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Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29
20
International Journal of Farmacia
Journal Home page: www.ijfjournal.com
Development and in vitro evaluation of sustained release formulation of
telmisartan hydrochloride
Pamu. Sandhya *1
, K S K. Rao Patnaik 1
, C V.S. Subrahmanyam 2
1*
Department of Pharmacy, University College of Technology, Osmania University, Telangana
State, Hyderabad
2
Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Bachupally, Hyderabad, India
*Email: sandhyapasikanti@gmail.com
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to develop sustained release formulation of Telmisartan HCl to maintain constant
therapeutic levels of the drug for over 12 hrs. Eudragit RL 100, Guar gum and ethyl cellulose were employed as
polymers. Telmisartan HCl dose was fixed as 20 mg. Total weight of the tablet was considered as 300 mg. Polymers
were used in the concentration of 30, 60 and 90 mg concentration. All the formulations were passed various
physicochemical evaluation parameters and they were found to be within limits. Whereas from the dissolution
studies it was evident that the formulation (F6) showed better and desired drug release pattern i.e., 96.10 % in 12
hours. Optimized formulation drug release was fitted into different drug release kinetics, it followed zero order
release kinetics mechanism.
Keywords: Telmisartan HCL, Eudragit RL 100, Guar gum, Ethyl cellulose, Sustained release tablets.
INTRODUCTION
Sustained release tablets are commonly taken only
once or twice daily, compared with counterpart
conventional forms that may have to take three or four
times daily to achieve the same therapeutic effect.
Sustained release, prolonged release, modified release,
extended release or depot formulations are terms used
to identify drug delivery systems that are designed to
achieve or extend therapeutic effect by continuously
releasing medication over an extended period of time
after administration of a single dose. The goal in
designing sustained or sustained delivery systems is to
reduce the frequency of the dosing or to increase
effectiveness of the drug by localization at the site of
action, reducing the dose required or providing
uniform drug delivery. So, sustained release dosage
form is a dosage form that release one or more drugs
continuously in predetermined pattern for a fixed
period of time, either systemically or to a specified
target organ. Introduction of matrix tablet as sustained
release (SR) has given a new breakthrough for novel
drug delivery system in the field of Pharmaceutical
technology. It excludes complex production
procedures such as coating and Pelletization during
manufacturing and drug release rate from the dosage
form is controlled mainly by the type and proportion
of polymer used in the preparations. Hydrophilic
polymer matrix is widely used for formulating an SR
dosage form. Because of increased complication and
expense involved in marketing of new drug entities,
has focused greater attention on development of
sustained release or controlled release drug delivery
systems. Matrix systems are widely used for the
purpose of sustained release. It is the release system
which prolongs and controls the release of the drug
that is dissolved or dispersed. Modified release
delivery systems may be divided conveniently in to
four categories.
Delayed release
These systems are those that use repetitive,
intermittent dosing of a drug from one or more
immediate release units incorporated into a single
dosage form. Examples of delayed release systems
include repeat action tablets and capsules and enteric-
Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29
21
coated tablets where timed release is achieved by a
barrier coating.
Sustained release
During the last two decades there has been remarkable
increase in interest in sustained release drug delivery
system. This has been due to various factor viz. the
prohibitive cost of developing new drug entities,
expiration of existing international patents, discovery
of new polymeric materials suitable for prolonging the
drug release, and the improvement in therapeutic
efficiency and safety achieved by these delivery
systems. Now-a-days the technology of sustained
release is also being applied to veterinary products.
These systems also provide a slow release of drug over
an extended period of time and also can provide some
control, whether this be of a temporal or spatial nature,
or both, of drug release in the body, or in other words,
the system is successful at maintaining constant drug
levels in the target tissue or cells.
Controlled release
These systems include any drug delivery system that
achieves slow release of drug over an extended period
of time.
Extended release
Pharmaceutical dosage forms that release the drug
slower than normal manner at predetermined rate &
necessarily reduce the dosage frequency by two folds
Site specific targeting
These systems refer to targeting of a drug directly to a
certain biological location. In this case the target is
adjacent to or in the diseased organ or tissue.
Receptor targeting
These systems refer to targeting of a drug directly to a
certain biological location. In this case the target is the
particular receptor for a drug within an organ or tissue.
Site specific targeting and receptor targeting systems
satisfy the spatial aspect of drug delivery and are also
considered to be sustained drug delivery systems.
Design and formulation of oral sustained release
drug delivery system
The oral route of administration is the most preferred
route due to flexibility in dosage form, design and
patient compliance. But here one has to take into
consideration, the various pH that the dosage form
would encounter during its transit, the gastrointestinal
motility, the enzyme system and its influence on the
drug and the dosage form. The majority of oral
sustained release systems rely on dissolution, diffusion
or a combination of both mechanisms, to generate
slow release of drug to the gastrointestinal milieu.
Theoretically and desirably a sustained release
delivery device, should release the drug by a zero-
order process which would result in a blood level time
profile similar to that after intravenous constant rate
infusion. Sustained (zero-order) drug release has been
attempted to be achieved with various classes of
sustained drug delivery system
AIM AND OBJECTIVE
Aim of the study is to formulate and evaluate
Telmisartan HCl sustained release tablets using
different polymers such as Guar gum, Ethyl cellulose
and various grades of polymethacrylate polymers.
