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FOURTH EDITION

 

Flight path [1 Target piane

Later position
of beam

r.  Ill.  1%. .

 Firing angle
4‘

 

t ) i , ' . ...
Copyright © 2006, 1998, 1982, 1975, New Age International (P) Ltd. , Publishers
Published by New Age International (P) Ltd...
$fiE%TEN? §

Preface to the Fourth Edition V
Preface to the Third Edition vii

I ,  Iujnagmggngu ' ’ 1-20

1.1 The Contmlsy...
4.3 Controller Components 134

4.4 Stepper Motors 154
4.5 Hydraulic Sgtems 163

4.6 Pneumatic Systems 177

Emhlems_185
5. ...
8. FREQUENCY Response ANALYSIS 345-376

s 

8.2 Correlation between 131112 and Frequency Response 347
8.3 Polar Plots 352
...
xii" - comsms

11.10 Stability Analysis 549

11.11 Comp_ensation Technigues 558
Bmh1ems_554

12. Sure Vamasns Ammrsrs AND ...
AEEENDICE8

Aggndix-I Fourier and Laglace Transforms and Partial Fractions 766
Agpgndix-II Element of Matrix Analysis 775
...
1

      INTRODUCTION A
1.1 THE CONTROL SYSTEM

The control system is that means by which any quantity of interest in a machine,  mechanism
or oth...
closed-Loop control

Let us reconsider the automobile driving system.  The route,  speed and acceleration of the
automobil...
4 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

and fast-acting systems,  the presence of human element in the control loop is undersirable...
feedback elements,  which is a function of the output response,  with the reference input.  Any
difference between these t...
6 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

potentiometer.  The slider arm A of another potentiometer is positioned corresponding to th...
A servo system used to position a load shaft is shown in Fig.  1.7 in which the driving
motor is geared to the load to be ...
8 p ' p A " _ CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

By opening the feedback loop i. e.,  disconnecting the potentiometer B,  the re...
(3)

,  '/3"/  Flange
5" “0rotat5on 270°

Gripper mounting

wrist rotation 300°

Flg.  1.8. (a) Cincinnati Milacron T3 rob...
10 CONTROL svsrsms ENGINEERING

For flexible manufacturing units mobile automations (also called AGV (automated guided
vehi...
'3. . 
If the engine speed drops below the desired value,  the centrifugal force of the fly-balls
decreases,  thus decreas...
will produce a loose roll,  while an increase in tension may result in tearing of the paper sheet. 
If reel speed is const...
ngrrsocucnou F q p 13

Another example of controlled industrial processes is a batch chemical reactor shown in
Fig.  1.12....
14 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

 

1.4 DIGITAL COMPUTER CONTROL

 

In some of the examples of control systems of high lev...
Where a few variable are to be controlled with a limited number of commands and the
control algorithm is of moderate compl...
416 ' ' coursor.  svsrsms ENGINEERING

l W).  noise
Aircraft
M Literal ym—
Bank syslem Aircraft
command posmon

T : 
Data ...
| Radio command signal

A (from ground statlon)
Ram,  Control Engine angle
receiver 99"‘!  d'sp'a°l°m°m
Dl9l§3' 1 Digital ...
18 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

° Watts,  vars,  line voltage. 
° Temperature and pressure of steam inlet to turbine. 
° O...
rNraoogcrloN'i: ___: , p 3‘  ' l 19

statistical fraction of infectious contacts that actually produce the disease,  while...
20

V CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

input to the controller elements particularly to counter the effect of load disturbance...
.  rv: 
OF P

I

HYSICAL YSTEMS
2

MATHEMATICAL MODELS
OF PHYSICAL SYSTEMS

 

A physical system is a collection of physical objects connected together to...
use of appropriate physical laws.  Depending upon the choice of variables and the coordinate
system,  a given physical mod...
CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING‘ ’

 

2.2 Dl_FFEREl‘flT| A_L EQUATIONS o_r=  PHYSICAL svsrsms

   

This section presents the...
MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF PHYSICAL SYSTEMS 25

Mechanical Systems

Mechanical systems and devices can be modelled by means of...
26

' CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
(1) The mass element
x(t)
""7 dv d 2:: 
F =  M E = M F
~—>
I-‘(r) E E
Reference
(2) The ...
MATHEMATICAL MODELSVOF PHYSlCAL SYSTEMS 27

A mechanical system which is modelled using the three ideal elements presented...
28 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

23.?  Kx rm/ an
K:   '7 '  '
' l
. ;__  , ;.-__t_
i M 5 1’ 5 M A 1”
l_ v 0 '_-_ . .___. ‘ ...
MATHEMATICAL MODELS or-‘ PHYSICAL systems 29

frame.  The deflection of the spring which may be measured by a linear-motio...
30 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

I (Viscous
trlction)
4)’

M9

 

Flg.  2.7 Fig.  as

Llnearlzatlon

Consider the mass-spri...
around the set point.  It will be used in this section in modelling of hydraulic and penumatic
systems which are otherwise...
32 F CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Rotational Systems

Mechanical systems involving fixed-axis rotation occur in the study o...
1

uAruaMrica_u. uooasor. n4vsicAi. svs1eus 33

Angular displacements of shafis 1 and 2 are denoted by 9, and 92 respective...
34 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Thus if N, /N2<1, from eqns.  (2.18) and (2.19) it is found that the gear train reduces th...
IHMATHEMATICAI‘;   ‘0F_PH‘_! SicAL ‘systems

 

Flg.  2.12. L-R-C series circuit. 

Elemental relationships are obvious fr...
36 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
Table 2.2. . -n: -slogans Quantities In Force (Torque)-Voltage Analogy

Mechanical translat...
Consider the simple thermal system shown in Fig.  2.14. Assume that the tank is insulated
to eliminate heat loss to the su...
38»_ ’ T coNrnoL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

In practice,  the temperature of the inflowing liquid fluctuates.  Thus along with a h...
;. .:-'v_C " .  a ' -I-4
motion of fluid.  The transition from laminar to turbulent flow was first investigated by Osborne

R...
40 » V CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

 2
rr2D‘ Q
where K is a constant.  Experimentally determined values of K for various d...
Let AQ_.  be a small increase in the liquid inflow 01+ A0’
rate from its steady-state value.  This increase in ->
liquid in...
42 CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

'. “.. l»! c 2.4. Analogous Quantities

Electrical Thermal Liquid-level Pneumatic
sy. ~'! ...
inertia J about the axis of rotation) driven by an actuator located on the crane body.  At the end
of the arm a hand (end ...
44 ' CONTROL svsrems euemeenme

where q, . are the coordinates in which the kinetic and potential energy are expressed q, ...
MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF PHYSICAL SYSTEMS 45

Substituting the values we get
L =  1/2(m,  + m, )d,29§ + 1/2m, d,’(9§ + 29,9,...
45 ,  CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Coupling lnertias

D, , =  D, , =  m, d§ + m, d,d,  cos (9,)
centripetal acceleration c...
Equation (2.39) and (2.40) reveal that the transfer function is an expression in s-domain. 
relating the output and input ...
48 ,  , ,  CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Equation (2.43) represents the behaviour of the accelerometer when used as a devic...
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Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
Control systems engineering. by i.j. nagrath
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