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# C and Data Structures

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### C and Data Structures

1. 1. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com Computer Programming Lab Solutions (as per JNTU Hyderabad Syllabus)Prepared bySrinivas Reddy AmedapuFull Time Research Scholar, CSE Department,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU,Date: February 01, 2013, Phone: 08220 172 182 (TN), 09490 456 987 (AP),Email: SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Week I (a) Write a program to find the sum of individual digits of a positive integer.#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int num,d,sum,temp; printf("nEnter a positive integer : "); scanf("%d",&num); temp=num; sum=0; while(num) { d=num%10; sum=sum+d; num/=10; } printf("nSum of digits of %d is %d",temp,sum);}Enter a positive integer : 1234Sum of digits of 1234 is 10Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 1
2. 2. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek I (b) A Fibonacci Sequence is defined as follows: the first and second terms in the sequence are0 and 1. Subsequent terms are found by adding the preceding two terms in the sequence. Write a Cprogram to generate the first n terms of the sequence.#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int f1,f2,f3,n,i; printf("nHow many Fibonacci Sequence numbers you want? "); scanf("%d",&n); f1=0, f2=1; printf("nThe follwing are %d Fibonacci Numbersn",n); for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf(" %d",f1); f3=f1+f2; f1=f2; f2=f3; }}How many Fibonacci Sequence numbers you want? 11The follwing are 11 Fibonacci Numbers0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55Week I (c) Write a C program to generate all the prime numbers between 1 and n, where n is a valuesupplied by the user.#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int i,n,num,j; printf("nEnter upper limit for prime numbers : "); scanf("%d",&n); printf("nPrime numbers between 1 and %d aren1",n); for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { num=i; for(j=2;j<num;j++) if(num%j==0) break; if(j==num) printf(" %d",num); }}Enter upper limit for prime numbers : 55Prime numbers between 1 and 55 are1 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 43 47 53Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 2
3. 3. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 2 (a) Write a C program to calculate the following Sum:Sum=1-x2/2!+x4/4!-x6/6!+x8/8!-x10/10!#include<stdio.h>void main(){ float sum,term; int n,x,i; printf("nSequence is 1-x^2/2!+x^4/4-x^6/6!+x^8/8!-x^10/10! . . ."); printf("nHow many terms you want to calculate in the sequence"); printf("nEnter x and n valuesn"); scanf("%d%d",&x,&n); term=1.0; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { sum=sum+term; term=-term*x*x/((i*2)*(i*2-1)); } printf("nSum=%8.2f",sum);}Sequence is 1-x^2/2!+x^4/4-x^6/6!+x^8/8!-x^10/10! . . .How many terms you want to calculate in the sequenceEnter x and n values34Sum= -1.14Sequence is 1-x^2/2!+x^4/4-x^6/6!+x^8/8!-x^10/10! . . .How many terms you want to calculate in the sequenceEnter x and n values47Sum= -0.65Week 2 (b) Write a C program to find the roots of a quadratic equation.#include<math.h>#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int a,b,c,descr; float r1,r2; printf("nQuadratic equation program"); printf("nEnter a,b and c valuesn"); scanf("%d%d%d",&a,&b,&c); descr=b*b-4*a*c;Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 3
4. 4. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com if(descr==0) { printf("nRoots are equal"); r1=r2=-b/(2.0*a); printf("nRoot1=Root2=%5.2f",r1); } else { if(descr>0) { printf("nRoots are unequal"); r1=(-b+sqrt(descr))/(2.0*a); r2=(-b-sqrt(descr))/(2.0*a); printf("nRoot1=%5.2f",r1); printf("nRoot2=%5.2f",r2); } else printf("nRoots are imaginary"); }}Quadratic equation programEnter a,b and c values121Roots are equalRoot1=Root2=-1.00Quadratic equation programEnter a,b and c values1 -1 -6Roots are unequalRoot1= 3.00Root2=-2.00Quadratic equation programEnter a,b and c values123Roots are imaginarySrinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 4
5. 5. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 3 (a) Write C programs that use both recursive and non-recursive functions (i) To find the factorial of a given integer.Non-Recursive#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int num,fact; int factorial(); printf("nEnter a positive integer: "); scanf("%d",&num); fact=factorial(num); printf("nFactorial of %d is %d",num,fact);}int factorial(int n){ int i,f; f=1; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) f=f*i; return f;}Enter a positive integer: 5Factorial of 5 is 120Enter a positive integer: 7Factorial of 7 is 5040Enter a positive integer: 6Factorial of 6 is 720Recursive#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int num,fact; int factorial(); printf("nEnter a positive integer: "); scanf("%d",&num); fact=factorial(num); printf("nFactorial of %d is %d",num,fact);}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 5
6. 6. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comint factorial(int n){ int f; if(n<=1) return 1; else f=n*factorial(n-1); return f;}Enter a positive integer: 7Factorial of 7 is 5040Enter a positive integer: 5Factorial of 5 is 120Enter a positive integer: 6Factorial of 6 is 720Week 3 (a) Write C programs that use both recursive and non-recursive functions (ii) To find the GCD (greatest common divisor) of two given integers.Non-Recursive#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int a,b,val; int GCD(); printf("nEnter two positive integersn"); scanf("%d%d",&a,&b); val=GCD(a,b); printf("nGCD of %d and %d is %d",a,b,val);}int GCD(int x,int y){ int temp; while(x%y!=0) { temp=x%y; x=y; y=temp; } return y;}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 6
7. 7. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comEnter two positive integers24 16GCD of 24 and 16 is 8Enter two positive integers35 275GCD of 35 and 275 is 5Non-Recursive Solution 2#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int a,b,val; int GCD(); printf("nEnter two positive integersn"); scanf("%d%d",&a,&b); val=GCD(a,b); printf("nGCD of %d and %d is %d",a,b,val);}int GCD(int x,int y){ int i,temp; if(x>y) { temp=x; x=y; y=temp; } for(i=y;i>=1;i--) if(x%i==0&&y%i==0) break; return i;}Enter two positive integers24 16GCD of 24 and 16 is 8Enter two positive integers78 24GCD of 78 and 24 is 6Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 7