Microcrystalline cellulose as diluents
METHODOLOGY
Analytical method development
Determination of absorption maxima
100mg of Telmisartan HCl pure drug was dissolved in
100ml of Methanol (stock solution)10ml of above
solution was taken and make up with100ml by using
0.1 N HCl (100μg/ml).From this 10ml was taken and
make up with 100 ml of 0.1 N HCl (10μg/ml) and pH
6.8 Phosphate buffer UV spectrums was taken using
Double beam UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The solution
was scanned in the range of 200 – 400.
Preparation of calibration curve
100mg of Telmisartan HCl pure drug was dissolved in
100ml of Methanol (stock solution)10ml of above
solution was taken and make up with100ml by using
0.1 N HCl (100μg/ml).From this 10ml was taken and
make up with 100 ml of 0.1 N HCl (10μg/ml). The
above solution was subsequently diluted with 0.1N
HCl to obtain series of dilutions Containing 5,10,15,20
and 25 μg/ml of Telmisartan per ml of solution. The
absorbance of the above dilutions was measured at 232
nm by using UV-Spectrophotometer taking 0.1N HCl
as blank. Then a graph was plotted by taking
Concentration on X-Axis and Absorbance on Y-Axis
which gives a straight line Linearity of standard curve
was assessed from the square of correlation coefficient
(R2
)which determined by least-square linear regression
analysis.
Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29
22
Table 1: Formulation chart Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy
The physical properties of the physical mixture were
compared with those of plain drug. Samples was mixed
thoroughly with 100mg potassium bromide IR powder
and compacted under vacuum at a pressure of about 12
psi for 3 minutes. The resultant disc was mounted in a
suitable holder in Perkin Elmer IR spectrophotometer
and the IR spectrum was recorded from 3500 cm to
500 cm. The resultant spectrum was compared for any
spectrum changes.
Preformulation parameters
The quality of tablet, once formulated by rule, is
generally dictated by the quality of physicochemical
properties of blends. There are many formulations and
process variables involved in mixing and all these can
affect the characteristics of blends produced. The
various characteristics of blends tested as per
Pharmacopoeia.
Formulation development of tablets
All the formulations were prepared by direct
compression. The compositions of different
formulations are given in Table 1.The tablets were
prepared as per the procedure given below and aim i
s to prolong the release of Telmisartan. Total weight of
the tablet was considered as 300mg.
Evaluation of post compression parameters for
prepared tablets
Weight variation test
Thickness
Hardness
Friability
Formulation composition for tablets
Determination of drug content
Tablets were tested for their drug content. Ten tablets
were finely powdered quantities of the powder
equivalent to one tablet weight of drug were accurately
weighed, transferred to a 100 ml volumetric flask
containing 50 ml water and were allowed to stand to
ensure complete solubility of the drug. The mixture
was made up to volume with media. The solution was
suitably diluted and the absorption was determined by
UV –Visible spectrophotometer. The drug
concentration was calculated from the calibration
curve.
In vitro drug release studies
Dissolution parameters
Apparatus -- USP-II,
Paddle type
Dissolution Medium -- 0.1 N HCl pH
1.2, p H 6.8 Phophate buffer
RPM -- 50
Sampling intervals (hrs)
0.5,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,11,12
Temperature -- 37°c + 0.5°
Procedure
900ml 0f 0.1 HCl was placed in vessel and the USP
apparatus –II (Paddle Method) was assembled. The
medium was allowed to equilibrate to temp of 37°c +
Form
No.
Telmisartan β
cyclodextrin
Eudragit RL
100
Guar
gum
Ethyl
cellulose
Mag.
Stearate
Talc MCC
pH
102
F1 20 15 30 - - 3 3 244
F2 20 15 60 - - 3 3 86
F3 20 15 90 - - 3 3 116
F4 20 15 - 30 - 3 3 56
F5 20 15 - 60 - 3 3 86
F6 20 15 - 90 - 3 3 116
F7 20 15 - - 30 3 3 56
F8 20 15 - - 60 3 3 86
F9 20 15 - - 90 3 3 96
Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29
23
0.5°c. Tablet was placed in the vessel and apparatus
was operated for 2 hours and then the media 0.1 N
HCl was removed and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was
added process was continued from upto 12 hrs at 50
rpm. At definite time intervals withdrawn 5 ml of
sample, filtered and again 5ml media was replaced.
Suitable dilutions were done with media and analyzed
by spectrophotometrically at 232 and 233nm using
UV-spectrophotometer.
Application of release rate kinetics to dissolution
data
Various models were tested for explaining the kinetics
of drug release. To analyze the mechanism of the drug
release rate kinetics of the dosage form, the obtained
data were fitted into zero-order, first order, Higuchi,
and Korsmeyer-Peppas release model.
Zero order release rate kinetics
To study the zero–order release kinetics the release rate
data ar e fitted to the following equation.
F = Ko t Where, ‘F’ is the drug release at time ‘t’, and
‘Ko’ is the zero order release rate constant. The plot of
% drug release versus time is linear.
First order release rate kinetics
The release rate data are fitted to the following
equation Log (100-F) = kt A plot of log cumulative
percent of drug remaining to be released vs. time is
plotted then it gives first order release.
