out by the tsunami. is forcing Japan to go green. Three hundred thousand people in this region were driven from their homes by the “tsunami attack”. Communities Steps include the launch of a new renewable energy national have submitted reconstruction plans to the national feed-in tariff, which starts in July. Meanwhile, the governor government and these proposals are in the process of of Fukushima, Yuhei Sato, told us that renewables will be being approved for funding. But actual rebuilding will not the ‘key factor’ in the revival of his devastated prefecture. begin for years. The ground is still unstable or sinking in the coastal cities due to the 9.0 subduction earthquake Though little planning for integrating this economic and (meaning one tectonic plate went under another, causing energy transformation is in evidence yet, we did witness one plate to sink). fragmented signs that Japan can provide a developed- nation role model for resilience in the face of cultural, Meanwhile, waste-management issues, including energy system and environmental devastation. removal of radiation and salt-contaminated soil and debris from the tsunami, bedevil everyone from small Organised by the Nagoya, Japan-based UN Center for farmers to civil authorities. In one city, 106 years worth Regional Development (UNCRD), we travelled for a week of waste was piled around what used to be the town as part of a fact-finding mission with UNCRD director centre. The rest of Japan is disinclined to accept much Chikako Takase and her staff. The mission was called of it, because of potential radioactivity. ‘Reconstruction Towards Sustainable Communities’ and my role was to advise Japanese community leaders on When and if they are able to build, the plans of two green economic development recovery strategies and tsunami-ravaged cities stand out for being smart growth opportunities. I had met with a range of clean tech energy models. Ishinomaki was a pre-tsunami city of about companies and urban planning and design firms in 160,000: 4000 were killed by the tsunami, the most preparation, as well as the US Department of Commerce. deaths of any city in Japan. Its entire port and low-lying downtown areas were virtually annihilated, with the odd building and remnant inexplicably standing, such as a domed cartoon art museum and, most bizarrely, a Statue of Liberty replica formerly housed in a pachinko parlour. CONTINUED NEXT PAGEpic: Jun Teramoto 11 RIO+20
  14. 14. Japan’s eco renewal (continued) CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS PAGE Prior to the Fukushima disaster, Japan relied on nuclear energy for 25% to 33% of its needs. This summer, the Ishinomaki has a plan to virtually wipe clean its remaining last two remaining nuclear plants operating in Japan (out ‘ghost’ downtown to create a mixed-use residential and of 54) will be shut down, at least temporarily, and there commercial zone that will be two to three times denser are many signs throughout the nation that electric power than before, according to city leaders we met. The city is already in short supply. Although outdoor temperatures hopes to be better protected from the coast through site were hovering between zero and four degrees Celsius, we elevation, barriers and other features. The more vexing attended multiple meetings circled around one or two question is how to keep its young people from leaving the kerosene heaters, in buildings using almost no electric area for Tokyo and other big cities to the south: transit- light, without the use of central indoor heating. Is this a oriented redesign will be one factor making younger glimpse into what a business-as-usual energy future looks citizens less likely to flee. like in other industrial countries? Another critical planning issue is how male-dominated Japan One meeting in a luxury high-rise hotel in Minami Sanriku intends to ensure that all its citizens- Including women, the had a planned blackout for two hours while we met with elderly and handicapped – in disaster-struck communities business and community volunteer leaders, along with the are part of the process of designing their future. hotel’s owner, who had sheltered and fed 400 community members after the tsunami (the bottom two stories were Rikuzentakata, a city of 22,000 (2,000 died in the damaged, but the rest of the building was habitable). Staff tsunami), has plans to make ‘new energy’ a key part handed out heavy winter parkas so we could continue our of its redevelopment. This city which was reported discussions in relative warmth. to have been ‘wiped off the map’ by 19.2 metre-high waves, is today pursuing national government subsidies Besides jackets, Japan has been using technology to cope and private investments to create large-scale distributed with its new dilemma. Utility sponsored websites and generation of renewables, including solar PV, land and mobile apps let people know exactly when to conserve the marine biomass and offshore wind. most, which they have been doing by hanging wet clothes to dry in south-facing windows or balconies, and by curtailing Together with other nearby communities, Rikuzentakata use of light, heat or appliances. So far, Japanese society is studying how to trade domestic carbon credits for has reduced its energy use to meet a 30% power deficit, reduced emissions. The citys quest for zero waste and but the margin between rolling or planned blackouts and zero carbon-dioxide emissions also has it exploring power is paper thin, even in Tokyo. industrial ecology strategies: using fish bones, tsunami debris wastes or other byproducts such as waste heat as Our delegation will now work with UNCRD to develop inputs for new processes. recommendations based on our visit to Tohoku’s three stricken prefectures. My prediction is that Iwate, Miyagi We also toured a small community-supported organic and Fukushima will remain in the global consciousness farm in southern Fukushima Prefecture, outside the long into the future, not just for their triple disaster, but town of Iwaki. A volunteer group had recruited helpers also for the lessons they underscore for all of us as we the previous summer to remove radiated soil, and the farmers showed us how recent radiation tests had come up negative. Meanwhile, the ‘hot’ soil they had dug out and shelter in the wake of disasters, natural or not . venture into an uncertain future for energy, water, food, and scraped away was still heaped in a pile, because the national government would not remove or receive it, as the farmers had been led to believe they would. Lunch found us back in Iwaki, eating at a small take-out place in someones home. Although every item served was organic and local, including mushrooms, for once in my life this type of fare made me lose my appetite. pic: Jun Teramoto12 RIO+20
