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Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116]
108
IJPCR |Volume 2 | Issue 2 | July – Dec- 2018
www.ijpcr.net
Research article Clinical research
In vitro and in vivo evaluation on fishes of anti-inflammatory potential of
Agaricus bisporus
Balasubramanian.S*, DivyaDevi.V, Jayakodi.A, Kodeeswari.G, Ranjitha.A.V and
Tamilvani.P
C.L.Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Chennai
*
Address for correspondence: Balasubramanian.S
ABSTRACT
Agaricus bisporus has been studied for many activities except for its anti-inflammatory potential completely both by
in vitro and in vivo experiments. In the present study it was evaluated for the same using egg albumin for in vitro
study and fish as the model for in vivo evaluation and found to have remarkable anti-inflammatory activity on both
experiments. As expected with any natural drug the activity was better at higher doses.
Keywords: Agaricus bisporus, Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia fish), anti-inflammatory
INTRODUCTION
Agaricus bisporus is a most widely cultivated
edible mushroom and represents more than 40% of
world’s consumption of mushrooms. It is believed
to have high biological activity, low toxicity and
has significant folklore and ethno-pharmacological
use. Although we often think fungi as disease
causing organisms, it has other properties also
useful to humanity. For example, fungi produce
antibiotics like Penicillin and Cephalosporin. It is
also useful in the production of immune
suppressant drug Cyclosporine and as a precursor
for steroid hormones. Ergot is another best example
for fungi as a drug [1]. Hence it has been evaluated
for many activities like Antioxidative, Antiaging,
Hepatoprotective, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic,
Antimelanogenesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity
[2-8] In this work the most popular fungi Agaricus
bisporus was taken up for studying its anti-
inflammatory potential. Initially in vitro method
established its potential and it was further
confirmed by in vivo evaluation using fish as a
model. Recently researchers through out the world
started using fish for pharmacological evaluations
as it offer a study one step ahead of in vitro studies
since it is carried out on living organism or animal.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The edible fresh white button mushrooms were
purchased from a super market in Thuraipakkam,
Chennai and authenticated by the taxonomist of
Department of Botany, D.B.Jain College, Chennai.
The mushrooms were cut into very small pieces
with knife as it is impossible to powder them. It
was dried under shadow and subjected to extraction
with Petroleum ether [60o
-80o
c]. The defatted
International Journal of Pharmacology and
Clinical Research (IJPCR)
ISSN: 2521-2206
Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116]
109
mushrooms were then dried to remove the traces of
Petroleum ether and extracted with ethyl alcohol
60% using a soxhlet apparatus [9, 10]. The extract
was then concentrated under vacuum and
evaporated to dryness. The yield was 10.7%w/w.
This extract was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory
potential.
PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION
In vitro anti-inflammatory effect of alcoholic
extract was tested by egg albumin assay and the in
vivo activity was tested on fish.
In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity
The experiment was carried out with minor
modification of the method published in the
reference [11] shown below. The standard drug and
extract were dissolved in Dimethyl sulfoxide
(DMSO). The standard and test sample containing
different concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400, 500,
1000 µg/ml) was mixed with 1 ml of 1mM albumin
solution in phosphate buffer and incubated at 37°C
in incubator for 15 min. 3 ml of phosphate buffer
(0.2 M, PH 7.4) was added and denaturation was
induced by keeping the reaction mixture at 70°C in
water bath for 15 min. After cooling, the turbidity
was measured at 660 nm. Percentage of Inhibition
of denaturation was calculated from control where
no drug was added. Diclofenac was used as
standard drug. The percentage inhibition of
denaturation was calculated by using following
formula:-
% of Inhibition = 100 x (At - Ac) / At.
Where, At = O.D. of test solution.
Ac = O.D. of control
The results are shown in table I, II & III,. A graph
was also drawn from the readings and given below
[Fig 3]
In vivo anti-inflammatory activity with fish as
an experimental model organism
In our experiment, we have chosen Oreochromis
niloticus (Tilapia fish) [Fig.1] as it is widely used
in research studies and also easily available.
Oreochromis niloticus
Fig 1
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cichliformes
Family: Cichlidae
Genus: Oreochromis
Species: niloticus.
Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116]
110
Oreochromis niloticus, commonly known as the
Nile tilapia, is a popular food fish that has been
farmed in ponds for thousands of years. Despite its
name, the Nile tilapia is not only present in the
River Nile, it is native to Burkina Faso, Cameroon,
Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt, Gambia, Ghana,
Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo and Uganda. Today, we
can find established Nile tilapia populations on all
continents except Antarctica.The genus
Oreochromis is a part of the cichlid family
(Cichlidae) [12]
Conservation status:
Oreochromis niloticus has not been evaluated
for the IUCN Red List ofThreatened Species. [13]
Habitat
Nile tilapia is an adaptable fish that can do well
in wide range of habitats. It has been found in all
sorts of waters, from rivers and lakes to sewage
canals and irrigation channels. Despite being
considered a freshwater fish it will readily adapt to
brackish conditions. Its extended temperature range
is 8-42 °C (47-108 °F), but it is typically found in
environments where the water temperature stays in
the 13.5-33 °C (56-91 °F) interval.
Size and appearance
The body of the Nile tilapia is decorated with
regular vertical stripes that continue throughout the
depth of the caudal fin. The dorsal fin margin is
black or grey. The largest scientifically
measured O. niloticus specimen was 60 cm (nearly
24 inches) long.
In-vivo Anti-inflammatory activity:-
Methodology
Experimental design
The experiment was performed in 500L FRP
tanks and the fishes were equally and randomly
divided into four groups (untreated control,
carrageenan alone induced, standard diclofenac
sodium induced and treatment) and each group was
maintained in triplicate set containing 10 numbers
of fishes, following a completely randomized
design (CRD). The fish were anesthetized with
clove oil (Merck, Germany) @ 4-5 ppm prior to the
injection and the treatment group were injected
intra-peritoneal (i/p) @ 50 l/fish with 0.5% of I-
Carrageenan (Sigma-Aldrich, India) dissolved in
100 ml of sterile saline solution (0.85%) and the
control group were kept in tanks without injection.
The experiment was conducted for 24 hours and the
sampling for histopathological parameters was
carried out. For each sampling, fishes were selected
randomly from each tank and analyzed for various
parameters.
Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116]
111
Fig 2
Histopathology
The collected tissue sample (liver, and intestine)
were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF)
for histopathology and processed byroutine paraffin
embedding technique. Five microns thick section
was cut [Fig 2] using microtome (Leica RM 2125
RT, Germany) and stained with haematoxylin and
eosin. Pathological changes manifested in the tissue
sections were observed and recorded using a light
Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116]
112
binocular microscope (Olympus CX-31, Japan) and
given below.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The total extract obtained with alcohol 60% was
subjected to pharmacological evaluation for in-
vitro and in-vivo anti inflammatory activities. The
alcoholic extract was first evaluated for anti
inflammatory activity by in-vitro egg albumin
assay.
It was found that the extract has less anti-
inflammatory activity than the standard drug
Diclofenac sodium. But, in higher doses it showed
good improvement in activity. Hence it can be
safely concluded that the Agaricus bisporus extract
has notable anti-inflammatory activity than
standard at high concentrations. [Tables I, II & III]
& [Fig 3]
Table I
Anti Inflammatory activity
Egg Albumin Assay
Standard: Diclofenac sodium
CONCENTRATION ABSORBANCE S-C/S*100 % INHIBITION IC50
1 2 3 1 2 3 MEAN S.D 443.5
100 0.152 0.156 0.155 14.474 16.026 15.484 15.328 0.788
200 0.173 0.17 0.175 24.277 22.941 25.143 24.120 1.109
300 0.194 0.191 0.199 32.474 31.414 34.171 32.686 1.391
400 0.236 0.247 0.256 44.492 46.964 48.828 46.761 2.175
500 0.315 0.321 0.363 58.413 59.190 63.912 60.505 2.976
1000 0.471 0.419 0.497 72.187 68.735 73.642 71.521 2.520
CONTROL 0.131 0.129 0.133 0.131
Table II: SAMPLE: AGARICUS BISPORUS EXTRACT
CONCENTRATION ABORBANCE S-C/S*100 % INHIBITION IC50
1 2 3 1 2 3 MEAN S.D 639.2
100 0.132 0.133 0.135 0.758 1.504 2.222 1.495 0.732
200 0.134 0.137 0.136 2.239 4.380 3.676 3.432 1.091
300 0.148 0.147 0.147 11.486 10.884 10.884 11.085 0.348
400 0.185 0.179 0.181 29.189 26.816 27.624 27.876 1.207
500 0.256 0.236 0.245 48.828 44.492 46.531 46.617 2.170
1000 0.547 0.456 0.535 76.051 71.272 75.514 74.279 2.618
Table III
Concentration Absorbance % Inhibition
Sample Standard Sample Standard
100 µg 0.133 0.154 1.495 15.3277
200 µg 0.135 0.172 3.432 24.1205
300 µg 0.147 0.194 11.085 32.6862
400 µg 0.181 0.246 27.876 46.7611
500 µg 0.245 0.333 46.617 60.5049
1000 µg 0.512 0.462 74.279 71.5213
Control 0.131 0.131 - -
Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116]
113
Anti Inflammatory activity
Egg Albumin Assay
Fig 3
Then, the same alcoholic extract was subjected
to evaluation of in vivo anti-inflammatory activity
in Tilapia fish. Inflammation was induced in the
fishes using carrageenan. From the
histopathological observations [14] of liver [Fig.4
to 7] and intestine [Fig 8 to 11] of the fishes, it can
be concluded that the extract has remarkable anti-
inflammatory activity.
