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ADS-B: A pilot's guide to understanding the system and avionics

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Join Sporty's John Zimmerman for a detailed look at Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast, the technology that's changing how pilots fly. From the basics of the system to portable ADS-B receivers to panel-mount ADS-B transmitters, you'll learn what ADS-B really means and how to fly with it.

Presented at the 2016 EAA AirVenture Oshkosh.

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ADS-B: A pilot's guide to understanding the system and avionics

  1. 1. ADS-B: A Pilot’s Guide Understanding the system and the avionics John Zimmerman Sporty’s Pilot Shop
  2. 2. John Zimmerman • Active GA Pilot Comm/Multi/Inst/Heli • Vice President Sporty’s Pilot Shop • Publisher iPad Pilot News ADS-B: A Pilot’s Guide
  3. 3. iPadPilotNews.com Additional resources Sit back, relax and learn! •  How-to articles •  ADS-B Reviews •  iPad Tips & News •  Biweekly Newsletter
  4. 4. • What is ADS-B? • Key terms • How does it work? • Panel-mount avionics • Portable receivers • Tips and advice presentation overview ADS-B: A Pilot’s Guide
  5. 5. Poll #1 Do you use ADS-B today?
  6. 6. ADS-B System Overview
  7. 7. Big Picture Key ADS-B Takeaways You are required to have an ADS-B out transponder to fly in airspace that currently requires Mode C transponder by 2020 The ADS-B network broadcasts free datalink weather and traffic This ADS-B In equipment is optional. 1 2 3
  8. 8. Big Picture Key ADS-B Takeaways The ground station network is complete (650 stations) 4
  9. 9. Quick History Where did ADS-B come from? • Capstone Program launched in Alaska in the late 1990s • Can we use new technology to improve safety? - Accurate position with GPS/WAAS -  Transmit to ground and airplanes -  Ground station network -  New aircraft transponders -  Datalink weather Answer: yes
  10. 10. Where are we now? Quick History • Current system built on success of Capstone program • Final ADS-B Out rules finalized in 2011 – nothing is changing now • Ground station network is complete • Lots of options for hardware Pretty mature system now.
  11. 11. What does it all mean? Key Terms • NextGen • ADS-B - ADS-B Out and ADS-B In • ADS-B transponder options -1090ES and 978 (UAT) • ADS-B datalink terms - FIS-B and TIS-B
  12. 12. NextGen: Next Generation Air Transportation System Key Terms • Transforms America’s air traffic control system from an aging, ground-based system to a satellite-based system • The goals of NextGen are to: - Shorten routes - Save time and fuel -  Reduce traffic delays -  Increase capacity - Increase safety - World peace, free beer…
  13. 13. NextGen: Next Generation Air Transportation System Key Terms NextGen ADS-B NextGen has 5 major elements – only one of them is ADS-B
  14. 14. ADS-B Key Terms • Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast - Automatic: it works in the background - Dependent: depends on other aircraft being equipped -  Surveillance: it’s a technology to track aircraft -  Broadcast: each aircraft broadcasts its position and velocity
  15. 15. ADS-B In and Out Key Terms NextGen ADS-B ADS-B Out ADS-B In
  16. 16. ADS-B In and Out Key Terms • ADS-B Out: a surveillance technology for tracking aircraft - Aircraft report position, velocity and altitude once per second - Aircraft will be required to equip with ADS-B Out by the start of 2020 if operating in class A, B, C airspace and above 10,000 ft.
  17. 17. ADS-B In and Out Key Terms • ADS-B In: an aircraft’s ability to receive transmissions from ground stations and other aircraft - Allows pilots to receive weather and traffic - ADS-B In equipage is optional
  18. 18. 978 vs. 1090 Key Terms NextGen ADS-B ADS-B Out ADS-B In 978 1090 978 1090
  19. 19. 978 vs. 1090 Key Terms • ADS-B in the US supports two different datalinks: - 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (ES) - 978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT)
  20. 20. Key Terms 1090ES – ADS-B Out -  ES is based on 1090 MHz just like Mode A/Cs transponders -  Mode S transponders can be upgraded to ES transponders by adding a WAAS GPS and upgrading software (e.g. Garmin GTX330) -  ES is the only ADS-B transmitter accepted outside the US and above 18,000 ft. Must be certified and installed
  21. 21. 978 UAT Key Terms • 978 UAT – ADS-B Out - Only allowed in the US, and only below 18,000 ft. - If you use 978 UAT you still need to have a Mode C transponder Must be certified and installed
  22. 22. 1090ES Key Terms • 1090ES – ADS-B In - Can detect other aircraft equipped with 1090ES transmitters - Receives other traffic from ground stations - Does NOT receive weather Can be portable or installed
  23. 23. 978 UAT Key Terms • 978 UAT – ADS-B In - Can detect other aircraft with 978 MHz transmitters (air-to-air) - Receives information about other traffic from ground stations - 978 receivers are capable of receiving ADS-B weather Can be installed or portable
  24. 24. NextGen, ADS-B, In/Out, 978/1090 Key Terms Confused yet?