8. 8. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comRecursive#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int a,b,val,temp; int GCD(); printf("nEnter two positive integersn"); scanf("%d%d",&a,&b); val=GCD(a,b); printf("nGCD of %d and %d is %d",a,b,val);}int GCD(int x,int y){ int g,temp; if(x%y!=0) GCD(y,x%y); else return y;}Enter two positive integers78 25GCD of 78 and 25 is 1Enter two positive integers78 24GCD of 78 and 24 is 6Week 3 (a) Write C programs that use both recursive and non-recursive functionsiii) To solve Towers of Hanoi problem.Week 4 a) The total distance travelled by vehicle in ‘t’ seconds is given by distance = ut+1/2at2 where‘u’ and ‘a’ are the initial velocity (m/sec.) and acceleration (m/sec2). Write C program to find thedistance travelled at regular intervals of time given the values of ‘u’ and ‘a’. The program shouldprovide the flexibility to the user to select his own time intervals and repeat the calculations fordifferent values of ‘u’ and ‘a’.Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 8
9. 9. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 4 (b) Write a C program, which takes two integer operands and one operator from the user,performs the operation and then prints the result. (Consider the operators +, -, *, /, % and useSwitch Statement)#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int a,b,val; char op; printf("nEnter two integers and operatorn"); scanf("%d%d %c",&a,&b,&op); switch(op) { case +: val=a+b; break; case -: val=a-b; break; case *: val=a*b; break; case /: val=a/b; break; case %: val=a%b; break; } printf("n %d %c %d = %d",a,op,b,val);}Enter two integers and operator10 12 + 10 + 12 = 22Enter two integers and operator10 12 - 10 - 12 = -2Enter two integers and operator10 12 * 10 * 12 = 120Enter two integers and operator22 5 / 22 / 5 = 4Enter two integers and operator22 5 % 22 % 5 = 2Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 9
10. 10. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 5 (a) Write a C program to find both the largest and smallest number in a list of integers.#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int x[100],n,i,large,small; printf("nHow many values you want to enter into an array? "); scanf("%d",&n); printf("nEnter %d integersn",n); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&x[i]); large=x[0]; small=x[0]; for(i=1;i<n;i++) { if(large<x[i]) large=x[i]; if(small>x[i]) small=x[i]; } printf("nArray values aren"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) printf(" %d",x[i]); printf("nLargest = %d",large); printf("nSmallest = %d",small);}How many values you want to enter into an array? 7Enter 7 integers33 22 77 99 66 11 55Array values are33 22 77 99 66 11 55Largest = 99Smallest = 11Week 5 (b) Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following: i) Addition of Two Matrices#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int a[20][20],b[20][20],c[20][20]; int m1,m2,m3,n1,n2,n3; void read2D(),print2D(),add(); printf("nEnter size of matrix A : "); scanf("%d%d",&m1,&n1); read2D(a,m1,n1);Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 10
11. 11. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com printf("nEnter size of matrix B: "); scanf("%d%d",&m2,&n2); read2D(b,m2,n2); add(a,m1,n1,b,m2,n2,c,&m3,&n3); printf("nMatrix An"); print2D(a,m1,n1); printf("nMatrix Bn"); print2D(b,m2,n2); printf("nMatrix Cn"); print2D(c,m3,n3);}void add(int a[20][20],int m1,int n1, int b[20][20],int m2,int n2,int c[20][20],int *mp,int *np){ int i,j; if(m1!=m2||n1!=n2) { printf("nAddition of matrices is not possible"); exit(0); } for(i=0;i<m1;i++) for(j=0;j<n1;j++) c[i][j]=a[i][j]+b[i][j]; *mp=m1; *np=n1;}void print2D(int x[20][20],int m,int n){ int i,j; printf("nContents of matrix aren"); for(i=0;i<m;i++) { printf("n"); for(j=0;j<n;j++) printf("%5d",x[i][j]); }}void read2D(int x[20][20],int m,int n){ int i,j; printf("nEnter values into %d X %d matrixn",m,n); for(i=0;i<m;i++) for(j=0;j<n;j++) scanf("%d",&x[i][j]);}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 11
12. 12. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comEnter size of matrix A : 3 4Enter values into 3 X 4 matrix123412341234Enter size of matrix B: 3 4Enter values into 3 X 4 matrix111122223333Matrix AContents of matrix are 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4Matrix BContents of matrix are 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3Matrix CContents of matrix are 2 3 4 5 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 7Enter size of matrix A : 2 3Enter values into 2 X 3 matrix123456Enter size of matrix B: 2 2Enter values into 2 X 2 matrix1122Addition of matrices is not possibleSrinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 12
13. 13. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 5 (b) Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following: ii) Multiplication of Two Matrices#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int a[20][20],b[20][20],c[20][20]; int m1,m2,m3,n1,n2,n3; void read2D(),print2D(),multiply(); printf("nEnter size of matrix A : "); scanf("%d%d",&m1,&n1); read2D(a,m1,n1); printf("nEnter size of matrix B: "); scanf("%d%d",&m2,&n2); read2D(b,m2,n2); multiply(a,m1,n1,b,m2,n2,c,&m3,&n3); printf("nMatrix An"); print2D(a,m1,n1); printf("nMatrix Bn"); print2D(b,m2,n2); printf("nMatrix A x Bn"); print2D(c,m3,n3);}void multiply(int a[20][20],int m1,int n1, int b[20][20],int m2,int n2,int c[20][20],int *mp,int *np){ int i,j,k; if(n1!=m2) { printf("nMultiplication of matrices is not possible"); exit(0); } for(i=0;i<m1;i++) { for(j=0;j<n2;j++) { c[i][j]=0; for(k=1;k<n1;k++) c[i][j]=c[i][j]+a[i][k]*b[k][j]; } } *mp=m1; *np=n2;}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 13
14. 14. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid print2D(int x[20][20],int m,int n){ int i,j; printf("nContents of matrix aren"); for(i=0;i<m;i++) { printf("n"); for(j=0;j<n;j++) printf("%5d",x[i][j]); }}void read2D(int x[20][20],int m,int n){ int i,j; printf("nEnter values into %d X %d matrixn",m,n); for(i=0;i<m;i++) for(j=0;j<n;j++) scanf("%d",&x[i][j]);}Enter size of matrix A : 2 4Enter values into 2 X 4 matrix12341111Enter size of matrix B: 4 1Enter values into 4 X 1 matrix1234Matrix AContents of matrix are 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 1Matrix BContents of matrix are 1 2 3 4Matrix A x BContents of matrix are 29 9Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 14
15. 15. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comEnter size of matrix A : 2 4Enter values into 2 X 4 matrix12345678Enter size of matrix B: 2 3Enter values into 2 X 3 matrix444777Multiplication of matrices is not possibleEnter size of matrix A : 3 4Enter values into 3 X 4 matrix123456789 10 11 12Enter size of matrix B: 4 5Enter values into 4 X 5 matrix11111222223333344444Matrix AContents of matrix are 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12Matrix BContents of matrix are 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4Matrix A x BContents of matrix are 29 29 29 29 29 65 65 65 65 65 101 101 101 101 101Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 15