Histopathological observations
Liver Fig 4
(a) Untreated Control group - showing intact hepatocytes and central portal triad appearing normal.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Standard
ABM
Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116]
114
Fig. 5
b) Carrageenan alone induced group – showing loss of nucleus and strong inflammation in hepatocytes.
Fig. 6
(b) Standard Diclofenac sodium treated group – showing normal hapatocyte with no such inflammation.
Fig.7
(c) ABM Extract treated group –Hepatocytes returning to normal architecture, but still mild hepatosteatosis.
Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116]
115
Intestine Fig.8
(a) Untreated Control group - showing normal intestinal architecture.
Fig.9
(b) Carrageenan alone induced group – showing inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells.
Fig.10
(C) Standard Diclofenac sodium treated group – showing normal intestinal epithelial cells with no such
inflammation.
Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116]
116
Fig 11
d] ABM Extract treated group - Intestinal epithelial
cells returning to normal architecture degeneration.
[It is the description of Fig 11. So it should be
printed just below the figure 11, as in Fig 9, 10 etc]
There is further scope in this project that the
constituent or constituents responsible for this
remarkable anti-inflammatory activity of alcoholic
extract of Agaricus bisporus mushroom can be
isolated in pure form and their identification
including structure can be elucidated, after which
they can be used for confirming above, as well as
other pharmacological activities.
CONCLUSION
Hydro alcoholic extract of Agaricus bisporus
has remarkable anti-inflammatory activity in both
in vitro and in vivo pharmacological evaluations.
Fish as a model for in vivo studies offer alternative
source in pharmacological evaluations where
getting higher animals for such studies are highly
restricted. Compound( s) responsible this activity
can be isolated and confirmed for anti-
inflammatory and other activities like analgesic
activity which are planned and under execution in
our laboratory.
REFERENCES
[1]. ‘The Wealth of India’(Entire series), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi
[2]. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione.
Kalaras MD, Richie JP, Calcagnotto A, Beelman RB. Food Chem. 15, 2017, 233:429-433.
[3]. Medicinal Mushroom Extracts Possess Differential Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cells.
Elbatrawy EN, Ghonimy EA, Alassar MM, Wu FS. Int J Med Mushrooms. 17(5), 2015, :471-9.
[4]. Optimization of chemical sulfation, structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of Agaricus bisporus
fucogalactan. Román Y, Iacomini M, Sassaki GL, Cipriani TR. Carbohydr Polym. 1, 2016, 146:345-52.
[5]. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of the lectin from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Food Funct. 7(1),
2016, 262-9.
[6]. A review on antifungal activity of mushroom (basidiomycetes) extracts and isolated compounds. Alves MJ,
Ferreira IC, Dias J, Teixeira V, Martins A, Pintado M. Curr Top Med Chem. 13(21), 2013, 2648-59.
[7]. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms. Xu T(1), Beelman RB, Lambert JD. Anticancer Agents
Med Chem. 12(10), 2012, 1255-63.
[8]. Cytotoxic effect of a mannogalactoglucan extracted from Agaricus bisporus on HepG2 cells. Pires ADRA,
Ruthes AC, Cadena SMSC, Iacomini M. Carbohydr Polym. 15, 2017, 170:33-42.
[9]. Kokate C.K, ‘Practical Pharmacognosy’ VallabhPrakashan, Delhi 2, 1988.
[10]. Harborne J.B, ‘Phytochemical Methods’, Chapman and Hall Science paper back Edition 1980.
[11]. Rasayan., J of Chemistry, 4(2), 2011, 418-424.