  25. 25. NextGen, ADS-B, In/Out, 978/1090 Key Terms • 1090ES (Out) - Above 18,000 ft. US and Int’l -  Transponder replacement • 1090ES (In) - Traffic only - No weather • 978 (Out) - Below 18,000 ft. in US only - Remote mount • 978 (In) - Traffic - Weather
  26. 26. FIS-B Key Terms • Flight Information Services – Broadcast • Text weather (METARs, TAFs, PIREPs) • Graphical weather (radar) • Airspace status (TFRs, NOTAMs) • Constantly broadcast
  27. 27. TIS-B Key Terms • Traffic Information Services – Broadcast - A custom traffic report sent only to aircraft equipped with ADS-B Out - Not the same as Mode S or TIS traffic
  28. 28. ADS-B Out
  29. 29. 5 things to know before you upgrade ADS-B Facts 1.  ADS-B Out will be required in most airspace where a Mode C transponder is today. 2.  A WAAS GPS must be included in your install. 3.  ADS-B Out transponder must be permanently mounted. 4.  ADS-B In equipage is optional. 5.  You still need your Mode C transponder if you use 978 ADS-B Out.
  30. 30. Where do you need it? ADS-B Facts 1.  Class A airspace (above 18,000 ft) – must be 1090 2.  Class C and B airspace (and above them) 3.  Inside the Class B Mode C veil (within 30 miles up to 10,000 ft.) 4.  Above 10,000 ft. in the lower 48
  31. 31. What about experimental aircraft? ADS-B Facts 1.  FAA: “Non-TSO ADS-B Out avionics may be installed on amateur-built and light sport aircraft with experimental airworthiness certificates.” 2.  S-LSA upgrades must be approved by the manufacturer. Harder to do. 3.  Glass cockpits are in the same situation – part of the TC so it’s not automatic. Pay attention
  32. 32. What about portables for ADS-B Out? ADS-B Facts • Technically feasible, but don’t count on it. • Would be like an IFR approach-approved portable GPS – doesn’t exist. • FAA: “Portable ADS-B Out systems, also known as ‘suitcase’ units, should not be operated (transmitting) aboard any aircraft. While marketing associated with these units may imply approval for use by way of an FCC license, the FAA prohibits their use.” http://1.usa.gov/1E0vadh
  33. 33. Questions to consider ADS-B Facts • Lots of options: In, Out, In and Out; 1090 ES vs. 978 UAT • 1090 vs. 978 • Do you ever fly above 18,000 ft. or outside US? Need 1090. • Age of current transponder: 978 relies on your old transponder • 978 usually more expensive to install than 1090 (additional structure, control head, etc)
  34. 34. UAT or Extended Squitter (ES)? ADS-B Out Trends 1090 ES 978 UAT FAA Equipage Statistics as of 3/1/2016 Category Equipped Aircraft 1090 ES 14,504 72% 978 UAT 5,055 25% Both 694 3% US General Aviation 17,508 US Air Carrier 499 US Military and Special Use 72 International General Aviation 1,915 International Air Carrier 261
  35. 35. Why are 1090 ES Installs Trending Almost 3X 978 UAT? ADS-B Out Trends • UAT leaves old tube-based transponder in the aircraft • 1090 ES gives your instrument panel a visible upgrade • Time required to install a panel avionic in a piston single can be up to ½ the time to install a remote box
  36. 36. Questions to consider ADS-B Facts •  Out vs. In and Out •  Do you already have ADS-B In (portable)? Might only need to buy Out for the panel. •  Do you have XM weather in the panel already? •  What’s your budget (Out and In is more expensive)
  37. 37. Questions to consider ADS-B Facts Most important question: What is the total installed cost of my solution?
  38. 38. New installation policy ADS-B Facts •  Now easier to install ADS-B Out avionics on airplanes that are not listed on manufacturer’s STC •  “After initial approval, ADS-B OUT systems that have previously received FAA approval and meet all of the following conditions may be installed and returned to service on other aircraft without further data approval.”
  39. 39. Questions to consider ADS-B Facts •  Lots of installation errors •  Look in ForeFlight with ownship •  Send email to FAA: 9-AWA-AFS-300-ADSB-AvionicsCheck@faa.gov N536SPICAO: Last Flight Id:A6C855 (51544125) N536SPTail Number: Period: ADS-B Aircraft Operation Compliance Report Operation Analysis Overview Surface UAT Airborne UAT Surface 1090 Airborne 1090 Prepared By Surveillance and Broadcast Services (SBS) Program ADS-B Compliance Monitor January 05, 2016 01-04-2016 19:24:12 to 01-04-2016 20:20:02 U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration ADS-B Compliance Monitor Analysis Surface RWY/Taxi 1090 Surface RWY/Taxi UAT Note: Items high-lighted in red within this report indicate the ADS-B Out system installed on this aircraft failed to meet the corresponding performance requirement as specified in § 91.227. The owner/operator must take action to correct the ADS-B system deficiency identified. For more information on this report, reference the User's Guide.