16. 16. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 6a) Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following operations:i) To insert a sub-string in to a given main string from a given position.ii) To delete n Characters from a given position in a given string.b) Write a C program to determine if the given string is a palindrome or notTo insert a sub-string in to a given main string from a given position.#include<stdio.h>void main(){ char str[500],sub[100]; int n1,n2,i,j,loc; printf("nEnter main string: "); scanf("%s",str); printf("nEnter sub string: "); scanf("%s",sub); printf("nEnter position: "); scanf("%d",&loc); printf("nMain string: %s",str); printf("nSub string: %s",sub); n1=strlen(str); n2=strlen(sub); if(loc>n1) { printf("nPosition is out of range"); exit(0); } for(i=n1;i>=loc;i--) str[i+n2]=str[i]; j=0; while(sub[j]) { str[loc+j]=sub[j]; j++; } printf("nMain string: %s",str); printf("nSub string: %s",sub);}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 16
17. 17. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comINPUT/OUTPUTEnter main string: JntuHyderabadEnter sub string: ASReddyEnter position: 4Main string: JntuHyderabadSub string: ASReddyMain string: JntuASReddyHyderabadSub string: ASReddyEnter main string: AravindReddyJNTUHEnter sub string: 12011U0502Enter position: 12Main string: AravindReddyJNTUHSub string: 12011U0502Main string: AravindReddy12011U0502JNTUHSub string: 12011U0502To delete n Characters from a given position in a given string.#include<stdio.h>void main(){ char str[500]; int n,i,loc; printf("nEnter a string: "); scanf("%s",str); printf("nEnter number of characters to be deleted: "); scanf("%d",&n); printf("nEnter position from which deletion should be done: "); scanf("%d",&loc); if(loc+n>strlen(str)) { printf("nDeletion not possible"); printf("nToo many characters from the given location"); exit(0); }Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 17
18. 18. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com i=loc; while(str[i+n]) { str[i]=str[i+n]; i++; } str[i]=str[i+n]; printf("nString after deletion: %s",str);}INPUT/OUTPUTEnter a string: AravindReddyJNTUEnter number of characters to be deleted: 5Enter position from which deletion should be done: 7String after deletion: AravindJNTUEnter a string: AravindReddyNarmetta12011U0502Enter number of characters to be deleted: 8Enter position from which deletion should be done: 12String after deletion: AravindReddy12011U0502b) Write a C program to determine if the given string is a palindrome or not#include<stdio.h>#include<string.h>void main(){ char str[500]; int n,i; printf("nEnter a string: "); scanf("%s",str); n=strlen(str); for(i=0;i<n/2;i++) if(str[i]!=str[n-i-1]) break; if(i==n/2) printf("n%s is palindrome",str); else printf("n%s is not palindrome",str);}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 18
19. 19. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comEnter a string: madammadam is palindromeEnter a string: aravindaravind is not palindromeEnter a string: aravindnivaraaravindnivara is palindromeEnter a string: jntutnjjntutnj is palindromeEnter a string: JNTUHJNTUH is not palindromeWeek 7a) Write a C program that displays the position or index in the string S where the string T begins, or– 1 if S doesn’t contain T.b) Write a C program to count the lines, words and characters in a given text.#include<stdio.h>void main(){ char str[500],sub[100]; int n1,n2,i,j,loc; printf("nEnter main string: "); scanf("%s",str); printf("nEnter sub string: "); scanf("%s",sub); i=0; while(str[i]) { j=0; while(str[i+j]&&sub[j]&&str[i+j]==sub[j]) j++; if(sub[j]==NULL) break; i=i+1; } if(sub[j]==NULL) printf("nSub string available at %d location",i+1); else printf("nSub String not available : %d",-1);}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 19
20. 20. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comINPUT/OUTPUTEnter main string: AravindReddyEnter sub string: ReddySub string available at 8 locationEnter main string: AravindJNTUcseEnter sub string: JNTUSub string available at 8 locationEnter main string: SrinivasReddyEnter sub string: vasSub string available at 6 locationEnter main string: FirstYearEnter sub string: irtSub String not available : -1Week 7 (b) Write a C program to count the lines, words and characters in a given text.Week 8 (a) Write a program to generate Pascal’s triangle.First Model using Arrays#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int x[50][50],i,j,spaces,l,n; printf("nThis is a program to generate Pascal triangle"); printf("nHow many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); for(i=0;i<n;i++) for(j=0;j<=i;j++) if(j==0||j==i) x[i][j]=1; else x[i][j]=x[i-1][j-1]+x[i-1][j]; spaces=36; for(i=0;i<n;i++) { printf("nn"); for(l=0;l<=spaces;l++) printf(" "); for(j=0;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",x[i][j]); spaces=spaces-2; }}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 20
21. 21. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comThis is a program to generate Pascal triangleHow many lines you want : 7 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1 1 5 10 10 5 11 6 15 20 15 6 1Second Model Without Arrays#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int i,j,l,n,ncr,spaces; printf("nEnter number of lines to be printed: "); scanf("%d",&n); spaces=38; for(i=0;i<=n;i++) { printf("nn"); for(l=1;l<=spaces;l++) printf(" "); for(j=0;j<=i;j++) { if(j==0||j==i) ncr=1; else ncr=fact(i)/(fact(i-j)*fact(j)); printf("%4d",ncr); } spaces=spaces-2; }}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 21
22. 22. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comint fact(int n){ int i,f=1; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) f=f*i; return f;}INPUT/OUTPUTEnter number of lines to be printed: 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1 1 5 10 10 5 1Week 8 (b) Write a C program to construct a pyramid of numbers.(i)#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int i,j,l,n,sp; printf("nHow many lines you want ? "); scanf("%d",&n); sp=35; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); for(l=1;l<sp;l++) printf(" "); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",1); sp=sp-2; }}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 22
23. 23. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comHow many lines you want ? 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1(ii)#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int i,j,k,l,n,spaces; clrscr(); printf("nThis is a dymand pattern program"); printf("nEnter n value "); scanf("%d",&n); spaces=36; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); for(l=1;l<=spaces;l++) printf(" "); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",i); spaces-=2; } spaces=spaces+4; for(i=n-1;i>=1;i--) { printf("n"); for(l=1;l<=spaces;l++) printf(" "); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",i); spaces+=2; }}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 23