[12]. https:/www.researchgate.net/ publication/270220125. A review of fish model in experimental pharmacology.
[13]. http://www.tilapia.ws/Oreochromis niloticus.php
[14]. Text book of Pathology by Harsh Mohan 6, 2010 Jaypee Brothers Med.Pub, New Delhi

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In vitro and in vivo evaluation on fishes of anti-inflammatory potential of Agaricus bisporus

  • 1. Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116] 108 IJPCR |Volume 2 | Issue 2 | July – Dec- 2018 www.ijpcr.net Research article Clinical research In vitro and in vivo evaluation on fishes of anti-inflammatory potential of Agaricus bisporus Balasubramanian.S*, DivyaDevi.V, Jayakodi.A, Kodeeswari.G, Ranjitha.A.V and Tamilvani.P C.L.Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Chennai * Address for correspondence: Balasubramanian.S ABSTRACT Agaricus bisporus has been studied for many activities except for its anti-inflammatory potential completely both by in vitro and in vivo experiments. In the present study it was evaluated for the same using egg albumin for in vitro study and fish as the model for in vivo evaluation and found to have remarkable anti-inflammatory activity on both experiments. As expected with any natural drug the activity was better at higher doses. Keywords: Agaricus bisporus, Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia fish), anti-inflammatory INTRODUCTION Agaricus bisporus is a most widely cultivated edible mushroom and represents more than 40% of world’s consumption of mushrooms. It is believed to have high biological activity, low toxicity and has significant folklore and ethno-pharmacological use. Although we often think fungi as disease causing organisms, it has other properties also useful to humanity. For example, fungi produce antibiotics like Penicillin and Cephalosporin. It is also useful in the production of immune suppressant drug Cyclosporine and as a precursor for steroid hormones. Ergot is another best example for fungi as a drug [1]. Hence it has been evaluated for many activities like Antioxidative, Antiaging, Hepatoprotective, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic, Antimelanogenesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity [2-8] In this work the most popular fungi Agaricus bisporus was taken up for studying its anti- inflammatory potential. Initially in vitro method established its potential and it was further confirmed by in vivo evaluation using fish as a model. Recently researchers through out the world started using fish for pharmacological evaluations as it offer a study one step ahead of in vitro studies since it is carried out on living organism or animal. MATERIALS AND METHODS The edible fresh white button mushrooms were purchased from a super market in Thuraipakkam, Chennai and authenticated by the taxonomist of Department of Botany, D.B.Jain College, Chennai. The mushrooms were cut into very small pieces with knife as it is impossible to powder them. It was dried under shadow and subjected to extraction with Petroleum ether [60o -80o c]. The defatted International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research (IJPCR) ISSN: 2521-2206
  • 2. Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116] 109 mushrooms were then dried to remove the traces of Petroleum ether and extracted with ethyl alcohol 60% using a soxhlet apparatus [9, 10]. The extract was then concentrated under vacuum and evaporated to dryness. The yield was 10.7%w/w. This extract was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory potential. PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION In vitro anti-inflammatory effect of alcoholic extract was tested by egg albumin assay and the in vivo activity was tested on fish. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity The experiment was carried out with minor modification of the method published in the reference [11] shown below. The standard drug and extract were dissolved in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The standard and test sample containing different concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 1000 µg/ml) was mixed with 1 ml of 1mM albumin solution in phosphate buffer and incubated at 37°C in incubator for 15 min. 3 ml of phosphate buffer (0.2 M, PH 7.4) was added and denaturation was induced by keeping the reaction mixture at 70°C in water bath for 15 min. After cooling, the turbidity was measured at 660 nm. Percentage of Inhibition of denaturation was calculated from control where no drug was added. Diclofenac was used as standard drug. The percentage inhibition of denaturation was calculated by using following formula:- % of Inhibition = 100 x (At - Ac) / At. Where, At = O.D. of test solution. Ac = O.D. of control The results are shown in table I, II & III,. A graph was also drawn from the readings and given below [Fig 3] In vivo anti-inflammatory activity with fish as an experimental model organism In our experiment, we have chosen Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia fish) [Fig.1] as it is widely used in research studies and also easily available. Oreochromis niloticus Fig 1 Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Cichliformes Family: Cichlidae Genus: Oreochromis Species: niloticus.