Higuchi release model
To study the Higuchi release kinetics, the release rate
data were fitted to the following equation.
F = k t1/2 Where, ‘k’ is the Higuchi constant. In
higuchi model, a plot of % drug release versus square
root of time is linear.
Korsmeyer and Peppas release model
The mechanism of drug release was evaluated by
plotting the log percentage of drug released versus log
time according to Korsmeyer- Peppas equation. The
exponent ‘n’ indicates the mechanism of drug release
calculated through the slope of the straight Line.
Mt/ M∞ = K tn
Where, Mt/ M∞ is fraction of drug released at time ‘t’, k
represents a constant, and ‘n’ is the diffusional
exponent, which characterizes the type of release
mechanism during the dissolution process. For non-
Fickian release, the value of n falls between 0.5 and
1.0;while in case of Fickian diffusion, n = 0.5; for zero-
order release (case I I transport),n=1; and for super case
II transport, n > 1.In this model, a plot of log (Mt/ M∞)
versus log (time) is linear.
Hixson-crowell release model
(100-Qt)1/3
= 1001/3
– KHC.t Where, k is the Hixson-
Crowell rate constant. Hixson-Crowell model describes
the release of drugs from an insoluble matrix through
mainly erosion. (Where there is a change in surface
area and diameter of particles or tablets).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The present study was aimed to developing Sustained
release tablets of Telmisartan using various polymers.
All the formulations were evaluated for
physicochemical properties and invitro drug release
studies.
Analytical method
Graphs of Telmisartan were taken in Simulated Gastric
fluid (pH 1.2) and in p H 6.8 phosphate buffer at 232
nm and 233 nm respectively.
Table 2: Observations for standard graph of telmisartan in 0.1N Hcl (232nm)
Conc [µg/ml] Absorbance
0 0
5 0.104
10 0.205
15 0.302
20 0.411
25 0.503
Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29
24
Fig 1: Standard graph of Telmisartan in 0.1N HCl
Table 3: Observations for graph of Telmisartan in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer (233nm)
Conc [µg/l] Abs
0 0
5 0.098
10 0.195
15 0.298
20 0.392
25 0.490
Fig 2: Standard graph of Telmisartan pH 6.8 phosphate buffer (233nm
y = 0.0196x + 0.0001
R² = 0.9999
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Absorbance
Conc. µg/ml
Standard graph of telmisartan in 0.1N HCl (232nm)
y = 0.0196x + 0.0001
R² = 0.9999
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Absorbance
Conc. µg/ml
Standard graph of telmisartan in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer
(233nm)
Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29
25
Drug – Excipient compatability studies Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy
Fig 3: FT-TR Spectrum of Telmisartan pure drug
Fig 4: FT-IR Spectrum of Optimised Formulation
Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29
26
Table 4: Preformulation parameters of powder blend
Formulation
Code
Angle of
Repose
Bulk density
(gm/ml)
Tapped density
(gm/ml)
Carr’s index
(%)
Hausner’s
Ratio
F1 25.11 0.49±0.04 0.54±0.04 16.21±0.06 1.10±0.06
F2 25.67 0.42±0.09 0.52±0.04 16.87±0.05 1.23±0.05
F3 25.54 0.50±0.05 0.58±0.05 17.11±0.01 1.16±0.03
F4 25.43 0.51±0.06 0.59±0.07 17.67±0.08 1.15±0.04
F5 25.34 0.47±0.03 0.57±0.03 16.92±0.04 1.2±0.08
F6 24.22 0.53±0.04 0.56±0.06 17.65±0.09 1.06±0.09
F7 25.18 0.49±0.06 0.59±0.04 16.43±0.05 1.2±0.03
F8 24.22 0.58±0.04 0.67±0.02 17.97±0.02 1.15±0.09
F9 25.05 0.45±0.08 0.52±0.03 17.54±0.09 1.15±0.02
Pre-formulation parameters of core blend
Tablet powder blend was subjected to various pre-
formulation parameters. The angle of repose values
indicates that the powder blend has good flow
properties. The bulk density of all the formulations
was found to be in the range of 0.42±0.07 to
0.58±0.06 (gm/cm3) showing that the powder has
good flow properties. The tapped density of all the
formulations was found to be in the range of
0.52±0.04 to 0.67±0.02 showing the powder has good
flow properties. The compressibility index of all the
formulations was found to be ranging between 16 to
18 which shows that the powder has good flow
properties. All the formulations has shown the hausner
ratio ranging between 0 to 1.2 indicating the powder
has good flow properties.
Quality control tests
Tablet quality control tests such as weight variation,
hardness, and friability, thickness, and drug release
studies in different media were performed on the
compression coated tablet.
Table 5: Quality control tests
Formulation Weight
variation(mg)
Hardness(kg/cm2) Friability
(%loss)
Thickness
(mm)
Drug content
(%)
F1 312.5 4.5 0.50 3.8 99.76
F2 305.4 4.5 0.51 3.9 99.45
F3 308.6 4.4 0.51 3.9 98.34
F4 300.6 4.5 0.55 3.9 98.87
F5 309.4 4.4 0.56 3.7 99.14
F6 310.7 4.5 0.45 3.7 98.56
F7 302.3 4.1 0.51 3.4 98.42
F8 301.2 4.3 0.49 3.7 99.65
F9 298.3 4.5 0.55 3.6 99.12
In-vitro quality control parameters for tablets
All the parameters such as weight variation, friability,
hardness, thickness and drug content were found to be
within limits.
Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29
27
Table 6: In-vitro drug release studies
Time
(hr)
Cumulative percent drug dissolved
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9
0.5 25.5 20.1 16.4 17.25 16.42 14.62 10.4 9.4 8.5
1 46.7 33.4 23.7 38.26 25.73 19.86 16.5 15.6 14.5
2 76.5 45.3 31.6 54.16 36.63 22.35 28.6 21.4 18.4
3 98.4 56.3 40.4 72.01 45.04 31.45 39.5 36.7 23.4
4 77.3 53.4 88.26 58.25 39.80 48.5 42.4 28.2
5 89.4 59.4 97.10 65.33 45.25 59.4 49.6 34.8
6 95.34 65.4 76.41 58.24 69.2 55.3 40.2
7 71.5 84.84 66.73 74.5 60.3 44.8
8 87.3 97.80 71.34 82.3 72.8 50.4
9 97.45 75.52 87.78 83.52 63.34
10 82.17 98.78 88.65 69.27
11 87.10 96.56 74.86
12 96.10 79.97
Fig 5: In-vitro drug release studies
Application of release rate kinetics to dissolution
data
Various models were tested for explaining the kinetics
of drug release. To analyze the mechanism of the drug
release rate kinetics of the dosage form, the obtained
data were fitted into zero-order, first order, Higuchi,
and Korsmeyer-Peppas release model.
Table 7: Release rate kinetics
Cumulativepercentdrugdissolved
Time (hours)
Dissolution profile of Telmisartan formulations F1- F9
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29
28
Cumulative
(%) release q
time
( t )
Log (%) release log (%)
remain
release rate
(cumulative %
release / t)
1/cum%
release
peppas
log q/100
% drug
remaining
0 0 2.000 100
14.62 0.5 1.165 1.931 29.240 0.0684 -0.835 85.38
19.86 1 1.298 1.904 19.860 0.0504 -0.702 80.14
22.35 2 1.349 1.890 11.175 0.0447 -0.651 77.65
31.45 3 1.498 1.836 10.483 0.0318 -0.502 68.55
39.8 4 1.600 1.780 9.950 0.0251 -0.400 60.2
45.25 5 1.656 1.738 9.050 0.0221 -0.344 54.75
58.24 6 1.765 1.621 9.707 0.0172 -0.235 41.76
66.73 7 1.824 1.522 9.533 0.0150 -0.176 33.27
71.34 8 1.853 1.457 8.918 0.0140 -0.147 28.66
75.52 9 1.878 1.389 8.391 0.0132 -0.122 24.48
82.17 10 1.915 1.251 8.217 0.0122 -0.085 17.83
87.1 11 1.940 1.111 7.918 0.0115 -0.060 12.9
96.1 12 1.983 0.591 8.008 0.0104 -0.017 3.9
Fig 6: Zero order release kinetics graph for F6
Fig 7: Higuchi release kinetics graph for F6
y = 28.183x - 9.5512
R² = 0.963
Cumulative%drugrelease
Root Time
Higuchi drug release kinetics
y = 7.4615x + 8.9146
R² = 0.9847
Cumulative%drugrelase
time
Zero order drug release kinetics
Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29
29
Fig 8: Peppas release kinetics graph for F6
Fig 9: First order release kinetics graph for F6
From the above graphs it was evident that the
formulation F6 was followed Zero order release
kinetics.
CONCLUSION
The aim of the present study was to develop sustained
release formulation of Telmisartan HCl. Eudragit RL
100, Guar gum and ethyl cellulose were employed as
polymers. Telmisartan HCl dose was fixed as 20 mg.
Total weight of the tablet was 300 mg. Polymers were
used in the concentration of 10, 20 and 30 %
concentration. All the formulations were passed
various physicochemical evaluation parameters and
they were found to be within limits. Whereas from the
dissolution studies it was evident that the formulation
(F6) showed better and desired drug release pattern
i.e., 96.10 % in 12 hours. The drug release pattern
followed zero order release kinetics mechanism.
REFERENCES
[1]. Altaf AS, Friend DR, MASRx and COSRx. Sustained-Release Technology in Rathbone MJ, Hadgraft J, Robert
MS, Modified Release Drug Delivery Technology, Marcell Dekker Inc., New York, 2003; 1: 102-117.
[2]. Reddy KR., Mutalik S, Reddy S. AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech.2003; 4: 19. 121-125.
[3]. Mohammed AD et al. Release of propranolol hydrochloride from matrix tablets containing sodium
carboxymethylcellulose and Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. Pharm Dev Tech.1999; 4: 313-324.
[4]. Salsa T, Veiga F. Drug Develop. Ind Pharm. 1997; 23: 931.
[5]. Jantzen GM, Robinson JR, Sustained and controlled-release drug delivery systems, inBanker GS, Rhodes CT
(Eds.) Modern Pharmaceutics, 3rd
Ed, Revised andExpanded, Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences., Marcell
Dekker, Inc. NewYork. 1995; 72: 575-609.
