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The Past Present and The Future
Srikanth KS
IT professional
Definitions
An embedded system is a computer system with a
dedicated function within a larger mechanical or
electrical sys...
Real Time System
Does it mean a Really Fast System?
Does it mean that the correctness is a function of
time?
Mathematicall...
So what is a real time system
A real time system reacts to a given stimulus within a
fixed time interval
Too early is too ...
Soft Real time system v/s Hard Real
time system
In a hard real time system, a delay in response can be
really catastrophic...
Embedded v/s Non embedded
Why embedded systems
A computer has a processor which is
general purpose. A processor can be used
to run a specific operat...
The Past
Evolution of embedded systemsYear 1833: Michael Faraday describes the "extraordinary case" of his
discovery of electrical ...
Evolution of Embedded systems
Where we are heading
Challenges in Embedded Design
In the past most of the systems were driven by
mechanical valves or discrete electronics
A h...
The present
Becoming slaves to software
With evolution, the processors are getting cheaper . Many
vendors are providing board support ...
How big our code base is
From hundreds to millions
Extremely complex code base leads
to
1. Mariner Bugs Out (1962)
Cost: $18.5 million
Disaster: The Mariner 1 rocket with a ...
Bugs continued
Setting the date to 1-Jan-1970 bricks your iPhone
AT&T Lines Go Dead (1990)
Cost: 75 million phone calls mi...
Need of the hour
Development practices : Embedded software systems
poses an extraordinary challenge to the software
engine...
The Evolution of programming
languages
Predominantly around 70-80% people use ‘C’ as a
preferred programming language for ...
Design inspection and verification
With increasing complexity, verification and
validation are playing a major role in emb...
Defect patterns
Risk reduction strategies
New challenge Cyber Era
Most of the devices are now capable of
intercommunicating.
The security requirements for a huge ba...
In vehicle communication – A study
Cyber attacks and its threats
Embedded security is a new differentiated skill in
embedded system.
Embedded Encryption: Sta...
Types of Cyber attacks
The Future
The future
The Internet of Things is a new thing happening in
the industry
What is it after all?
In simple terms it is a c...
IoT
IoT at home
Why IoT is a big thing
Where we are heading
About the author
Srikanth KS completed his MS from BITS Pilani
specialized in software systems .He works in a multi
nation...
Credits
The Author would like to thank all authors who have
contributed directly or indirectly in the preparation of
this ...
References
https://en.wikipedia.org : Terms and Definitions
Trends and Implications in Embedded Systems
Development : A TC...
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Embedded systems The Past Present and the Future

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This presentation provides an overview of the trends in embedded systems. It will mainly help engineering students to select a good final year project.

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Embedded systems The Past Present and the Future

