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  1. 1. POLAND<br />Katarzyna Stachniuk<br />
  2. 2. Presentation plan<br />General information about Poland<br />History in brief<br />Geography in brief<br />Aspects of Polish culture<br />Famous Poles <br />Stereotypes<br />Interesting facts<br />Cracow<br />
  3. 3. Basic information<br />Capital: Warsaw<br />Surface: 322 576 km² (68th in the world)<br />Population: 38 186 000 (34th; ; 96.7% Poles)<br />Political system: parliamentary democracy<br />Neighbors: Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Russia <br />Main religion: roman Catholicism, 89% Poles<br />Member of: EU (since 2004), NATO, WTO, OECD, UN and other<br />
  4. 4. Administrative division: 16 voivodeships (provinces)<br />
  5. 5. Basic information - economy<br />GDP per capita: 12 575 $ (61% of the EU average in 2009)<br />With collapse of communism Poland switched from centrally – planned economy to market – based economy<br />Is considered to be most healthiest economy of the post – communist countries<br />GDP structure: agriculture 2.8%; industry 31.7%; services 65.6%<br />Major trading partners: EU (mainly Germany), Russia<br />Main export goods: furniture, cars, clothing, ships, coal, machinery, chemicals <br />Main import goods: cars, electronic goods, fuels<br />Currency: złoty (PLN)<br />
  6. 6. History <br />Name „Poland” comes from the name of one of the West Slavic tribes who lived in the region between rivers Vistula and Oder<br />Formation of Poland as a territorial entity began in the middle of 10th century by joining West Slavics under the Piast dynasty<br />The formal date treated as origin of Poland is 966 – adoption of Catholic Christianity by fist ruler, Mieszko I<br />In 1025 Poland became kingdom<br />From 12th to 14th century Poland was divided into regions ruled by Piast dukes<br />After consolidation Poland was ruled by Jagiellonians<br />From 1385 Poland and Lithuania were joined in personal union <br />In 1569 the next union with Lithuania was signed, both countries created Republic of the Two Nations, also known as Polish – Lithuanian Commonwealth<br />
  7. 7. History<br />In 18th century Poland was losing independence; Russian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria took Poland under control in three Partitions (1772, 1793, 1795)<br />In 1791 there was established Constitution of 3rd May, first in modern Europe and second in the world (after US constitution)<br />In 1795 Poland lost independence for 123 years<br />The 19th century was a time of national insurrections, that showed a great patriotism and decreased repressions <br />Poland became independent republic 11.11.1918 <br />In the time between wars Poland was called Second Republic<br />
  8. 8. Fragment of painting by J. Matejko presenting the passing of Constitution of 3rdMay<br />
  9. 9. History <br />On 1.09.1939 Poland was attacked by Germany, on 17.09.1939 by Soviet Russia<br />As a result of German military supremacy, Poland lost the first stages of war and created emigration government in France<br />To 1944 Poland was occupied by Germany. About 6 mln (1/5) Poles lost their lives during World War II. Many of them (especially Jews) perished in nazi concentration camps, a lot of Poles were deported to north Russia<br />After war Poland became People’s Republic under Soviet Communist dominance<br />Communism in Poland ended in 1989, after many strikes and „Round Table Talks” <br />In 1999 Poland became a member of NATO, in 2004 EU<br />
  10. 10. Geography – basic information<br />Plain country (average elevation 173 m) with uplands and mountains in the south<br />Highest peak: Rysy (2499 m)<br />Longest river: Vistula (pol. Wisła) – 1047 km<br />Climate: transitional climate zone between the oceanic temperate climate in the west and the continental temperate climate in the east; average temperature in winter between -6 and 0ºC, in summer 16-20 ºC<br />
  11. 11. Main geographical regions <br />Pomerania<br />Kashubian Lake District<br />Mazurian Lake District<br />Silesia<br />Mazovia<br />Sudetes<br />Beskids (part of Carpathian Mountains)<br />Tatra Mountains<br />
  12. 12. POMERANIA<br />Kołobrzeg<br />
  13. 13. Gdańsk<br />
  14. 14. Croocked House in Sopot<br />
  15. 15. Castle in Malbork<br />
  16. 16. LAKE DISTRICTS<br />Lake Mamry <br />
  17. 17. Lake Śniardwy<br />
  18. 18. MOUNTAINS<br />Lake Marine Eye in Tatras<br />
  19. 19. The Five Lakes Valley<br />
  20. 20. Spring in Tatras<br />
  21. 21. Castle in Niedzica<br />
  22. 22. Jurrasic Park in Bałtów, Świętokrzyskie Mountains<br />
  23. 23. Polish Culture<br />National celebrations<br />Norms & values <br />Regional cultures – Kashubian, Silesian, Mountaineers<br />Cuisine<br />Architecture & art <br />