[6]. Jantzen GM, Robinson JR. Sustained and Controlled- Release Drug Delivery systems Modern Pharmaceutics,
4th
ed; 2003; 121: 501-502.
y = 60.23x + 15.834
R² = 0.8582
LogCumulative%drug
release
Log Time
Peppas drug release kinetics
y = -0.0912x + 2.084
R² = 0.8755
Log%drugremaining
time
First order drug release kinetics

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Development and in vitro evaluation of sustained release formulation of telmisartan hydrochloride

  • 1. Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29 20 International Journal of Farmacia Journal Home page: www.ijfjournal.com Development and in vitro evaluation of sustained release formulation of telmisartan hydrochloride Pamu. Sandhya *1 , K S K. Rao Patnaik 1 , C V.S. Subrahmanyam 2 1* Department of Pharmacy, University College of Technology, Osmania University, Telangana State, Hyderabad 2 Gokaraju Rangaraju College of Pharmacy, Bachupally, Hyderabad, India *Email: sandhyapasikanti@gmail.com Abstract The aim of the present study was to develop sustained release formulation of Telmisartan HCl to maintain constant therapeutic levels of the drug for over 12 hrs. Eudragit RL 100, Guar gum and ethyl cellulose were employed as polymers. Telmisartan HCl dose was fixed as 20 mg. Total weight of the tablet was considered as 300 mg. Polymers were used in the concentration of 30, 60 and 90 mg concentration. All the formulations were passed various physicochemical evaluation parameters and they were found to be within limits. Whereas from the dissolution studies it was evident that the formulation (F6) showed better and desired drug release pattern i.e., 96.10 % in 12 hours. Optimized formulation drug release was fitted into different drug release kinetics, it followed zero order release kinetics mechanism. Keywords: Telmisartan HCL, Eudragit RL 100, Guar gum, Ethyl cellulose, Sustained release tablets. INTRODUCTION Sustained release tablets are commonly taken only once or twice daily, compared with counterpart conventional forms that may have to take three or four times daily to achieve the same therapeutic effect. Sustained release, prolonged release, modified release, extended release or depot formulations are terms used to identify drug delivery systems that are designed to achieve or extend therapeutic effect by continuously releasing medication over an extended period of time after administration of a single dose. The goal in designing sustained or sustained delivery systems is to reduce the frequency of the dosing or to increase effectiveness of the drug by localization at the site of action, reducing the dose required or providing uniform drug delivery. So, sustained release dosage form is a dosage form that release one or more drugs continuously in predetermined pattern for a fixed period of time, either systemically or to a specified target organ. Introduction of matrix tablet as sustained release (SR) has given a new breakthrough for novel drug delivery system in the field of Pharmaceutical technology. It excludes complex production procedures such as coating and Pelletization during manufacturing and drug release rate from the dosage form is controlled mainly by the type and proportion of polymer used in the preparations. Hydrophilic polymer matrix is widely used for formulating an SR dosage form. Because of increased complication and expense involved in marketing of new drug entities, has focused greater attention on development of sustained release or controlled release drug delivery systems. Matrix systems are widely used for the purpose of sustained release. It is the release system which prolongs and controls the release of the drug that is dissolved or dispersed. Modified release delivery systems may be divided conveniently in to four categories. Delayed release These systems are those that use repetitive, intermittent dosing of a drug from one or more immediate release units incorporated into a single dosage form. Examples of delayed release systems include repeat action tablets and capsules and enteric-
  • 2. Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29 21 coated tablets where timed release is achieved by a barrier coating. Sustained release During the last two decades there has been remarkable increase in interest in sustained release drug delivery system. This has been due to various factor viz. the prohibitive cost of developing new drug entities, expiration of existing international patents, discovery of new polymeric materials suitable for prolonging the drug release, and the improvement in therapeutic efficiency and safety achieved by these delivery systems. Now-a-days the technology of sustained release is also being applied to veterinary products. These systems also provide a slow release of drug over an extended period of time and also can provide some control, whether this be of a temporal or spatial nature, or both, of drug release in the body, or in other words, the system is successful at maintaining constant drug levels in the target tissue or cells. Controlled release These systems include any drug delivery system that achieves slow release of drug over an extended period of time. Extended release Pharmaceutical dosage forms that release the drug slower than normal manner at predetermined rate & necessarily reduce the dosage frequency by two folds Site specific targeting These systems refer to targeting of a drug directly to a certain biological location. In this case the target is adjacent to or in the diseased organ or tissue. Receptor targeting These systems refer to targeting of a drug directly to a certain biological location. In this case the target is the particular receptor for a drug within an organ or tissue. Site specific targeting and receptor targeting systems satisfy the spatial aspect of drug delivery and are also considered to be sustained drug delivery systems. Design and formulation of oral sustained release drug delivery system The oral route of administration is the most preferred route due to flexibility in dosage form, design and patient compliance. But here one has to take into consideration, the various pH that the dosage form would encounter during its transit, the gastrointestinal motility, the enzyme system and its influence on the drug and the dosage form. The majority of oral sustained release systems rely on dissolution, diffusion or a combination of both mechanisms, to generate slow release of drug to the gastrointestinal milieu. Theoretically and desirably a sustained release delivery device, should release the drug by a zero- order process which would result in a blood level time profile similar to that after intravenous constant rate infusion. Sustained (zero-order) drug release has been attempted to be achieved with various classes of sustained drug delivery system AIM AND OBJECTIVE Aim of the study is to formulate and evaluate Telmisartan HCl sustained release tablets using different polymers such as Guar gum, Ethyl cellulose and various grades of polymethacrylate polymers. Microcrystalline cellulose as diluents METHODOLOGY Analytical method development Determination of absorption maxima 100mg of Telmisartan HCl pure drug was dissolved in 100ml of Methanol (stock solution)10ml of above solution was taken and make up with100ml by using 0.1 N HCl (100μg/ml).From this 10ml was taken and make up with 100 ml of 0.1 N HCl (10μg/ml) and pH 6.8 Phosphate buffer UV spectrums was taken using Double beam UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The solution was scanned in the range of 200 – 400. Preparation of calibration curve 100mg of Telmisartan HCl pure drug was dissolved in 100ml of Methanol (stock solution)10ml of above solution was taken and make up with100ml by using 0.1 N HCl (100μg/ml).From this 10ml was taken and make up with 100 ml of 0.1 N HCl (10μg/ml). The above solution was subsequently diluted with 0.1N HCl to obtain series of dilutions Containing 5,10,15,20 and 25 μg/ml of Telmisartan per ml of solution. The absorbance of the above dilutions was measured at 232 nm by using UV-Spectrophotometer taking 0.1N HCl as blank. Then a graph was plotted by taking Concentration on X-Axis and Absorbance on Y-Axis which gives a straight line Linearity of standard curve was assessed from the square of correlation coefficient (R2 )which determined by least-square linear regression analysis.