  1. 1. The Past Present and The Future Srikanth KS IT professional
  2. 2. Definitions An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. A simpler definition: A small remote controlled toy, electronic control units in automobiles, aircraft and space shuttles. Even simpler: Anything which does not have a desktop computer or a laptop computer and used for a specific purpose and does contain a microcontroller
  3. 3. Real Time System Does it mean a Really Fast System? Does it mean that the correctness is a function of time? Mathematically Correctness = f(time) Is too early bad and too late also bad? Are missed dead lines sometimes not acceptable where as its ok some other times? Everything in the world is a real time system where in some cases time t ∞
  4. 4. So what is a real time system A real time system reacts to a given stimulus within a fixed time interval Too early is too bad and too late is also too bad. Its better not to do it rather than doing it late. Example if a missile is launched 10 seconds late, it will miss the target by 30km. Just to appreciate the missile, it takes a parabolic trajectory and follows the laws of nature..
  5. 5. Soft Real time system v/s Hard Real time system In a hard real time system, a delay in response can be really catastrophic and timing is very critical. On the other hand a soft real time is quite soft on time.
  6. 6. Embedded v/s Non embedded
  7. 7. Why embedded systems A computer has a processor which is general purpose. A processor can be used to run a specific operating system which in turn can host a set of services A processor is used in cases where we want to do something general and generic. On the other hand a controller is used for a specific application like controlling the motion of a toy car. Imagine a toy car that has a huge computer connected to it to control its motion! Will any one buy it?
  8. 8. The Past
  9. 9. Evolution of embedded systemsYear 1833: Michael Faraday describes the "extraordinary case" of his discovery of electrical conduction increasing with temperature in silver sulphide crystals Year 1874: In the first written description of a semiconductor diode, Ferdinand Braun notes that current flows freely in only one direction at the contact between a metal point and a galena crystal. Year 1959: Robert Noyce builds on Jean Hoerni's planar process to patent a monolithic integrated circuit structure that can be manufactured in high volume. Year 1974: First general purpose Microprocessor family is announced. It was introduced by a company called Integrated Electronics for a Japanese customer called Busicon. The Japanese customer declined to purchase the chipsets manufactured by Intel. This was later sold by Intel as the first 4 bit processor (Intel 4004)
  10. 10. Evolution of Embedded systems
  11. 11. Where we are heading
  12. 12. Challenges in Embedded Design In the past most of the systems were driven by mechanical valves or discrete electronics A humble tape recorder which can play for 40 minutes has been replaced by a tiny MP3 player which can play continuously for 12 to 14 hours
  13. 13. The present
  14. 14. Becoming slaves to software With evolution, the processors are getting cheaper . Many vendors are providing board support packages and cross compilers Free code is available all over the web Features are increasing day by day. A mobile phone has changed from a simple connectivity device to a Make Up Kit A space mission now has an operating system running and a load of application programs Recently a plastic part was printed in space by sending the drawings to the NASA space station Heart valves are printed using 3D printers due to non availability of cadaver donors
  15. 15. How big our code base is
  16. 16. From hundreds to millions
  17. 17. Extremely complex code base leads to 1. Mariner Bugs Out (1962) Cost: $18.5 million Disaster: The Mariner 1 rocket with a space probe headed for Venus diverted from its intended flight path shortly after launch. Mission Control destroyed the rocket 293 seconds after lift-off. 2. World War III… Almost (1983) Cost: Nearly all of humanity Disaster: The Soviet early warning system falsely indicated the United States had launched five ballistic missiles. Fortunately the Soviet duty officer had a “funny feeling in my gut” and reasoned if the U.S. was really attacking they would launch more than five missiles, so he reported the apparent attack as a false alarm. Cause: A bug in the Soviet software failed to filter out false missile detections caused by sunlight reflecting off cloud-tops.
  18. 18. Bugs continued Setting the date to 1-Jan-1970 bricks your iPhone AT&T Lines Go Dead (1990) Cost: 75 million phone calls missed, 200 thousand airline reservations lost Disaster: A single switch at one of AT&T’s 114 switching centres suffered a minor mechanical problem and shut down the centre. When the centre came back up, it sent a message to other switching centres, which in turn caused them to shut down and brought down the entire AT&T network for 9 hours. Cause: A single line of buggy code in a complex software upgrade implemented to speed up calling caused a ripple effect that shut down the network. Ariane Rocket Goes Boom (1996) Cost: $500 million Disaster: Ariane 5, Europe’s newest unmanned rocket, was intentionally destroyed seconds after launch on its maiden flight. Also destroyed was its cargo of four scientific satellites to study how the Earth’s magnetic field interacts with solar winds. Cause: Shutdown occurred when the guidance computer tried to convert the sideways rocket velocity from 64-bits to a 16-bit format. The number was too big, and an overflow error resulted. When the guidance system shut down, control passed to an identical redundant unit, which also failed because it was running the same algorithm
  19. 19. Need of the hour Development practices : Embedded software systems poses an extraordinary challenge to the software engineers due to their complexity functionality represented by states and events; real-time behaviour of events and expected actions; combined software/hardware systems equipped with distributed software, computers, sensors, and actuators; high demands on availability, safety, information security, and interoperability; and long-lived systems in which embedded software is expected to work reliably.
  20. 20. The Evolution of programming languages Predominantly around 70-80% people use ‘C’ as a preferred programming language for embedded systems OOP like ‘C++’ and ‘JAVA’ are becoming a new trend in terms of model based design, for example ASCET (SD)
  21. 21. Design inspection and verification With increasing complexity, verification and validation are playing a major role in embedded software lifecycle. Many players are venturing into this new market Evolution of Orthogonal defect classification
  22. 22. Defect patterns
  23. 23. Risk reduction strategies
  24. 24. New challenge Cyber Era Most of the devices are now capable of intercommunicating. The security requirements for a huge base of connected devices are distinct on account of low memory foot print, low power consumption, constrained middleware etc. Embedded security is a new differentiator for embedded devices.
  25. 25. In vehicle communication – A study
  26. 26. Cyber attacks and its threats Embedded security is a new differentiated skill in embedded system. Embedded Encryption: Standard symmetric key encryption algorithms like AES , public private key pair using RSA encryption
  27. 27. Types of Cyber attacks
  28. 28. The Future
  29. 29. The future The Internet of Things is a new thing happening in the industry What is it after all? In simple terms it is a connection of edge devices to the internet The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects—devices, vehicles, buildings and other items—embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity that enables these objects to collect and exchange data.
  30. 30. IoT
  31. 31. IoT at home
  32. 32. Why IoT is a big thing
  33. 33. Where we are heading
  34. 34. About the author Srikanth KS completed his MS from BITS Pilani specialized in software systems .He works in a multi national company as a software engineer responsible for design and development of embedded software. He has been in this industry since 15 years. He has been a part of the journey by working with 8051 microcontrollers and is currently working on 32 bit processors. He has a passion to teach engineering students and to provide them the knowledge that they seldom get in their colleges. All his posts can be found at http://www.slideshare.net/SrikanthKS2 The Author thanks Hari KA for providing a platform http://www.primedin.in/ which can be used for presenting online lectures
  35. 35. Credits The Author would like to thank all authors who have contributed directly or indirectly in the preparation of this slide show. All information has been taken from the public domain and the author thanks all of them for providing the information.
  36. 36. References https://en.wikipedia.org : Terms and Definitions Trends and Implications in Embedded Systems Development : A TCS White paper Real-Time & Embedded Systems Past, Present, and Future : Dr. Doug Locke EMBEDDED SOFTWARE: FACTS, FIGURES AND FUTURE Published by the IEEE Computer Society 0018-9162/09/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE ASCET–SD – Model based design the present and the future

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