  15. 15. Rio+20 Side Event CalendarDate Time Room Title Organisers 1:15-2:45 B The Power of One Child – Global Action Classroom Earth Child Institute Advancing the Sustainability Science Agenda: To Support Sustainable Chief Scientists Office, United Nations Environment Programme 30 April 2012 1:15-2:45 7 Development and the Green Economy (UNEP) 1:15-2:45 3 From Harmful Subsidies to Safe Subsidies Greenpeace International 6:15-7:45 B New York + 20: Youth led action for sustainable development Columbia University Coalition for Sustainable Development Moving Towards Meaningful Private Sector Contribution to Sustainable 1:15-2:45 7 Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future Development 01 May 2012 Taking Natural Capital into account: how can SDG’s, Green Economy Roadmaps 1:15-2:45 B and National Sustainability Plans properly maintain and value the Earth’s BioRegional Development Group Natural Capital as part of a post-Rio+20 framework 1:15-2:45 3 People and the Planet: The priorities for Rio+20 The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) The role of renewable and clean energy in promoting green economy in the 1:15-2:45 7 context of poverty eradication and sustainable development in LDCs, LLDCs, and UN-OHRLLS SIDS 02 May 2012 The Business Case for Sustainable Development - Realizing Inclusive and 1:15-2:45 3 Green Growth: Recommendations from the UN-Rio+20 Business and Industry Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the UN Consultation and Government and Civil Society 1:15-2:45 B Ocean Acidification and Sustainable Development: A Growing Challenge Permanent Mission of Monaco to the United Nations Towards an Inclusive Green Economy - A think exchange at the second round of 03 May 2012 1:15-2:45 7 Federal Ministry for the Environment, Germany informal-informal negotiations on the zero draft 1:15-2:45 3 Natural Wealth Accounting World Bank 04 May 2012 1:15-2:45 3 Creating a sustainable economy: top down and bottom up Institute for Plenary Synthesis and Commons Action for the UN 1:15-2:45 7 UN-Water Report on Water Resources Management for Rio+20 Summit UN WATER, UNEPpic: Sam Teigen 13 RIO+20
  16. 16. Reflections on the negotiations - Friday, 27th AprilFarooq Ullah Bridget BradyHead of Policy and Advocacy, Stakeholder Forum Mount Holyoke CollegeThe Rio+20 negotiations took a positive upswing on Friday. Finally Friday’s negotiations in Working Group 2 began with a discussionthere was an atmosphere of hope on what could, and should, on the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Developmentbe achieved. In the spirit of progress, many countries took (IFSD) at the regional, national, and local levels. In paragraph 59,positive steps to move from previously entrenched positions, and the G77 was uncomfortable with the mention of the importanceappeared to be open to meaningful negotiations. The discussions of ‘regional, sub-national and local authorities’ and the referenceon the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development to national monitoring, as national governance structures vary(IFSD) took a step back in order to take two steps forward. Those widely and should not be subject to such prescriptive language.who made interventions were near unanimous in their agreement In paragraph 60, Kazakhstan proposed the inclusion of the Greenthat it was essential to put form aside and focus on the functions Bridge Partnership, an initiative that was developed by manyin order to identify the optimal governance structure required to countries, as an example of cross-regional initiatives for sustainableimplement sustainable development. This in turn would unlock development. Other countries felt that this example was toothe debate on whether a Sustainable Development Council or specific to include in the text, but may be appropriate to featureECOSOC reform would be a better outcome as an apex body for in a Compendium of Commitments. The proposal was moved tosustainable development. Equally the hope was that the debate a new paragraph, 62 ter. Mexico proposed language calling for theon UNEP would also be advanced through a similar tactic. prioritising and “strengthening of the UN regional commissions and their sub-regional offices in their capacities.” The EU, the US,The last session was a stock take on the negotiations. The and Japan, however, could not support this addition.secretariat presented the progress that had been made inreducing the size of the Outcome Document (by 121 pages, In paragraph 61, there was disagreement over the inclusion ofa 44% reduction). All interventions applauded the collegiate multi-stakeholder councils and processes. In the discussion ofthe authority to suggest ways forward in the coming days .atmosphere of the talks over the week and gave the Co-Chairs paragraph 62 bis, the EU, the US, and Japan proposed to discuss the issue of an international mechanism for technology transfer in section V (c), and to delete it from this section. Mexico and Belarus supported the paragraph with slight amendments. In paragraph 62, the G77, once again, stressed the importance of recognising “national circumstances and priorities” and acting “in accordance with Principle 7” when discussing political commitment to sustainable development. Yet, this was once more the something that the US was unable to endorse. In the afternoon session, Working Group 2 shifted from the format of formal negotiations they had taken on throughout the week, to a more informal discussion regarding the role of ECOSOC, the CSD, a Sustainable Development Council, and UNEP This section of the text, paragraphs 48-51, was skipped . over in earlier sessions as some states were not yet ready to negotiate it. States exchanged their ideas on IFSD in order to better understand each other’s views and facilitate later negotiations, while Co-Chair John Ashe took on a more active role in mediating the discussion. Tensions emerged throughout the discussion between strengthening the environmental dimension of sustainable development and integrating all three; and between strengthening existing institutions and creating new ones. At the end of the day, Working Group 1 and 2 came pic: Reto Fetz next steps in moving forward . together to discuss the progress of negotiations so far and theOutreach is made possible by the support of