  24. 24. National celebrations<br />National holidays<br />Day of Constitution of 3rd May<br />Independence Day (11th November)<br />International Worker’s Day (1st May)<br />Other celebrations and traditions<br />Christmas<br />Easter<br />St. Nicholas Day<br />First day of spring<br />First day of summer<br />Juwenalia <br />
  25. 25. Christmas traditions<br />Decorating Christmas tree on Christmas Eve<br />12 dishes for Christmas Eve dinner <br />One empty plate for unexpected quest<br />Gifts under tree<br />Dishes without meat<br />Starting dinner when first star appears<br />Before dinner - sharing of the blessed wafer (pol. opłatek) and exchanging wishes<br />Candle(s) as a symbol of new life<br />Singing Christmas carols<br />
  26. 26. Christmas traditions<br />„KOLĘDNICY”<br />Groups of children or teenagers dressed as: devil, angel, king Herod, St. Mary and/or other characters connected with birth of Christ<br />They have big, colorful star<br />They go from house to house singing Christmas carols<br />As a „payment” for bringing good news they ask for sweets<br />Custom practiced mainly on countryside and in mountain areas <br />
  27. 27. Easter traditions<br />Making Easter eggs – each region has own style and technique<br />Easter breakfast with food blessed during Holy Saturday<br />In some regions – giving small gifts „from hare”<br />Easter has less commercial character than Christmas<br />
  28. 28. Easter traditions<br />„ŚMIGUS DYNGUS” (Easter Monday)<br />Has less religious character than E. Sunday<br />Comes from 15th century’s pagan practice <br />Earlier it symbolized purification and awakening after winter<br />People spray water on the other<br />In some regions accompanied by additional practices<br />
  29. 29. St. Nicholas Day<br />6th December<br />Gives gifts only for well-behaving children<br />Comes inside a house through a chimney, at night<br />Puts gifts under the pillow or near bed<br />For naughty children he brings rods <br />
  30. 30. First day of spring<br />21st March<br />Drowning or burning of „Marzanna” – it is a big doll made from straw or rags, bits of clothing and decorated with colorful stuff<br />Drowning in rivers or burning on squares<br />Symbolizes end of winter<br />Name „Marzanna” comes from pagan times, she was Slavic goddess of death and winter <br />In 16th and 17th century church authorities tried to prohibit this custom – without success <br />Tradition practicedalso in Czech Republic and Slovakia<br />
  31. 31. First day of summer<br />23/24th June – Midsummer Night/Kupala Day/Wianki<br />Comes from ancient Slavic celebrations connected with fertility and ritual purification<br />Girls float wreaths of flowers and try to predict future from the flow patterns of the flowers on the river<br />Men try to catch wreaths of the girls they love<br />According to the legend, it is the only night in year when ferns bloom; finding fern flower brings luck<br />Rare custom nowadays<br />
  32. 32. Juwenalia<br />Student’s festival<br />First week of May<br />Start with 3 – 4 days trips to the mountains<br />A lot of concerts and other cultural activities<br />End with parade of students dressed in funny costumes<br />After parade mayors of the cities give students keys to city’s gates (symbolic)<br />Each city (or university) has a unique name for Juwenalia, i.e. Medykalia for medical universities<br />
  33. 33. Polish norms, values and beliefs<br />Hospitality – „A guest in the house, God in the house”. This proverb is widespread throughout Poland. Poles like getting together and any guests (especially foreigners) should expect cordial welcome. They prefer inviting guests to home rather to restaurants. Poles may ask their guests personal questions, which is a sign of genuine interest and usually talk a lot about themselves. Very popular custom is exchanging presents – e.g. flowers, home – made food, books, candies. When giving flowers, it is important to make bouquet from odd number of flowers (even number of flowers is used only for funerals). <br />
  34. 34. Polish norms, values and beliefs<br />Communication patterns – Poles in general feel free when exchanging opinions and value direct communication. They usually say what they are thinking. Level of directness depends on the kind of relationship between interlocutors. Body language is very expressive, it may seem to be offensive. Poles show their feelings and emotions publicly, their temperament is well known. Eye contact during conversation is important, but not necessary. People may interrupt others during speaking, but do not touch them (touching hands is allowed only when talking to close friends or relatives). Poles like joking, although they avoid jokes about history and politics. Topics that should be avoided are: religion, drugs, abortion, gays rights etc. <br />
