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Decoding Distributed Systems

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SpringOne Platform 2018
Decoding Distributed Systems - Zoe Vance and Maria Ntalla

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Decoding Distributed Systems

  1. 1. Decoding Distributed Systems By Maria Ntalla & Zoe Vance
  2. 2. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Hello SpringOne Platform! 2Thanks @deniseyu21!
  3. 3. Goal 3  Identify trade-offs to consider and questions to ask in distributed system design
  4. 4. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Definition More than one computer (i.e. processes don’t share resources)
  5. 5. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Definition More than one computer acting as a cohesive system
  6. 6. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ - Development began in 1980s for telecom programming - Designed for massively scalable highly-available systems Concepts have been around for a while 6 
  7. 7. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Spectrum of distribution
  8. 8. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Single computer 8 
  9. 9. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Client-server 9  Server Clients Internet (or other network)
  10. 10. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Multi-Tier Architecture 1 0  Clients Internet Presentation Tier Business Tier Data Tier
  11. 11. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Microservices 11  Orchestrator Microservices Clients Internet
  12. 12. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Leader-Follower 1 2  Leader Followers
  13. 13. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Peer to Peer 1 3 
  14. 14. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ For application design, this often implies microservices 1 4  Banking app Payments Service Transactions Service Authentication Service Credit Check Service
  15. 15. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Independent components: - development (e.g. rates of change) - testing (e.g., life cycles) - run time (e.g., scale, fit for purpose) Motivations for microservices Source: Nathaniel Schutta Should that be a microservice?
  16. 16. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Motivations for microservices Source: Nathaniel Schutta Should that be a microservice? Isolate dependencies - Prevent cascading failures - Provide cushioning for unreliable dependencies
  17. 17. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Designing microservices 1 7  Payments Service Transactions Service Authentication Service Credit check Service
  18. 18. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Reasons to distribute
  19. 19. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Scalability addressed by adding more nodes 1 9 
  20. 20. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Availability addressed by adding more nodes 2 0 
  21. 21. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Latency addressed by adding more nodes 2 1 
  22. 22. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Trade-offs in distributed systems
  23. 23. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ CAP Theorem 2 3 
  24. 24. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ CAP Theorem 2 4 
  25. 25. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ CAP Theorem 2 5 
  26. 26. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ CAP Theorem 2 6 
  27. 27. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
  28. 28. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
  29. 29. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
  30. 30. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/
  31. 31. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Reframing of trade-offs #1 3 1 
  32. 32. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Reframing of trade-offs #2 3 2 
  33. 33. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Reframing of trade-offs #2 3 3 
  34. 34. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ 3 4  Thanks @deniseyu21!
  35. 35. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Consensus Is the system in a state where truth can be agreed upon?
  36. 36. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Consensus If so, what is the truth?
  37. 37. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Consensus If not, does the system return an error or a part of the truth?
  38. 38. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Consensus If not, do I return an error or a part of the truth? Consistency vs availability
  39. 39. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Complexity
  40. 40. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Complexity: Logging/Monitoring Patterns: - Trace everything with unique IDs Challenge: - Tracking components through the system
  41. 41. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Complexity: Security Challenge: - Larger attack surface - Communication over the network Patterns: - Secure any communication that leaves a computer - Aim for no state on components
  42. 42. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Complexity: State Challenges: - Context dependence Patterns: - Idempotency - Stateless
  43. 43. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Complexity It’s that nuance of knowing that the advantages of being more optimal do not outweigh the advantages [of simplicity]… - John Allspaw, Former VP Operations & Infrastructure
  44. 44. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Putting this into practice
  45. 45. 4 5  Operator scaling stateless application
  46. 46. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Stateless applications: architecting for scale 4 6 
  47. 47. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Stateless applications: architecting for scale 4 7 
  48. 48. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Load balancing 4 8 
  49. 49. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Service Discovery 4 9 
  50. 50. 5 0  Designing/Operating stateful services
  51. 51. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Why distribute the data layer? Improve data access speed / decrease latency with sharding* * partitioning, not distribution
  52. 52. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Why distribute the data layer? Improve availability with replication
  53. 53. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Challenges What happens when a node from the cluster goes away?
  54. 54. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Challenges What happens when a node from the cluster goes away?
  55. 55. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ RabbitMQ
  56. 56. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ RabbitMQ
  57. 57. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ RabbitMQ
  58. 58. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Highly Available Redis
  59. 59. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Highly Available Redis
  60. 60. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Highly Available Redis
  61. 61. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Highly Available Redis
  62. 62. 6 2  Application team developing microservice-based application
  63. 63. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ The Spring Cloud Services framework 6 3  Source: Pivotal SCS
  64. 64. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ The Spring Cloud Services framework 6 4  Source: Pivotal SCS
  65. 65. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ The Spring Cloud Services framework 6 5  Source: Pivotal SCS
  66. 66. Unless otherwise indicated, these slides are © 2013-2018 Pivotal Software, Inc. and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ The Spring Cloud Services framework 6 6  Source: Pivotall SCS
  67. 67. Everything is a spectrum. Deciding where topologies and code fall on that spectrum depends on an application’s needs/motivations. Takeaways:
  68. 68. Takeaways: Distributed topologies bring value and lots of challenges. Don’t complicate a topology just because it’s possible; carefully allow a system to start pushing its limits before taking on overhead.
  69. 69. > Stay Connected. Talk to us! zvance@pivotal.io & mntalla@pivotal.io #springone@s1p

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