24. 24. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comThis is a dymand pattern programEnter n value 7 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 1(iii)void main(){ int i,j,k,l,n,spaces; printf("nThis is a dymand pattern program"); printf("nEnter n value "); scanf("%d",&n); spaces=36; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); for(l=1;l<=spaces;l++) printf(" "); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",j); for(j=i-1;j>=1;j--) printf("%4d",j); spaces-=4; } spaces=spaces+8; for(i=n-1;i>=1;i--) { printf("n"); for(l=1;l<=spaces;l++) printf(" "); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",j); for(j=i-1;j>=1;j--) printf("%4d",j); spaces+=4; }}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 24
25. 25. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comThis is a dymand pattern programEnter n value 7 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 1 1Some more patternsvoid main(){ int i,j,n; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); for(i=1;i<=n;i++) //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu { //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com printf("n"); // 9490 456 987 for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",j); }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 25
26. 26. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid main(){ int i,j,n; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",i); }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid main() // 9490 456 987{ int i,j,n,x; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); x=1; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf("%4d",x); x=x+1; } }}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 26
27. 27. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comThis is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28void main(){ int i,j,n,x; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); x=n*(n+1)/2; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf("%4d",x); x=x-1; } }} //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comThis is a pattern program // 9490 456 987Enter how many lines you want : 7 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 27
28. 28. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid main(){ int i,j,n,x; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); x=n; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",x); x=x-1; }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid main() // 9490 456 987{ int i,j,n,x; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); x=n; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); x=n-i+1; for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf("%4d",x); x=x+1; } }}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 28
29. 29. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comThis is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 7 6 7 5 6 7 4 5 6 7 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7void main(){ int i,j,n,x; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com scanf("%d",&n); // 9490 456 987 x=n; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); x=n; for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf("%4d",x); x=x-1; } }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 7 7 6 7 6 5 7 6 5 4 7 6 5 4 3 7 6 5 4 3 2 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 29
30. 30. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid main(){ int i,j,n,l,spaces; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); spaces=25; for(i=n;i>=1;i--) { printf("n"); for(l=1;l<=spaces;l++) //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu printf(" "); //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com for(j=1;j<=i;j++) // 9490 456 987 printf("%4d",j); spaces=spaces+4; }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 1void main(){ int i,j,n; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); for(i=n;i>=1;i--) { printf("n"); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",i); }}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 30
31. 31. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comThis is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 1void main(){ int i,j,n,x; //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com printf("nThis is a pattern program"); // 9490 456 987 printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); for(i=n;i>=1;i--) { printf("n"); x=i*(i+1)/2-i; for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { x=x+1; printf("%4d",x); } }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 16 17 18 19 20 21 11 12 13 14 15 7 8 9 10 4 5 6 2 3 1Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 31
32. 32. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid main(){ int i,j,n,x,diff,temp; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); temp=0; diff=n; for(i=n;i>=1;i--) { printf("n"); temp=temp+diff; //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu diff=diff-1; //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com x=temp; // 9490 456 987 for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf("%4d",x); x=x-1; } }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 13 12 11 10 9 8 18 17 16 15 14 22 21 20 19 25 24 23 27 26 28void main(){ int i,j,n,x; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); x=1; for(i=n;i>=1;i--) { printf("n"); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",x); x=x+1; }}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 32
33. 33. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comThis is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu 3 3 3 3 3 //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com 4 4 4 4 // 9490 456 987 5 5 5 6 6 7void main(){ int i,j,n,x; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); for(i=n;i>=1;i--) { printf("n"); x=n; for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf("%4d",x); x=x-1; } }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 7 6 5 4 3 7 6 5 4 7 6 5 7 6 7Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 33
34. 34. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid main(){ int i,j,n,x; clrscr(); printf("nThis is a pattern program"); //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com scanf("%d",&n); // 9490 456 987 for(i=n;i>=1;i--) { printf("n"); x=n-i+1; for(j=1;j<=i;j++) { printf("%4d",x); x=x+1; } }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 4 5 6 7 4 5 6 7 5 6 7 6 7 7void main(){ int i,j,n,l,spaces,x; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); spaces=35; x=1; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); for(l=1;l<=spaces;l++) printf(" "); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu { //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com printf("%4d",x); // 9490 456 987 x=x+1; }Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 34
