BASIC PRINCIPLE MOVING CHARGE AND MAGNETIC FIELD
M A G N E T IC F O R C E DEPENDS ON…• LENGTH OF WIRE• CURRENT• STRENGTH OF MAGNETIC FIELD
CURRENT AND MAGNETIC FORCE Direction of the force is perpendicular to current direction and magnetic field. The repulsion or attraction between two parallel wires is of particular importance to magnetic levitation. If the currents flow in the same direction (as shown), the wires attract. If the current flow in opposite directions, the wire repels.
MAGLEV T R A N S P O R T A T IO NLEVITATION AND PROPULSION1) Levitation by attraction2) Propulsion by repulsion
L E V IT A T IO N B Y A T T R A C T IO N In order for the train float,there Must be two coils.The top coil is installed in the train and the bottom coil is placed in the track .Attraction is caused by having the currents within each of the circuits , traveling in the same direction
P R O P U L S IO N B Y R E P U L S IO N Sim ilar poles of a m agnet repel each other . In ord er for the train to float , there m ust be two coils. The top coil is placed within the train and the bottom coil is placed on the track . The current in the top circuit travels in the opposite d irection of the current in the bottom , resulting in the repulsion between two coils.
FLOATING ON COURSEDrift between the The enhancedrail and levitation T ga w bet een he p idens w current input intomagnets caused t t a a t t a he r in nd he r ck the levitationby wind or when beca ofashora of use t ge magnetsthe train rounds ma ic for gnet ce. increases thea curve magnetic force.
PROPAGATION VELOCITYThe forward speed for LSM or LIMis determined by propagation velocity ofelectromagnetic field. In co-axial cable thevelocity of electromagnetic wave is hardly65%. This is due to inductance down thelength of wire and capacitive coupling ofsurface of wire with free space . Thuselectromagnetic wave takes more time totravel in co-axial cable than in free space.
The magnetic field of bogie magnets arestatic , thus the propagation velocity alongthe bogie is zero.The equations for the bogie velocity are asfollows:-Vb = V2 - V1V1 = propagation velocity of guide rail drive coilV2 = propagation velocity of bogie magnetic fieldVb = bogie velocity
C O N D IT IO N S …• If V2 = 0 then Vb = V1• If V1 = V2 then Vb = 0• If V2 = - V1 then Vb = 2V1
S P E E D C O N TR O LThe speed of MAGLEV depends on thepropagation velocity of electromagnetic coilexcitation . • For LSM :Bogie moves at the propagation speed • For LIM : Bogie will have a certain slipSpeed control can be done by : – Adjusting capacitance – Having switch system – Succession of excitation coil
L A U N C H V E H IC L E This research in m agnetic levitation could give launch vehicle a running start to break free from earths gravity the m aglev can accelerate the vehicle to a speed of about 600 m ph then it can be switched over to rocket engines separate from m aglev carrier an propel itself into space this would result in d ram atically red uction in cost of getting to space as carrier and electric power used for m aglev are inexp- ensive and stay on ground while rocket fuels which ad d to weight of launch vehicle L .S.M . is used it can carry a pay load three tim es m ore and elim inates the first stage of launching .
MERRIMaglev emplacement on rail road infrastructure :it allows maglevvehicles to use trackage without interfering with ,or requiringreconstruction of existing packageThin panels containing the MERRI guide way loops are attached tothe ends of the existing wooden railroad ties. The MERRI panelsinteract with the magnets on the maglev vehicles, levitating it as itmoves along the track. The panels are located so that they do notinterfere with the rails or the operation of conventional railroadlocomotives and rail cards. Accordingly, the MERRI system couldeven be put into place on trackage that was still in operation, butonly infrequently.
INTER CITY TRUCK Using the M-2000 National Maglev Network, a trucking company would pick up a loaded trailer at its origin and drive it a few miles to the nearest maglev station. There it would be loaded into a maglev vehicle, to travel hundreds or thousands of miles to the maglev station closest to its destination, where a tractor would pickup the trailer and drive it a few miles to its delivery point.
MACH-3If the Maglev vehicles operate in a low-pressure tunnel, however, air drag iseffectively zero and no longer a factor, so thatvehicles can travel at speeds of thousands ofmiles per hour. There still is a small magneticdrag due to power losses in the normal metalloops on the guide way, but this does notimpose any practical limit. The magnetic dragpower, in fact, is constant with speed while themagnetic drag force decreases as (1/velocity).
A D VA N TA G E SE R YCONSUM ION: NE G PTM AG LE V u s e s 30% le s s e ne rgy th an h igh s p e e d trainSPEED ICE Train MAGLEV Train200km/hr 32Wh/km 32Wh/km250km/hr 44Wh/km 37Wh/km300km/hr 71Wh/km 47Wh/km400km/hr - 71Wh/km
OPERATION COST• Virtually no wear and tear.• Specific energy consumption is less.• Faster train turn around time means fewer vehicles
N O IS E L E V E L S : • No noise by wheel rolling or engine. V IB R A T IO N S : • Just below human threshold of perception P O W E R S U P P L Y:• 110KV lines fed separately via two substations P O W E R F A IL U R E : • Batteries on board automatically activated
F IR E R E S IS T A N C E S :• Latest non-PVC material used that is non-combustible• Carries no fuel.S A F E T Y:• Collisions are impossible because only section of tracks are activated as needed.