HistoryThe beginnings of badminton can be traced to mid-18th century British India,where it was created by British military officers stationed there. Initially, balls of wool referred as ball badminton were preferred by theupper classes in windy or wet conditions, but ultimately the shuttlecockstuck. This game was taken by retired officers back to England where itdeveloped and rules were set out. Although it appears clear that Badminton House, Gloucestershire, owned bythe Duke of Beaufort, has given its name to the sports, it is unclear whenand why the name was adopted. As early as 1860, Isaac Spratt, a London toy dealer, published abooklet, Badminton Battledore – a new game, but unfortunately no copy hassurvived. An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as"battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, across a string suspendedsome five feet from the ground". Continue …
Introduction Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or twoopposing pairs (doubles), who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular courtthat is divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their racquetso that it passes over the net and lands in their opponents half of the court. Each sidemay only strike the shuttlecock once before it passes over the net. A rally ends once theshuttlecock has struck the floor. The shuttlecock (or shuttle) is a feathered projectile whose unique aerodynamicproperties cause it to fly differently than the balls used in most racquet sports; inparticular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to deceleratemore rapidly than a ball. Shuttlecocks have a much higher top speed, when comparedto other racquet sports. Because shuttlecock flight is affected by wind, competitivebadminton is played indoors. Badminton is also played outdoors as a casual recreationalactivity, often as a garden or beach game.
Badminton RacquetBadminton racquets are lightweight, with top qualityracquets weighing between 70 and 95 grams (2.4 to 3.3ounces) not including grip or strings. They are composedof many different materials ranging from carbon fibercomposite to solid steel, which may be augmented by avariety of materials. Carbon fibre as an excellent strength to weight ratio,is stiff, and gives excellent kinetic energy transfer. Beforethe adoption of carbon fiber composite, racquets weremade of light metals such as aluminum. Earlier still,racquets were made of wood. Cheap racquets are stilloften made of metals such as steel, but wooden racquetsare no longer manufactured for the ordinary market,because of their excessive mass and cost. Nowadays, nonmaterials such as fullerene and carbon annotates areadded to rackets giving them greater durability. There is a wide variety of racquet designs, althoughthe laws limit the racquet size and shape. Differentracquets have playing characteristics that appeal todifferent players. The traditional oval head shape is stillavailable, but an isometric head shape is increasinglycommon in new racquets.
ShuttlecockA shuttlecock (often abbreviated to shuttle; also calleda birdie) is a high-drag projectile, with an open conicalshape the cone is formed from sixteenoverlapping feathers embedded into a rounded cork base.The cork is covered with thin leather or synthetic material. Synthetic shuttles are often used by recreationalplayers to reduce their costs as feathered shuttles breakeasily. These nylon shuttles may be constructed witheither natural cork or synthetic foam base, and a plasticskirt.
Shoes Badminton shoes are lightweight with soles of rubber orsimilar high-grip, non-marking materials. Compared to running shoes, badminton shoes havelittle lateral support. High levels of lateral support are usefulfor activities where lateral motion is undesirable andunexpected. Badminton, however, requires powerful lateralmovements. A highly built-up lateral support will not be ableto protect the foot in badminton; instead, it will encouragecatastrophic collapse at the point where the shoes supportfails, and the players ankles are not ready for the suddenloading, which can cause sprains. For this reason, playersshould choose badminton shoes rather than general trainersor running shoes, because proper badminton shoes willhave a very thin sole, lower a persons centre of gravity, andtherefore result in fewer injuries. Players should also ensurethat they learn safe and proper footwork, with the knee andfoot in alignment on all lunges. This is more than just asafety concern proper footwork is also critical in order tomove effectively around the court.
Serving And Receiving Courts• You shall serve from, and receive in, the right service court when you or your opponent has scored an even number of points in that game.• You shall serve from, and receive in, the left service court when you or your opponent has scored an odd number of points in that game.• You and your opponent will hit the shuttle alternately until a fault is made or the shuttle ceases to be in play.
Scoring And Serving• You score a point and serve again from the alternate service court when your opponent makes a fault or the shuttle ceases to be in play because it touches the surface of your opponents side of court.• No points will be scored when you make a fault or the shuttles ceases to be in play because it touches the surface of your side of court. The serving right will then be transferred to your opponent.
Serving And Receiving Courts• At the start of the game, and each time a side gains the right to serve, the service shall be delivered from the right service court. Only your opponent standing diagonally opposite of you shall return the service.• Should your opponents partner touched or hit the shuttle, it shall be a fault and your side scores a point.
Order Of Play And Position After the service is returned, either you or your partner may hit the shuttlefrom any position on your side of the net. Then either player from the opposing side may do the same, and so on,until the shuttle ceases to be in play.
Scoring And Serving• If you are serving or receiving first at the start of any game, you shall serve or receive in the right service court when your side or your opponents side scored an even number of points.• You shall serve from or receive in the left service court when your side or your opponents side has scored an odd number of points.• The reverse pattern shall apply to your partner.• In any game, the right to serve passes consecutively from the initial server to the initial receiver, then to that initials receivers partner, then to the opponent who is due to serve from the right service court, then to that players partner, and so on.• You shall not serve out of turn, receive out of turn, or receive two consecutive services in the same game, except as provided in service court errors and lets.
Officials And Appeal The referee is in overall charge of the tournament. The umpire, where appointed, is in charge of the match, the court and its immediate surrounds. The umpire shall report to the referee. The service judge shall call service faults made by the server should they occur. A line judge shall indicate whether a shuttle landed in or out on the line or lines assigned. An officials decision is final on all points of fact for which that official is responsible.
Umpire’s Role• Upload and enforce the Rules of Badminton and, especially, call a fault or let should either occur.• Give a decision on any appeal regarding a point of dispute, if made before the next service is delivered.• Ensure players and spectators are kept informed of the progress of the match.• Appoint or remove line judges or a service judge in consultation with the referee.• Where another court official is not appointed, arrange for that officials duties to be carried out.• Where an appointed official is unsighted, carry out the officials duties or play a let.• Record and report to the referee all matters in relation to continuous play, misconduct and penalties.• Take to the referee all unsatisfied appeals on questions of law only. (Such appeals must be made before the next service is delivered, or, if at the end of the game, before the side that appeals has left the court.)