35. 35. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com spaces=spaces-2; }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10void main(){ int i,j,n,l,spaces; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); scanf("%d",&n); spaces=35; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { printf("n"); for(l=1;l<=spaces;l++) printf(" "); for(j=1;j<=i*2-1;j++) printf("%4d",i); spaces=spaces-4; }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 4 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4void main(){ int i,j,n,l,spaces; printf("nThis is a pattern program"); //Program done by Srinivas Reddy Amedapu printf("nEnter how many lines you want : "); //SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com scanf("%d",&n); // 9490 456 987 spaces=35; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) {Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 35
36. 36. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com printf("n"); for(l=1;l<=spaces;l++) printf(" "); for(j=1;j<=i;j++) printf("%4d",j); for(j=i-1;j>=1;j--) printf("%4d",j); spaces=spaces-4; }}This is a pattern programEnter how many lines you want : 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 3 2 1Week 9Write a C program to read in two numbers, x and n, and then compute the sum of this geometricprogression: 1+x+x2+x3+………….+xn. For example: if n is 3 and x is 5, then the program computes1+5+25+125. Print x, n, the sum. Perform error checking. For example, the formula does not makesense for negative exponents – if n is less than 0. Have your program print an error message if n<0,then go back and read in the next pair of numbers of without computing the sum. Are any values of xalso illegal ? If so, test for them too.Week 10a) 2’s complement of a number is obtained by scanning it from right to left and complementing allthe bits after the first appearance of a 1. Thus 2’s complement of 11100 is 00100. Write a C programto find the 2’s complement of a binary number.b) Write a C program to convert a Roman numeral to its decimal equivalent.Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 36
37. 37. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 11Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following operations:i) Reading a complex numberii) Writing a complex numberiii) Addition of two complex numbersiv) Multiplication of two complex numbers(Note: represent complex number using a structure.)struct complex{ int real; int imag;};void main(){ struct complex c1,c2,c3,c4; void read(),display(); struct complex add(),mult(); read(&c1); read(&c2); printf("nEntered complex numbers aren"); display(c1); display(c2); c3=add(c1,c2); c4=mult(c1,c2); printf("nAddition of two complex numbersn"); display(c3); printf("nMultiplication of two complex numbersn"); display(c4);}void read(struct complex *p){ printf("nEnter Complex number (real imaginary)"); scanf("%d%d",&p->real,&p->imag);}void display(struct complex c){ printf("nComplex number is "); printf("n%d %di",c.real,c.imag);}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 37
38. 38. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comstruct complex add(struct complex x, struct complex y){ struct complex z; z.real=x.real+y.real; z.imag=x.imag+y.imag; return z;}struct complex mult(struct complex x, struct complex y){ struct complex z; z.real=x.real*y.real-x.imag*y.imag; z.imag=x.imag*y.real+x.real*y.imag; return z;}Enter Complex number (real imaginary)2 3Enter Complex number (real imaginary)4 7Enter complex numbers areComplex number is2 3iComplex number is4 7iAddition of two complex numbersComplex number is6 10iMultiplication of two complex numbersComplex number is-13 26iSrinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 38
39. 39. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 12a) Write a C program which copies one file to another.#include<stdio.h>void main(int argc,char* argv[]){ FILE *fp1,*fp2; char ch; if(argc!=3) { printf("nUse Command Properly"); printf("nCommand SourceFileName TargetFileName"); exit(0); } fp1=fopen(argv[1],"r"); if(fp1==NULL) { printf("nSource File Not Existing"); exit(1); } fp2=fopen(argv[2],"w"); ch=fgetc(fp1); while(ch!=EOF) { fputc(ch,fp2); ch=fgetc(fp1); } printf("nFile Copied"); fclose(fp1); fclose(fp2);}C:TCBIN>dir asrc*.*Volume in drive C has no label.Volume Serial Number is 60A8-805BDirectory of C:TCBIN01/05/2013 11:46 PM 485 ASRCPY.BAK01/05/2013 11:46 PM 485 ASRCPY.C01/05/2013 11:46 PM 12,280 ASRCPY.EXE 5 File(s) 15,883 bytes 0 Dir(s) 36,109,975,552 bytes freeSrinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 39
40. 40. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comC:TCBIN>asrcpy asrcpy.c aravind.cFile CopiedC:TCBIN>asrcpy sss.c yyy.cSource File Not ExistingC:TCBIN>asrcpy asrcpy.c yy.c zz.cUse Command ProperlyCommand SourceFileName TargetFileNameC:TCBIN>asrcpy aravind.c jntuh.cFile CopiedC:TCBIN>dir jnt*.*Volume in drive C has no label.Volume Serial Number is 60A8-805BDirectory of C:TCBIN01/05/2013 11:49 PM 485 JNTUH.C 1 File(s) 485 bytes 0 Dir(s) 36,109,844,480 bytes freeC:TCBIN>exitb) Write a C program to reverse the first n characters in a file.(Note: The file name and n are specified on the command line.)#include<stdio.h>void main(int argc,char* argv[]){ FILE *fp; int n,n2; char ch; n=atoi(argv[2]); n2=n; fp=fopen(argv[1],"r"); fseek(fp,n+1,0); while(n>0) { fseek(fp,-2,1); ch=fgetc(fp); printf("%c",ch); n=n-1; }Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 40
41. 41. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com fseek(fp,n2,0); ch=fgetc(fp); while(ch!=EOF) { printf("%c",ch); ch=fgetc(fp); } fclose(fp);}INPUT/OUTPUTC:TCBIN>type text.datThis is Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar at NIT Trichy, TN.C:TCBIN>asrfile4 text.dat 25mA yddeR savinirS si sihTedapu, Full Time Research Scholar at NIT Trichy, TN.C:TCBIN>asrfile4 text.dat 66TIN ta ralohcS hcraeseR emiT lluF ,upademA yddeR savinirS si sihTTrichy, TN.C:TCBIN>asrfile4 text.dat 45seR emiT lluF ,upademA yddeR savinirS si sihTearch Scholar at NIT Trichy, TN.C:TCBIN>type aravind.datI am Aravind Reddy Ravula, studying B.Tech(+MBA) First Year, JNTU Hyderabad.C:TCBIN>asrfile4 aravind.dat 35gniyduts ,aluvaR yddeR dnivarA ma I B.Tech(+MBA) First Year, JNTU Hyderabad.C:TCBIN>asrfile4 aravind.dat 55tsriF )ABM+(hceT.B gniyduts ,aluvaR yddeR dnivarA ma IYear, JNTU Hyderabad.C:TCBIN>exitWeek 13a) Write a C programme to display the contents of a file.#include<stdio.h>void main(int argc,char* argv[]){ FILE *fp; char ch; if(argc!=2) { printf("nUse Command Properly"); printf("nCommand FileName"); exit(0); }Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 41