  • 3. Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116] 110 Oreochromis niloticus, commonly known as the Nile tilapia, is a popular food fish that has been farmed in ponds for thousands of years. Despite its name, the Nile tilapia is not only present in the River Nile, it is native to Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo and Uganda. Today, we can find established Nile tilapia populations on all continents except Antarctica.The genus Oreochromis is a part of the cichlid family (Cichlidae) [12] Conservation status: Oreochromis niloticus has not been evaluated for the IUCN Red List ofThreatened Species. [13] Habitat Nile tilapia is an adaptable fish that can do well in wide range of habitats. It has been found in all sorts of waters, from rivers and lakes to sewage canals and irrigation channels. Despite being considered a freshwater fish it will readily adapt to brackish conditions. Its extended temperature range is 8-42 °C (47-108 °F), but it is typically found in environments where the water temperature stays in the 13.5-33 °C (56-91 °F) interval. Size and appearance The body of the Nile tilapia is decorated with regular vertical stripes that continue throughout the depth of the caudal fin. The dorsal fin margin is black or grey. The largest scientifically measured O. niloticus specimen was 60 cm (nearly 24 inches) long. In-vivo Anti-inflammatory activity:- Methodology Experimental design The experiment was performed in 500L FRP tanks and the fishes were equally and randomly divided into four groups (untreated control, carrageenan alone induced, standard diclofenac sodium induced and treatment) and each group was maintained in triplicate set containing 10 numbers of fishes, following a completely randomized design (CRD). The fish were anesthetized with clove oil (Merck, Germany) @ 4-5 ppm prior to the injection and the treatment group were injected intra-peritoneal (i/p) @ 50 l/fish with 0.5% of I- Carrageenan (Sigma-Aldrich, India) dissolved in 100 ml of sterile saline solution (0.85%) and the control group were kept in tanks without injection. The experiment was conducted for 24 hours and the sampling for histopathological parameters was carried out. For each sampling, fishes were selected randomly from each tank and analyzed for various parameters.
  • 4. Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116] 111 Fig 2 Histopathology The collected tissue sample (liver, and intestine) were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF) for histopathology and processed byroutine paraffin embedding technique. Five microns thick section was cut [Fig 2] using microtome (Leica RM 2125 RT, Germany) and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Pathological changes manifested in the tissue sections were observed and recorded using a light
  • 5. Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116] 112 binocular microscope (Olympus CX-31, Japan) and given below. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The total extract obtained with alcohol 60% was subjected to pharmacological evaluation for in- vitro and in-vivo anti inflammatory activities. The alcoholic extract was first evaluated for anti inflammatory activity by in-vitro egg albumin assay. It was found that the extract has less anti- inflammatory activity than the standard drug Diclofenac sodium. But, in higher doses it showed good improvement in activity. Hence it can be safely concluded that the Agaricus bisporus extract has notable anti-inflammatory activity than standard at high concentrations. [Tables I, II & III] & [Fig 3] Table I Anti Inflammatory activity Egg Albumin Assay Standard: Diclofenac sodium CONCENTRATION ABSORBANCE S-C/S*100 % INHIBITION IC50 1 2 3 1 2 3 MEAN S.D 443.5 100 0.152 0.156 0.155 14.474 16.026 15.484 15.328 0.788 200 0.173 0.17 0.175 24.277 22.941 25.143 24.120 1.109 300 0.194 0.191 0.199 32.474 31.414 34.171 32.686 1.391 400 0.236 0.247 0.256 44.492 46.964 48.828 46.761 2.175 500 0.315 0.321 0.363 58.413 59.190 63.912 60.505 2.976 1000 0.471 0.419 0.497 72.187 68.735 73.642 71.521 2.520 CONTROL 0.131 0.129 0.133 0.131 Table II: SAMPLE: AGARICUS BISPORUS EXTRACT CONCENTRATION ABORBANCE S-C/S*100 % INHIBITION IC50 1 2 3 1 2 3 MEAN S.D 639.2 100 0.132 0.133 0.135 0.758 1.504 2.222 1.495 0.732 200 0.134 0.137 0.136 2.239 4.380 3.676 3.432 1.091 300 0.148 0.147 0.147 11.486 10.884 10.884 11.085 0.348 400 0.185 0.179 0.181 29.189 26.816 27.624 27.876 1.207 500 0.256 0.236 0.245 48.828 44.492 46.531 46.617 2.170 1000 0.547 0.456 0.535 76.051 71.272 75.514 74.279 2.618 Table III Concentration Absorbance % Inhibition Sample Standard Sample Standard 100 µg 0.133 0.154 1.495 15.3277 200 µg 0.135 0.172 3.432 24.1205 300 µg 0.147 0.194 11.085 32.6862 400 µg 0.181 0.246 27.876 46.7611 500 µg 0.245 0.333 46.617 60.5049 1000 µg 0.512 0.462 74.279 71.5213 Control 0.131 0.131 - -
  • 6. Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116] 113 Anti Inflammatory activity Egg Albumin Assay Fig 3 Then, the same alcoholic extract was subjected to evaluation of in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in Tilapia fish. Inflammation was induced in the fishes using carrageenan. From the histopathological observations [14] of liver [Fig.4 to 7] and intestine [Fig 8 to 11] of the fishes, it can be concluded that the extract has remarkable anti- inflammatory activity. Histopathological observations Liver Fig 4 (a) Untreated Control group - showing intact hepatocytes and central portal triad appearing normal. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Standard ABM
  • 7. Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116] 114 Fig. 5 b) Carrageenan alone induced group – showing loss of nucleus and strong inflammation in hepatocytes. Fig. 6 (b) Standard Diclofenac sodium treated group – showing normal hapatocyte with no such inflammation. Fig.7 (c) ABM Extract treated group –Hepatocytes returning to normal architecture, but still mild hepatosteatosis.