  • 3. Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29 22 Table 1: Formulation chart Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy The physical properties of the physical mixture were compared with those of plain drug. Samples was mixed thoroughly with 100mg potassium bromide IR powder and compacted under vacuum at a pressure of about 12 psi for 3 minutes. The resultant disc was mounted in a suitable holder in Perkin Elmer IR spectrophotometer and the IR spectrum was recorded from 3500 cm to 500 cm. The resultant spectrum was compared for any spectrum changes. Preformulation parameters The quality of tablet, once formulated by rule, is generally dictated by the quality of physicochemical properties of blends. There are many formulations and process variables involved in mixing and all these can affect the characteristics of blends produced. The various characteristics of blends tested as per Pharmacopoeia. Formulation development of tablets All the formulations were prepared by direct compression. The compositions of different formulations are given in Table 1.The tablets were prepared as per the procedure given below and aim i s to prolong the release of Telmisartan. Total weight of the tablet was considered as 300mg. Evaluation of post compression parameters for prepared tablets Weight variation test Thickness Hardness Friability Formulation composition for tablets Determination of drug content Tablets were tested for their drug content. Ten tablets were finely powdered quantities of the powder equivalent to one tablet weight of drug were accurately weighed, transferred to a 100 ml volumetric flask containing 50 ml water and were allowed to stand to ensure complete solubility of the drug. The mixture was made up to volume with media. The solution was suitably diluted and the absorption was determined by UV –Visible spectrophotometer. The drug concentration was calculated from the calibration curve. In vitro drug release studies Dissolution parameters Apparatus -- USP-II, Paddle type Dissolution Medium -- 0.1 N HCl pH 1.2, p H 6.8 Phophate buffer RPM -- 50 Sampling intervals (hrs) 0.5,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,11,12 Temperature -- 37°c + 0.5° Procedure 900ml 0f 0.1 HCl was placed in vessel and the USP apparatus –II (Paddle Method) was assembled. The medium was allowed to equilibrate to temp of 37°c + Form No. Telmisartan β cyclodextrin Eudragit RL 100 Guar gum Ethyl cellulose Mag. Stearate Talc MCC pH 102 F1 20 15 30 - - 3 3 244 F2 20 15 60 - - 3 3 86 F3 20 15 90 - - 3 3 116 F4 20 15 - 30 - 3 3 56 F5 20 15 - 60 - 3 3 86 F6 20 15 - 90 - 3 3 116 F7 20 15 - - 30 3 3 56 F8 20 15 - - 60 3 3 86 F9 20 15 - - 90 3 3 96
  • 4. Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29 23 0.5°c. Tablet was placed in the vessel and apparatus was operated for 2 hours and then the media 0.1 N HCl was removed and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was added process was continued from upto 12 hrs at 50 rpm. At definite time intervals withdrawn 5 ml of sample, filtered and again 5ml media was replaced. Suitable dilutions were done with media and analyzed by spectrophotometrically at 232 and 233nm using UV-spectrophotometer. Application of release rate kinetics to dissolution data Various models were tested for explaining the kinetics of drug release. To analyze the mechanism of the drug release rate kinetics of the dosage form, the obtained data were fitted into zero-order, first order, Higuchi, and Korsmeyer-Peppas release model. Zero order release rate kinetics To study the zero–order release kinetics the release rate data ar e fitted to the following equation. F = Ko t Where, ‘F’ is the drug release at time ‘t’, and ‘Ko’ is the zero order release rate constant. The plot of % drug release versus time is linear. First order release rate kinetics The release rate data are fitted to the following equation Log (100-F) = kt A plot of log cumulative percent of drug remaining to be released vs. time is plotted then it gives first order release. Higuchi release model To study the Higuchi release kinetics, the release rate data were fitted to the following equation. F = k t1/2 Where, ‘k’ is the Higuchi constant. In higuchi model, a plot of % drug release versus square root of time is linear. Korsmeyer and Peppas release model The mechanism of drug release was evaluated by plotting the log percentage of drug released versus log time according to Korsmeyer- Peppas equation. The exponent ‘n’ indicates the mechanism of drug release calculated through the slope