42. 42. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com fp=fopen(argv[1],"r"); if(fp==NULL) { printf("nSource File Not Existing"); exit(1); } ch=fgetc(fp); while(ch!=EOF) { printf("%c",ch); ch=fgetc(fp); } fclose(fp);}C:TCBIN>asrtype yy.cSource File Not ExistingC:TCBIN>asrtype simple.cvoid main(){ printf("nWelcome to JNTU--Aravind Reddy CSE");}C:TCBIN>asrtype simple.c asrtype.cUse Command ProperlyCommand FileNameC:TCBIN>exitb) Write a C programme to merge two files into a third file ( i.e., the contents of the first file followedby those of the second are put in the third file)#include<stdio.h>void main(int argc,char* argv[]){ FILE *fp1,*fp2,*fp3; char ch; if(argc!=4) { printf("nUse Command Properly"); printf("nCommand SourceFileName1 SourceFileName2 TargetFileName"); exit(0); }Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 42
43. 43. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com fp1=fopen(argv[1],"r"); if(fp1==NULL) { printf("nSource File1 Not Existing"); exit(1); } fp3=fopen(argv[3],"w"); ch=fgetc(fp1); while(ch!=EOF) { fputc(ch,fp3); ch=fgetc(fp1); } fclose(fp1); fp2=fopen(argv[2],"r"); if(fp2==NULL) { printf("nSource File 2 Not Existing"); fclose(fp3); exit(2); } ch=fgetc(fp2); while(ch!=EOF) { fputc(ch,fp3); ch=fgetc(fp2); } fclose(fp2); fclose(fp3);}INPUT/OUTPUTC:TCBIN>asrmerg simple.c hworld.c aravind.cC:TCBIN>type simple.cvoid main(){ printf("nWelcome to JNTU--Aravind Reddy CSE");}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 43
44. 44. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comC:TCBIN>type hworld.c#include<stdio.h>void main(){ printf("nHello World!"); printf("nThis is Aravind Reddy"); printf("nRoll No. 12011U0502, CSE");}C:TCBIN>type aravind.cvoid main(){ printf("nWelcome to JNTU--Aravind Reddy CSE");}#include<stdio.h>void main(){ printf("nHello World!"); printf("nThis is Aravind Reddy"); printf("nRoll No. 12011U0502, CSE");}C:TCBIN>exitWeek 14Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following operations on singly linked list.:i) Creation ii) Insertion iii) Deletion iv) Traversal#include<stdio.h>#include<alloc.h>struct node{ int data; struct node *link;};typedef struct node* nodeptr;void main(){ int val,pos; nodeptr list; nodeptr create(); void print(),insertnth(nodeptr*,int,int); int deletenth(nodeptr*,int);Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 44
45. 45. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com list=create(); print(list); printf("nEnter Element to be inserted and position : "); scanf("%d%d",&val,&pos); insertnth(&list,val,pos); print(list); printf("nWhich position node you want to delete? "); scanf("%d",&pos); val=deletenth(&list,pos); printf("nDeleted node value is %d",val); print(list);}int deletenth(nodeptr *lp,int pos){ int val=-1; nodeptr p,q,r; if(*lp==NULL) printf("nLinked List is empty, delete not possible"); else { p=*lp; if(pos==1) { *lp=p->link; val=p->data; free(p); } else { pos=pos-2; while(p&&pos) { p=p->link; pos=pos-1; } if(p) { q=p->link; p->link=q->link; val=q->data; free(q); } else printf("nLess nodes than given node number"); } } return val;}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 45
46. 46. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid insertnth(nodeptr *lp,int val,int pos){ nodeptr p,q,r; nodeptr getnode(); q=getnode(); q->data=val; q->link=NULL; if(*lp==NULL) *lp=q; else { p=*lp; pos=pos-1; while(p&&pos) { r=p; p=p->link; pos=pos-1; } q->link=r->link; r->link=q; }}nodeptr create(){ int val; nodeptr p,q,r; nodeptr getnode(); printf("nEnter 0 (zero) to stopn"); scanf("%d",&val); p=getnode(); r=p; while(val) { q=getnode(); q->data=val; p->link=q; p=q; scanf("%d",&val); } p->link=NULL; p=r->link; free(r); return p;}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 46
47. 47. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid print(nodeptr p){ printf("nContents of Linked List aren"); while(p) { printf(" %d",p->data); p=p->link; }}nodeptr getnode(){ nodeptr p; p=(nodeptr)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); return p;}INPUT/OUTPUTEnter 0 (zero) to stop11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 0Contents of Linked List are 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99Enter Element to be inserted and position : 678 6Contents of Linked List are 11 22 33 44 55 678 66 77 88 99Which position node you want to delete? 3Deleted node value is 33Contents of Linked List are 11 22 44 55 678 66 77 88 99Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 47
48. 48. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 15Write C programs that implement stack (its operations) usingi) Arrays ii) PointersArrays#include<stdio.h>#define MAX 100void main(){ int stack[MAX],top=-1,val,op; void push(),display(),options(); int pop(); clrscr(); options(); while(1) { printf("nSelect option : "); scanf("%d",&op); switch(op) { case 1: printf("nEnter value to be pushed : "); scanf("%d",&val); push(stack,&top,val); break; case 2: val=pop(stack,&top); printf("nValue poped is %d",val); break; case 3: display(stack,top); break; case 4: exit(0); break; //optional ie, non reachable code default:options(); break; //optional, last case } }}void push(int stk[],int *tp,int val){ if(*tp==MAX-1) printf("nStack full, %d not inserted",val); else { *tp=*tp+1; stk[*tp]=val; }}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 48
49. 49. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comint pop(int stk[],int *tp){ int val=-1; if(*tp==-1) printf("nStack empty, no value deleted"); else { val=stk[*tp]; *tp=*tp-1; } return val;}void display(int stk[],int top){ int i; printf("nContents of Stack aren"); for(i=top;i>=0;i--) printf("ntt%4d",stk[i]);}void options(){ printf("nAvailable optons aren"); printf("ntt0. Options"); printf("ntt1. Push"); printf("ntt2. Pop"); printf("ntt3. Display"); printf("ntt4. Exit");}INPUT/OUTPUTAvailable optons are 0. Options 1. Push 2. Pop 3. Display 4. ExitSelect option : 1Enter value to be pushed : 11Select option : 1Enter value to be pushed : 99Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 49
50. 50. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comSelect option : 1Enter value to be pushed : 88Select option : 3Contents of Stack are 88 99 11Select option : 2Value poped is 88Select option : 2Value poped is 99Select option : 2Value poped is 11Select option : 2Stack empty, no value deletedValue poped is -1Select option : 4Pointers#include<stdio.h>struct node{ int data; struct node *link;};typedef struct node* nodeptr;void main(){ int op,val; nodeptr sp=NULL; void push(),display(),options(); int pop(); clrscr(); options(); while(1) { printf("nSelect option : "); scanf("%d",&op);Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 50
