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Anatomy of female genital tract

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Anatomy of female genital tract

  1. 1. ANATOMY OFFEMALE GENITAL TRACT
  2. 2. • External genitalia• Internal genitalia• Accessory reproductive organs
  3. 3. Mons veneris Labia • Post commisure majoraExternal • prepuce Labia • Frenulumgenitalia minora • Fourchette(vulva, • Fossa navicularispudendum) • Glans clitoris • Body • 2 crura • 6 openings • bartholin’s abscess vestibule • Hymen
  4. 4. • Blood supply – Arteries • Br. of internal pudendal artery – Labial A., – Transverse perineal A., – A to vestibular bulb, – deep & dorsal arteries to clitoris • Br. of Femoral A – Superficial & deep external pudendal A – Veins • Internal pudendal vein • Vesical/ vaginal venous plexuses • Long saphenous vein
  5. 5. • Nerve supply – Ant-sup part • Ilio inguinal & genital br. of genitofemoral N (L1,L2) – Post-inf part • Pudendal br. of post.cut. N of thigh (S123) – In between • Labial & perineal br.of Pudendal N (S234)• Lymphatics – Superf. Inguinal nodes – Gland of Cloquet – Ext. & Int. Iliac nodes
  6. 6. Vagina UterusInternal genital organs Fallopian tubes ovaries
  7. 7. Vagina• Fibromuscular membranous sheath• Excretory channel• Organ of copulation• Birth canal of parturition• 45 horizontal• 2.5cm diameter• distensibility
  8. 8. • Walls – Ant : 7.5 cm – Post : 9cm – 2 lateral walls• Fornices : – Ant : shallow – 2 lateral – Post : deep
  9. 9. • Structure – mucous coat – Submucous layer of loose areolar vascular tissues – Muscular layer – Fibrous coat (from endopelvic fascia) :highly vascular• Vaginal secretion – Doderlein’s bacilli : lactic acid from glycogen
  10. 10. • Blood Supply – Arteries • Cervicovaginal br. Of uterine A • Vaginal A • Middle rectal A • Internal pudendal • Anastomose---form 2 azygos arteries – Veins drain into: • Internal iliac V • Internal pudendal V• Lymphatics drain into • Upper 1/3rd : internal iliac nodes • Middle 1/3rd: external iliac nodes • Lower 1/3rd (below hymen) : superficial inguinal gp.• Nerve supply • Parasympathetic : S234 • Sympathetic: hypogastric plexus • Lower end : pudendal N (sensory )
  11. 11. Uterus• Ho l l o w, p y r i f o r m mu s c u l a r o r g a n i n p e l v i s• Po s i t i o n : a n t e v e r s i o n & a n t e f l e x i o n u t e r u s d e x t r o r o t a t e d c e r v i x l e v o r o t a t e d• Me a s u r e me n t s – 7.5c m l o n g – 5c m w i d e – 3c m t h i c k
  12. 12. Parts of uterus
  13. 13. • Structure – Perimetrium : serous coat – Myometrium: thick bundles of sm. M • During pregnancy: – Outer long. – Middle interlacing – Inner circular – Endometrium • Surface epithelium • Lamina propria – Stromal cells – Endometrial glands – Vessels & nerves • Decidua in pregnancy • Secretion: scanty & watery
  14. 14. • Re l a t i o n – Anterior • Above int.os : uterovesical pouch • Below int.os: separated from UB by loose areolar tissue – Posterior • Pouch of Douglas with coils on intestine – Lateral • Broad ligament • Mackenrodt’s ligament • Uterine A & ureter
  15. 15. • Ligaments of uterus – Uterosacral ligament – Transverse cervical/ Mackenrodt’s lig – Pubovesicocervical lig – Round ligament – Broad ligament • Mesovarium • Mesosalpinx • mesometrium • Suspensory lig of ovary/ infundibulopelvic ligament
  16. 16. • Blood supply – Arteries: • Uterine A • Ovarian & Vaginal As. – Veins drain into • Internal iliac veins• Lymphatics• Nerves – Sympathetic • Motor : T5 & T6 • Sensory : T10 – L1 – Parasympathetic • Pelvic N ( S2,3,4) : both motor & sensory : ends in ganglia of Frankenhauser
  17. 17. Fallopian tube (uterine tube, oviduct)• 10-14 cm• Lies within the superiorborder of broad ligament• 2 openings – Medially into cornua – Laterally into abdominal cavity
  18. 18. Parts of fallopian tube
  19. 19. Structure : -3 layers
  20. 20. • Blood Supply – Arteries • Uterine A • Ovarian A – Veins • Through pampiniforn plexus into ovarian veins• Lymphatics • Para-aortic nodes• Nerve supply – Uterine & ovarian nerves
  21. 21. The Ovary• Paired, situated on either side of uterus• Close to lateral pelvic wall• In ovarian fossa of Waldeyer• Size: 4*3*2 cm• Only intra-abdominal structure not covered by peritoneum• Medial pole: attached to uterine cornua by ovarian ligament• Laterally to the pelvic wall by infundibulopelvic ligament• Fimbrial end of oviduct close to ovary & attached to it via fimbria ovarica
  22. 22. • Structure : 2 parts • Lined single layer of germinal epithelium of Waldeyer (cuboidal epi.) • Tunica albuginea : stromal cells thickened Cortex beneath germinal epithelium • Contain primordial follicles • Corpus albicans/ atretic follicles • Loose connective tissues, blood vessels, nerves, muscles Medulla • Hilus cells : homologous to interstitial cells of testes
  23. 23. • Blood Supply – Arterial : Ovarian A – Veins : • Through pampiniform plexus ovarian V. Lt. Renal Vein IVC• Lymphatics • Para-aortic nodes• Nerve supply • Sympathetic supply from T10 along ovarian A.

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