of the straight Line. Mt/ M∞ = K tn Where, Mt/ M∞ is fraction of drug released at time ‘t’, k represents a constant, and ‘n’ is the diffusional exponent, which characterizes the type of release mechanism during the dissolution process. For non- Fickian release, the value of n falls between 0.5 and 1.0;while in case of Fickian diffusion, n = 0.5; for zero- order release (case I I transport),n=1; and for super case II transport, n > 1.In this model, a plot of log (Mt/ M∞) versus log (time) is linear. Hixson-crowell release model (100-Qt)1/3 = 1001/3 – KHC.t Where, k is the Hixson- Crowell rate constant. Hixson-Crowell model describes the release of drugs from an insoluble matrix through mainly erosion. (Where there is a change in surface area and diameter of particles or tablets). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The present study was aimed to developing Sustained release tablets of Telmisartan using various polymers. All the formulations were evaluated for physicochemical properties and invitro drug release studies. Analytical method Graphs of Telmisartan were taken in Simulated Gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and in p H 6.8 phosphate buffer at 232 nm and 233 nm respectively. Table 2: Observations for standard graph of telmisartan in 0.1N Hcl (232nm) Conc [µg/ml] Absorbance 0 0 5 0.104 10 0.205 15 0.302 20 0.411 25 0.503
  • 5. Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29 24 Fig 1: Standard graph of Telmisartan in 0.1N HCl Table 3: Observations for graph of Telmisartan in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer (233nm) Conc [µg/l] Abs 0 0 5 0.098 10 0.195 15 0.298 20 0.392 25 0.490 Fig 2: Standard graph of Telmisartan pH 6.8 phosphate buffer (233nm y = 0.0196x + 0.0001 R² = 0.9999 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Absorbance Conc. µg/ml Standard graph of telmisartan in 0.1N HCl (232nm) y = 0.0196x + 0.0001 R² = 0.9999 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Absorbance Conc. µg/ml Standard graph of telmisartan in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer (233nm)
  • 6. Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29 25 Drug – Excipient compatability studies Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy Fig 3: FT-TR Spectrum of Telmisartan pure drug Fig 4: FT-IR Spectrum of Optimised Formulation
  • 7. Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29 26 Table 4: Preformulation parameters of powder blend Formulation Code Angle of Repose Bulk density (gm/ml) Tapped density (gm/ml) Carr’s index (%) Hausner’s Ratio F1 25.11 0.49±0.04 0.54±0.04 16.21±0.06 1.10±0.06 F2 25.67 0.42±0.09 0.52±0.04 16.87±0.05 1.23±0.05 F3 25.54 0.50±0.05 0.58±0.05 17.11±0.01 1.16±0.03 F4 25.43 0.51±0.06 0.59±0.07 17.67±0.08 1.15±0.04 F5 25.34 0.47±0.03 0.57±0.03 16.92±0.04 1.2±0.08 F6 24.22 0.53±0.04 0.56±0.06 17.65±0.09 1.06±0.09 F7 25.18 0.49±0.06 0.59±0.04 16.43±0.05 1.2±0.03 F8 24.22 0.58±0.04 0.67±0.02 17.97±0.02 1.15±0.09 F9 25.05 0.45±0.08 0.52±0.03 17.54±0.09 1.15±0.02 Pre-formulation parameters of core blend Tablet powder blend was subjected to various pre- formulation parameters. The angle of repose values indicates that the powder blend has good flow properties. The bulk density of all the formulations was found to be in the range of 0.42±0.07 to 0.58±0.06 (gm/cm3) showing that the powder has good flow properties. The tapped density of all the formulations was found to be in the range of 0.52±0.04 to 0.67±0.02 showing the powder has good flow properties. The compressibility index of all the formulations was found to be ranging between 16 to 18 which shows that the powder has good flow properties. All the formulations has shown the hausner ratio ranging between 0 to 1.2 indicating the powder has good flow properties. Quality control tests Tablet quality control tests such as weight variation, hardness, and friability, thickness, and drug release studies in different media were performed on the compression coated tablet. Table 5: Quality control tests Formulation Weight variation(mg) Hardness(kg/cm2) Friability (%loss) Thickness (mm) Drug content (%) F1 312.5 4.5 0.50 3.8 99.76 F2 305.4 4.5 0.51 3.9 99.45 F3 308.6 4.4 0.51 3.9 98.34 F4 300.6 4.5 0.55 3.9 98.87 F5 309.4 4.4 0.56 3.7 99.14 F6 310.7 4.5 0.45 3.7 98.56 F7 302.3 4.1 0.51 3.4 98.42 F8 301.2 4.3 0.49 3.7 99.65 F9 298.3 4.5 0.55 3.6 99.12 In-vitro quality control parameters for tablets All the parameters such as weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness and drug content were found to be within limits.