51. 51. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com switch(op) { case 1: printf("nEnter value to be pushed : "); scanf("%d",&val); push(&sp,val); break; case 2: val=pop(&sp); printf("nValue poped is %d",val); break; case 3: display(sp); break; case 4: exit(0); break; //optional ie, non reachable code default:options(); break; //optional, last case } }}void push(nodeptr *spp,int val){ nodeptr p; nodeptr getnode(); p=getnode(); p->data=val; p->link=*spp; *spp=p;}int pop(nodeptr *spp){ int val=-1; nodeptr p; if(*spp==NULL) printf("nStack Empty"); else { p=*spp; *spp=p->link; val=p->data; free(p); } return val;}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 51
52. 52. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid display(nodeptr p){ printf("nContents of Stack aren"); while(p) { printf("nt%4d",p->data); p=p->link; }}void options(){ printf("nAvailable optons aren"); printf("nt0. Options"); printf("nt1. Push"); printf("nt2. Pop"); printf("nt3. Display"); printf("nt4. Exit");}nodeptr getnode(){ nodeptr p; p=(nodeptr)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); return p;}INPUT/OUTPUTAvailable optons are 0. Options 1. Push 2. Pop 3. Display 4. ExitSelect option : 1Enter value to be pushed : 11Select option : 1Enter value to be pushed : 22Select option : 1Enter value to be pushed : 44Select option : 2Value poped is 44Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 52
53. 53. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comSelect option : 3Contents of Stack are 22 11Select option : 2Value poped is 22Select option : 2Value poped is 11Select option : 2Stack EmptyValue poped is -1Select option : 4Week 16Write C programs that implement Queue (its operations) usingi) Arrays ii) PointersArrays#include<stdio.h>#define MAX 100void main(){ int val,op; int queue[MAX],front=0,rear=-1; int delet(); void insert(),display(),options(); options(); while(1) { printf("nSelect option: "); scanf("%d",&op); switch(op) { case 1: printf("nEnter value to be inserted: "); scanf("%d",&val); insert(queue,&rear,val); break; case 2: val=delet(queue,&front,rear); printf("nDeleted value is %d",val); break;Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 53
54. 54. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com case 3: display(queue,front,rear); break; case 4: exit(0); break; default: options(); break; } }}int delet(int q[],int *fp,int r){ int val=-1; if(*fp>r) printf("nQueue empty"); else { val=q[*fp]; *fp=*fp+1; } return val;}void insert(int q[],int *rp,int val){ if(*rp==MAX-1) printf("nQueue full"); else { *rp=*rp+1; q[*rp]=val; }}void display(int q[],int f,int r){ int i; printf("nContents of queue are:n"); for(i=f;i<=r;i++) printf(" %d",q[i]);}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 54
55. 55. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid options(){ printf("nAvailable operations"); printf("nt1. Insert"); printf("nt2. Delete"); printf("nt3. Display"); printf("nt4. Exit");}Available operations 1. Insert 2. Delete 3. Display 4. ExitSelect option: 1Enter value to be inserted: 11Select option: 1Enter value to be inserted: 66Select option: 1Enter value to be inserted: 88Select option: 3Contents of queue are:11 66 88Select option: 2Deleted value is 11Select option: 4Pointers#include<stdio.h>#define MAX 100struct node{ int data; struct node *link;};typedef struct node* nodeptr;Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 55
56. 56. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid main(){ int val,op; nodeptr front=NULL,rear=NULL; int delet(); void insert(),display(),options(); options(); while(1) { printf("nSelect option: "); scanf("%d",&op); switch(op) { case 1: printf("nEnter value to be inserted: "); scanf("%d",&val); insert(&front,&rear,val); break; case 2: val=delet(&front,&rear); printf("nDeleted value is %d",val); break; case 3: display(front); break; case 4: exit(0); break; default: options(); break; } }}int delet(nodeptr *fp,nodeptr *rp){ int val=-1; nodeptr p; if(*fp==NULL) printf("nQueue is Empty"); else { p=*fp; val=p->data; *fp=p->link; if(*fp==NULL) *rp=NULL; } return val;}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 56
57. 57. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid insert(nodeptr *fp,nodeptr *rp,int val){ nodeptr p; nodeptr getnode(); p=getnode(); p->data=val; p->link=NULL; if(*rp==NULL) *fp=*rp=p; else { (*rp)->link=p; *rp=p; }}void display(nodeptr p){ printf("nContents of queue are:n"); while(p) { printf(" %d",p->data); p=p->link; }}void options(){ printf("nAvailable operations"); printf("nt1. Insert"); printf("nt2. Delete"); printf("nt3. Display"); printf("nt4. Exit");}nodeptr getnode(){ nodeptr p; p=(nodeptr)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); return p;}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 57
58. 58. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comAvailable operations 1. Insert 2. Delete 3. Display 4. ExitSelect option: 1Enter value to be inserted: 11Select option: 1Enter value to be inserted: 12Select option: 1Enter value to be inserted: 14Select option: 2Deleted value is 11Select option: 3Contents of queue are:12 14Select option: 2Deleted value is 12Select option: 2Deleted value is 14Select option: 2Queue is EmptyDeleted value is -1Select option: 3Contents of queue are:Select option: 4Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 58
59. 59. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 17Write a C program that uses Stack operations to perform the following:i) Converting infix expression into postfix expressionii) Evaluating the postfix expressionConverting infix expression into postfix expression#include<math.h>#include<stdio.h>#include<alloc.h>#include<conio.h>struct node{ char data; struct node* link;};typedef struct node* nodeptr;void main(){ char in[100],post[100]; int i,j; nodeptr sp=NULL; void push(); char pop(); printf("nEnter valid infix expression"); printf("nThis program will work for + - * / % ^ operatorsn"); scanf("%s",in); i=0,j=0; while(in[i]) { if(in[i]>=a&&in[i]<=z) { post[j]=in[i]; j++; } else { if(in[i]==+||in[i]==-||in[i]==* ||in[i]==/||in[i]==%||in[i]==^) { while(sp&&compare(in[i],sp->data)<=0) { post[j]=pop(&sp); j++; } push(&sp,in[i]); }Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 59
60. 60. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com else { printf("nInvalid Symbol in the expression"); exit(0); } } i++; } while(sp) { post[j]=pop(&sp); j++; } post[j]=0; printf("nInfix expression: %s",in); printf("nPostfix expression: %s",post);}int compare(char sym1,char sym2){ int diff; diff=priority(sym1)-priority(sym2); return diff;}int priority(char sym){ int p; switch(sym) { case +: case -: p=1; break; case *: case /: p=2; break; case %: p=3; break; case ^: p=4; break; } return p;}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 60