  35. 35. Polish norms, values and beliefs<br />Greetings and public behavior – Poles greet each other with handshake. Close friends and family members greet with 3 kisses on the chick, which is allowed also between people from the same sex. The old-fashioned, but still appreciated is greeting woman by men by kissing her hand. <br /> Being punctual is very important. Although, coming 30 minutes late for meeting at somebody’s house is not considered to be impolite. <br /> Politeness requires from men opening door for women and generally let women go first. The same rule applies to guests of both sexes. <br />
  36. 36. Polish norms, values and beliefs<br />Getting together – families get together to celebrate birthdays and name days. They also meet on weddings, funerals and various anniversaries. During these meetings people enjoy the meal together.<br /> People in Poland prefer strong alcoholic beverages. During meetings with family and/or friends vodka is served undiluted. The most common phrase when saying toasts is „Na zdrowie” (equivalent of English „cheers”). Poles are said to be vodka drinkers, but nowadays it does not apply to everybody.<br />
  37. 37. Regional culture - Kashubians<br />West Slavic ethnic group living in Pomerania<br />Population of 80 000<br />Use kashubian language which is polish dialect, taught in regional schools<br /> Their old culture survived in architecture and folk crafts <br />
  38. 38. Kashubians in regional clothes<br />
  39. 39. Examples of kashubian’s embroidery<br />
  40. 40. Regional culture - mountaineers<br />Indigenous people living in southern Poland, northern Slovakia and northern Czech Republic<br />Their language is a polish dialect with Slovak words<br />In their culture Hungarian and Slovak impacts can be seen<br />Their architecture has distinctive style <br />
  41. 41. Mountaineers in traditional clothes<br />
  42. 42. Example of mountaineer’s architecture<br />
  43. 43. Example of traditional architecture in Zakopane – „winter’s capital of Poland”<br />
  44. 44. Polish cuisine <br />It mixes Eastern – European and German cuisine traditions with some Russian, Italian, Turkish and Jewish impacts<br />Rich in meat and winter vegetables<br />Rich in spices and noodles („kluski”)<br />Traditional cuisine is demanding in preparation<br />Number of unique regional cuisines<br />
  45. 45. Pierogi<br /><ul><li>Known also in Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine…
  46. 46. Dumplings of unleavened dough
  47. 47. May be boiled, baked or fried
  48. 48. Stuffed with potato filling, ground meat, fruits, sauerkraut, cheese, mushrooms or other ingredients</li></li></ul><li>Bigos<br /><ul><li> Typical ingredients are: sauerkraut, white cabbage, pieces of meat or sausages, dried mushrooms, whole or pureed tomatoes
  49. 49. It may be seasoned with pepper, caraway, juniper berries, bay leaf, marjoram, pimento or other ingredients
  50. 50. Usually eaten with bread or potatoes </li></li></ul><li>Żurek (sour rye soup)<br /><ul><li> Soup made of sour rye flour and meat (pork sausage, bacon or ham)
  51. 51. In some regions served with halved hard-boiled eggs
  52. 52. Easter dish
  53. 53. Known also in Lithuania, Slovakia and Czech Republic</li></li></ul><li>Gołąbki (pr. ɡɔˈwɔmpki )<br /><ul><li> Made from lightly boiled cabbage leaves wrapped around minced pork or beef and rice
  54. 54. Baked in tomato sauce
  55. 55. Word ‘gołąbki’ is plural of ‘gołąbek’ which means ‘pigeon’, but any of the ingredients has connection with pigeon meat</li></li></ul><li>Makowiec<br /><ul><li> Pastry of a roll of sweet yeast bread with a filling made from poppy, milk, butter and sugar
  56. 56. Covered with icing – sugar
  57. 57. Originally comes from Hungary
  58. 58. Christmas dessert</li></li></ul><li>Żubrówka (pr. ʐuˈbrufka)<br /><ul><li> Known also as Bison Grass Vodka
  59. 59. Dry, herb – flavored vodka
  60. 60. Distilled from rye
  61. 61. 40% alcohol
  62. 62. In each bottle it is placed a blade of buffalo grass from Białowieża Forest (forest in south – east Poland and west Belarus, where aurochs live)
  63. 63. Usually mixed with apple juice</li></li></ul><li>Polish architecture and art<br />Reflect main European trends<br />Examples of art and architecture from 10th century still remain in Poland<br />Visible German (on west) and Russian (on east) influences<br />21 polish objects (towns and buildings/places) belong to UNESCO World Heritage Site<br />Many objects were reconstructed after being destroyed in wars <br />
  64. 64. Houses around main square in Zamość<br />
  65. 65. Historic buildings in Toruń<br />
  66. 66. Evangelical „Church of the Peace” in Świdnica <br />
  67. 67. Castle in Warsaw<br />
  68. 68. „Water Palace” in Warsaw<br />
  69. 69. Castle in Książ<br />
  70. 70. Gothic city hall in Wrocław<br />
  71. 71. Gothic cathedral in Frombork<br />