  • 8. Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29 27 Table 6: In-vitro drug release studies Time (hr) Cumulative percent drug dissolved F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 0.5 25.5 20.1 16.4 17.25 16.42 14.62 10.4 9.4 8.5 1 46.7 33.4 23.7 38.26 25.73 19.86 16.5 15.6 14.5 2 76.5 45.3 31.6 54.16 36.63 22.35 28.6 21.4 18.4 3 98.4 56.3 40.4 72.01 45.04 31.45 39.5 36.7 23.4 4 77.3 53.4 88.26 58.25 39.80 48.5 42.4 28.2 5 89.4 59.4 97.10 65.33 45.25 59.4 49.6 34.8 6 95.34 65.4 76.41 58.24 69.2 55.3 40.2 7 71.5 84.84 66.73 74.5 60.3 44.8 8 87.3 97.80 71.34 82.3 72.8 50.4 9 97.45 75.52 87.78 83.52 63.34 10 82.17 98.78 88.65 69.27 11 87.10 96.56 74.86 12 96.10 79.97 Fig 5: In-vitro drug release studies Application of release rate kinetics to dissolution data Various models were tested for explaining the kinetics of drug release. To analyze the mechanism of the drug release rate kinetics of the dosage form, the obtained data were fitted into zero-order, first order, Higuchi, and Korsmeyer-Peppas release model. Table 7: Release rate kinetics Cumulativepercentdrugdissolved Time (hours) Dissolution profile of Telmisartan formulations F1- F9 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9
  • 9. Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29 28 Cumulative (%) release q time ( t ) Log (%) release log (%) remain release rate (cumulative % release / t) 1/cum% release peppas log q/100 % drug remaining 0 0 2.000 100 14.62 0.5 1.165 1.931 29.240 0.0684 -0.835 85.38 19.86 1 1.298 1.904 19.860 0.0504 -0.702 80.14 22.35 2 1.349 1.890 11.175 0.0447 -0.651 77.65 31.45 3 1.498 1.836 10.483 0.0318 -0.502 68.55 39.8 4 1.600 1.780 9.950 0.0251 -0.400 60.2 45.25 5 1.656 1.738 9.050 0.0221 -0.344 54.75 58.24 6 1.765 1.621 9.707 0.0172 -0.235 41.76 66.73 7 1.824 1.522 9.533 0.0150 -0.176 33.27 71.34 8 1.853 1.457 8.918 0.0140 -0.147 28.66 75.52 9 1.878 1.389 8.391 0.0132 -0.122 24.48 82.17 10 1.915 1.251 8.217 0.0122 -0.085 17.83 87.1 11 1.940 1.111 7.918 0.0115 -0.060 12.9 96.1 12 1.983 0.591 8.008 0.0104 -0.017 3.9 Fig 6: Zero order release kinetics graph for F6 Fig 7: Higuchi release kinetics graph for F6 y = 28.183x - 9.5512 R² = 0.963 Cumulative%drugrelease Root Time Higuchi drug release kinetics y = 7.4615x + 8.9146 R² = 0.9847 Cumulative%drugrelase time Zero order drug release kinetics
  • 10. Pamu. S et al / Int. J. of Farmacia, Vol-1, Issue 1, (July. – Sep. 2015), Pg. 20 -29 29 Fig 8: Peppas release kinetics graph for F6 Fig 9: First order release kinetics graph for F6 From the above graphs it was evident that the formulation F6 was followed Zero order release kinetics. CONCLUSION The aim of the present study was to develop sustained release formulation of Telmisartan HCl. Eudragit RL 100, Guar gum and ethyl cellulose were employed as polymers. Telmisartan HCl dose was fixed as 20 mg. Total weight of the tablet was 300 mg. Polymers were used in the concentration of 10, 20 and 30 % concentration. All the formulations were passed various physicochemical evaluation parameters and they were found to be within limits. Whereas from the dissolution studies it was evident that the formulation (F6) showed better and desired drug release pattern i.e., 96.10 % in 12 hours. The drug release pattern followed zero order release kinetics mechanism. REFERENCES [1]. Altaf AS, Friend DR, MASRx and COSRx. Sustained-Release Technology in Rathbone MJ, Hadgraft J, Robert MS, Modified Release Drug Delivery Technology, Marcell Dekker Inc., New York, 2003; 1: 102-117. [2]. Reddy KR., Mutalik S, Reddy S. AAPS Pharm. Sci. Tech.2003; 4: 19. 121-125. [3]. Mohammed AD et al. Release of propranolol hydrochloride from matrix tablets containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose and Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. Pharm Dev Tech.1999; 4: 313-324. [4]. Salsa T, Veiga F. Drug Develop. Ind Pharm. 1997; 23: 931. [5]. Jantzen GM, Robinson JR, Sustained and controlled-release drug delivery systems, inBanker GS, Rhodes CT (Eds.) Modern Pharmaceutics, 3rd Ed, Revised andExpanded, Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences., Marcell Dekker, Inc. NewYork. 1995; 72: 575-609. [6]. Jantzen GM, Robinson JR. Sustained and Controlled- Release Drug Delivery systems Modern Pharmaceutics, 4th ed; 2003; 121: 501-502. y = 60.23x + 15.834 R² = 0.8582 LogCumulative%drug release Log Time Peppas drug release kinetics y = -0.0912x + 2.084 R² = 0.8755 Log%drugremaining time First order drug release kinetics