61. 61. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comchar pop(nodeptr *spp){ int val=-1; nodeptr p; p=*spp; *spp=p->link; val=p->data; free(p); return(val);}void push(nodeptr *spp,char val){ nodeptr p; nodeptr getnode(); p=getnode(); p->data=val; p->link=*spp; *spp=p;}nodeptr getnode(){ nodeptr p; p=(nodeptr)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); // malloc -> alloc.h included return p;}INPUT/OUTPUTEnter valid infix expressionThis program will work for + - * / % ^ operatorsa+b*c/d-e%f^gInfix expression: a+b*c/d-e%f^gPostfix expression: abc*d/+efg^%-Enter valid infix expressionThis program will work for + - * / % ^ operatorsa+b@Invalid Symbol in the expressionEnter valid infix expressionThis program will work for + - * / % ^ operatorsa+b%c-d/f+g^h+i*jInfix expression: a+b%c-d/f+g^h+i*jPostfix expression: abc%+df/-gh^+ij*+Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 61
62. 62. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comEvaluating the postfix expression#include<math.h>#include<stdio.h>#include<alloc.h>#include<conio.h>struct node{ int data; struct node* link;};typedef struct node* nodeptr;void main(){ int i,val,val1,val2,temp; char post[100]; nodeptr sp=NULL; int evaluate(),pop(); void push(); printf("nEnter postfix expressionn"); scanf("%s",post); i=0; while(post[i]) { if(post[i]>=0&&post[i]<=9) { temp=post[i]-0; push(&sp,temp); } else { if(post[i]==+||post[i]==-||post[i]==* ||post[i]==/||post[i]==^) { val2=pop(&sp); val1=pop(&sp); if(val1==-1||val2==-1) { printf("nExpression Error"); exit(0); } val=evaluate(val1,val2,post[i]); push(&sp,val); }Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 62
63. 63. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.com else { printf("nInvalid Symbol"); exit(1); } } i=i+1; } val=pop(&sp); printf("n%s = %d",post,val); getch(); // getch -> conio.h included}int evaluate(int a,int b,char sym){ int val; switch(sym) { case +: val=a+b; break; case -: val=a-b; break; case *: val=a*b; break; case /: val=a/b; break; case ^: val=pow(a,b); // pow -> math.h is included } return val;}int pop(nodeptr *spp){ int val=-1; nodeptr p; p=*spp; *spp=p->link; val=p->data; free(p); return(val);}void push(nodeptr *spp,int val){ nodeptr p; nodeptr getnode(); p=getnode(); p->data=val; p->link=*spp; *spp=p;}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 63
64. 64. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comnodeptr getnode(){ nodeptr p; p=(nodeptr)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); // malloc -> alloc.h included return p;}INPUT/OUTPUTEnter postfix expression23+23+ = 5Enter postfix expression45+63/-42^+45+63/-42^+ = 23Enter postfix expression45*45* = 20Week 18Write a C program that implements the following sorting methods to sort a given list of integers inascendingorderi) Bubble sortii) Selection sortBubble Sort#include<stdio.h>#define MAX 100void main(){ int arr[MAX],n,temp,i,j; void read1D(),print1D(),bubble(); printf("nEnter number of terms: "); scanf("%d",&n); read1D(arr,n); bubble(arr,n); print1D(arr,n);}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 64
65. 65. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comvoid bubble(int a[],int n){ int i,j,temp; for(i=0;i<n-1;i++) { for(j=0;j<n-i-1;j++) if(a[j]>a[j+1]) { temp=a[j]; a[j]=a[j+1]; a[j+1]=temp; } }}void read1D(int arr[],int n){ int i; printf("nEnter %d valuesn",n); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&arr[i]);}void print1D(int arr[],int n){ int i; printf("nValues of array are:n"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) printf(" %d",arr[i]);}Enter number of terms: 7Enter 7 values11 66 33 99 88 22 44Values of array are:11 22 33 44 66 88 99Enter number terms: 12Enter 12 values22 88 33 77 100 222 777 123 876 456 767 121Values of array are:22 33 77 88 100 121 123 222 456 767 777 876Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 65
66. 66. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comWeek 18 Write a C program that implements the following sorting methods to sort a given list ofintegers in ascending orderii) Selection sortWeek 19Write C programs that use both recursive and non recursive functions to perform the followingsearching operations for a Key value in a given list of integers :i) Linear search ii) Binary searchIterative Linear Search#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int arr[100],n,val,loc; void read1D(); int lsearch(); printf("nHowmany elements you want to enter? "); scanf("%d",&n); read1D(arr,n); printf("nEnter element to be searched: "); scanf("%d",&val); loc=lsearch(arr,n,val); printf("n%d availabel at %d location",val,loc);}int lsearch(int arr[],int n,int val){ int i; for(i=0;i<n;i++) if(arr[i]==val) return i; return -1;}void read1D(int arr[],int n){ int i; printf("nEnter %d values:n",n); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&arr[i]);}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 66
67. 67. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comINPUT/OUTPUTHowmany elements you want to enter? 1Enter 1 values:1Enter element to be searched: 11 availabel at 0 locationHowmany elements you want to enter? 8Enter 8 values:11 55 33 77 89 98 22 66Enter element to be searched: 8989 availabel at 4 locationHowmany elements you want to enter? 12Enter 12 values:12 56 89 65 32 11 66 44 99 92 23 48Enter element to be searched: 1010 availabel at -1 locationHowmany elements you want to enter? 5Enter 5 values:12345Enter element to be searched: 33 availabel at 2 locationIterative Binary Search#include<stdio.h>void main(){ int arr[100],n,val,loc; void read1D(); int bsearch(); printf("nHowmany elements you want to enter? "); scanf("%d",&n); read1D(arr,n); printf("nEnter element to be searched: "); scanf("%d",&val); loc=bsearch(arr,0,n-1,val); printf("n%d availabel at %d location",val,loc);}Srinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 67
68. 68. SrinivasReddyAmedapu@yahoo.comint bsearch(int arr[],int lb,int ub,int val){ int mid; while(lb<=ub) { mid=(lb+ub)/2; if(arr[mid]==val) return mid; else if(arr[mid]<val) lb=mid+1; else ub=mid-1; } return -1;}void read1D(int arr[],int n){ int i; printf("nEnter %d values:n",n); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&arr[i]);}INPUT/OUTPUTHowmany elements you want to enter? 7Enter 7 values:11 33 45 67 88 90 112Enter element to be searched: 8888 availabel at 4 locationHowmany elements you want to enter? 5Enter 5 values:1 4 7 9 15Enter element to be searched: 66 availabel at -1 locationHowmany elements you want to enter? 10Enter 10 values:11 14 17 25 28 45 47 56 67 78Enter element to be searched: 5656 availabel at 7 locationSrinivas Reddy Amedapu, Full Time Research Scholar, CSE DepartmentNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TRICHY, TAMIL NADU 68