  72. 72. Famous Poles<br />Mikołaj Kopernik (Nicolaus Copernicus)<br />Maria Skłodowska – Curie<br />Lech Wałęsa<br />Jan Paweł II (pope John Paul II)<br />Adam Małysz<br />
  73. 73. Mikołaj Kopernik (1473 – 1543)<br /><ul><li>Renaissance astronomer
  74. 74. First who formulated heliocentric theory
  75. 75. His works are treated as the base of modern astronomy
  76. 76. He spoke 5 languages
  77. 77. Co – author of the Copernicus – Gresham Law </li></li></ul><li>Maria Skłodowska – Curie (1867 – 1934)<br /><ul><li> Physicist and chemist
  78. 78. She worked on radioactivity
  79. 79. Won two Nobel Prizes – in chemistry and physics
  80. 80. Discoverer of two chemical elements, named by her „polonium” and „radium”</li></li></ul><li>Lech Wałęsa (1943 - )<br /><ul><li>Politician, human rights activist
  81. 81. Co – founder of Solidarity (pol. Solidarność) – first independent trade union in Soviet block
  82. 82. Polish president 1990 – 1995
  83. 83. In 1983 won Nobel Peace Prize</li></li></ul><li>Jan Paweł II (Karol wojtyła)(1920 – 2005)<br /><ul><li>Pope from 16.10.1978 to 2.04.2005
  84. 84. First non – Italian pope since 1523
  85. 85. Second – longest pontificate
  86. 86. He wanted to be a poet and studied polish philology
  87. 87. Made pastoral trips to 129 countries
  88. 88. Travelled to non – catholic countries
  89. 89. Tried to build unity among Christian churches
  90. 90. Many Poles think he was the inspirator of „peaceful revolution” that lead to collapse of communism in Poland
  91. 91. 13.05.1981 was wounded by gunman Ali Agca on St. Peter’s Square in Rome
  92. 92. Met with many presidents and representatives of other religions
  93. 93. 1.05.2011 was beatified </li></li></ul><li>Adam Małysz(1977 - ) <br /><ul><li> Best Polish ski jumper
  94. 94. One of the most successful ski jumpers in history
  95. 95. Won 4 individual Olympic Games medals
  96. 96. Has 4 individual World Cup titles (all - time record), won 39 competitions, 92 times won podium
  97. 97. 20 times won Polish Championships
  98. 98. 26.03.2011 ended his sports career
  99. 99. His last coach was Finn Hannu Lepistö</li></li></ul><li>Stereotypes about Poles<br />Poles never smile and always complain<br /> It concerns mainly older generation, who lived in communistic times. They had to face with every – day lack of many consumer goods and ridiculous situations like enormous queues, bureaucracy and propaganda. After collapse of communism quick changes have occurred, but economic recovery did not proceed without problems. People who experienced all these difficulties tend to be pessimistic. <br /> Young Poles hardly complain and are similar to their western peers. <br />
  100. 100. Stereotypes about Poles<br />Poles are intolerant<br /> It is not true. After World War I, Polish territory was inhabited only in 70% by Poles, the biggest minorities were Ukrainians, Jews and Belarusians. In addition, Poland is home for those escaping from war, disasters and poverty – mainly from former Yugoslavia, former Soviet block and Asia. As a result of this, Poles learned tolerance and acceptance for diversity. <br />
  101. 101. Stereotypes about Poles <br />Poles are notorious vodka drinkers<br /> Poland has highly developed culture of drinking vodka. Poles were drinking a lot because of difficult political situation – Partitions, wars, communism. Nowadays this bad habit seems to continue (but do not worry, you will not see drunk men staggering down the streets when visiting Poland ). According to recent surveys, Poles usually choose less strong beverages than vodka. <br />
  102. 102.
  103. 103. Interesting facts about Poland<br />Poles marry the youngest in EU (24 years for women, 26.5 for men)<br />In Poland there is a desert (!)<br />Name days more important than birthdays<br />Belief that only those couples who marry in month with letter „r” will be happy<br />Word „no” in colloquial Polish means „yes”<br />In Poland there are cities and villages with funny names, i.e.: Cold Vodka, Dog’s Heads, Heaven, Hell, America, Sweden, Death, Dry Doggie, New Horses, Athens, Crooked Knee…<br />
  104. 104. Cracow (pol. Kraków)<br />One of the oldest cities<br />Situated on the Vistula River, in south <br /> part of Poland<br />Former capital of Poland (1038 -1596)<br />Second – largest city in Poland<br />Population of 755 000<br />One of the most important economic, cultural, <br /> educational centers<br />In 2000 Cracow was European Capital of Culture<br />Full official name of Cracow is „Royal Capital City of Cracow”, because most of the Polish kings were crowned there<br />
  105. 105. Main Square in Cracow<br />
  106. 106. St. Mary church in Main Square<br />
  107. 107. Castle in Cracow<br />
  108. 108. Landscape of Polish Jura (Kraków – Częstochowa Upland)<br />
  109. 109. Barbakan (Barbican) – fragment of old city walls <br />
  110. 110. Thank you for your attention<br />