  • 8. Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116] 115 Intestine Fig.8 (a) Untreated Control group - showing normal intestinal architecture. Fig.9 (b) Carrageenan alone induced group – showing inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells. Fig.10 (C) Standard Diclofenac sodium treated group – showing normal intestinal epithelial cells with no such inflammation.
  • 9. Balasubramanian.S et al / Int. J. of Pharmacology and Clin. Research Vol-2(2) 2018 [108-116] 116 Fig 11 d] ABM Extract treated group - Intestinal epithelial cells returning to normal architecture degeneration. [It is the description of Fig 11. So it should be printed just below the figure 11, as in Fig 9, 10 etc] There is further scope in this project that the constituent or constituents responsible for this remarkable anti-inflammatory activity of alcoholic extract of Agaricus bisporus mushroom can be isolated in pure form and their identification including structure can be elucidated, after which they can be used for confirming above, as well as other pharmacological activities. CONCLUSION Hydro alcoholic extract of Agaricus bisporus has remarkable anti-inflammatory activity in both in vitro and in vivo pharmacological evaluations. Fish as a model for in vivo studies offer alternative source in pharmacological evaluations where getting higher animals for such studies are highly restricted. Compound( s) responsible this activity can be isolated and confirmed for anti- inflammatory and other activities like analgesic activity which are planned and under execution in our laboratory. REFERENCES [1]. ‘The Wealth of India’(Entire series), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi [2]. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione. Kalaras MD, Richie JP, Calcagnotto A, Beelman RB. Food Chem. 15, 2017, 233:429-433. [3]. Medicinal Mushroom Extracts Possess Differential Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cells. Elbatrawy EN, Ghonimy EA, Alassar MM, Wu FS. Int J Med Mushrooms. 17(5), 2015, :471-9. [4]. Optimization of chemical sulfation, structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of Agaricus bisporus fucogalactan. Román Y, Iacomini M, Sassaki GL, Cipriani TR. Carbohydr Polym. 1, 2016, 146:345-52. [5]. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of the lectin from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Food Funct. 7(1), 2016, 262-9. [6]. A review on antifungal activity of mushroom (basidiomycetes) extracts and isolated compounds. Alves MJ, Ferreira IC, Dias J, Teixeira V, Martins A, Pintado M. Curr Top Med Chem. 13(21), 2013, 2648-59. [7]. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms. Xu T(1), Beelman RB, Lambert JD. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 12(10), 2012, 1255-63. [8]. Cytotoxic effect of a mannogalactoglucan extracted from Agaricus bisporus on HepG2 cells. Pires ADRA, Ruthes AC, Cadena SMSC, Iacomini M. Carbohydr Polym. 15, 2017, 170:33-42. [9]. Kokate C.K, ‘Practical Pharmacognosy’ VallabhPrakashan, Delhi 2, 1988. [10]. Harborne J.B, ‘Phytochemical Methods’, Chapman and Hall Science paper back Edition 1980. [11]. Rasayan., J of Chemistry, 4(2), 2011, 418-424. [12]. https:/www.researchgate.net/ publication/270220125. A review of fish model in experimental pharmacology. [13]. http://www.tilapia.ws/Oreochromis niloticus.php [14]. Text book of Pathology by Harsh Mohan 6, 2010 Jaypee Brothers Med.Pub, New Delhi