  40. 40. Garmin GTX 335/345 ADS-B Facts • 1090ES Out transponder • Panel or remote-mounted • WAAS GPS option for both models • GTX 345 model adds ADS-B In and has an integrated FlightStream to send weather to an iPad • Price range with built in WAAS GPS $3,795 to $5,795 • Without GPS prices start at $2,995
  41. 41. Garmin GTX 345 ADS-B Facts Bluetooth
  42. 42. L-3 Lynx ADS-B Facts • Big family of ADS-B Out avionics: • 1090 Out and In with GPS • 1090 models include screen • Slightly taller than standard transponder • Price range from $5,490 to $8,615
  43. 43. Appareo Stratus ESG ADS-B Facts • All-in-one box: 1090ES ADS-B Out and WAAS GPS built-in • Integrates with Stratus 2/2S for enhanced ADS-B In • $2,995 includes GPS antenna • Certified and shipping now
  44. 44. Garmin GDL 88 ADS-B Facts • 978 (UAT) with lots of options: • Out/In/Both • With or without GPS • With or without dual antennas • Works with GTN and GNS series • Integration with new Connext system • Remote mounted • Ranges from $3,995 to $5,700
  45. 45. FreeFlight RANGR Lite ADS-B Facts • Lots of options. Most popular are: • FDL-978-TXL – Out only, with GPS • FDL-978-XVRL – In/Out, with GPS • Remote mounted 978 UATs • Requires separate control head • $1,995 and $3,695
  46. 46. L-3 Lynx ADS-B Facts • Big family of ADS-B Out avionics: • 978 Out with GPS • 978 Out and In with GPS • Some require separate control head • Range from around $2,189 to $3,389
  47. 47. The FAA is offering a $500 incentive ADS-B Out Rebate •  Install a certified (TSO’d) ADS-B out transponder in a single-engine piston airplane and receive a $500 rebate from the FAA •  FINE PRINT: -  Installation must occur starting in the fall -  Rebates issued first-come/first-served -  Not applicable to existing installations -  Reserve the rebate in the fall, install the transponder, fly with the system within 60 days of install, request Public Compliance Report from FAA, claim rebate.
  48. 48. ADS-B In
  49. 49. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work? • Weather is broadcast continuously – AM radio • Traffic is different. Ground stations only broadcast in response to ADS-B Out aircraft – text messaging -  FAA sends a customized traffic product to each Out aircraft -  30nm in diameter around the Out aircraft and within +/-3500 ft. - If you’re close to an ADS-B Out aircraft (in the “hockey puck”) you could see traffic. But it’s for the other aircraft. - Since many airplanes do not have ADS-B Out yet, this is rare.
  50. 50. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work? • Except – you will always receive air-to-air traffic - Doesn’t depend on ground stations - Single band receives only 978 air-to-air; dual band receives both
  51. 51. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work?
  52. 52. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work?
  53. 53. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work?
  54. 54. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work? Key takeaway: Unless you are squawking ADS-B Out and creating your own customized hockey puck of information, you are not getting an accurate picture of surrounding traffic.
  55. 55. ADS-B Traffic ADS-B In – how does it work?
  56. 56. ADS-B weather products ADS-B In – how does it work? Factoid: Four types of ADS-B ground stations, arranged in this pattern. Station Type Weather Products and Range Surface (Only at select airports) 500 NM winds and temperature aloft, 100 NM METAR, TAF, SIGMET, NOTAM, 150 NM Regional NEXRAD Low altitude (67% of airborne stations) 500 NM winds and temperature aloft 250 NM METARs, TAFs, AIRMET, SIGMET, PIREP, SUA 150 NM regional NEXRAD 100 NM NOTAM (no CONUS NEXRAD) Medium altitude (22% of airborne stations) Entire CONUS NEXRAD, 750 NM winds and temperatures aloft, 375 NM METARs, TAFs, AIRMET, SIGMET, PIREP, SUA, 200 NM regional NEXRAD 100 NM NOTAM High altitude (11% of airborne stations) Entire CONUS NEXRAD, 1000 NM winds and temperature aloft, all 158 CONUS Class B/C airport METAR/TAF 500 NM AIRMET, SIGMET, PIREP, SUA 250 NM regional NEXRAD 100 NM NOTAM
  57. 57. ADS-B weather timing ADS-B In – how does it work? Product Range * Transmission Interval CONUS NEXRAD composite reflectivity (low resolution) Contiguous US 15 minutes Regional NEXRAD composite reflectivity (medium resolution) 150 to 250 nm 2.5 minutes (5 minute update) AIRMETs / SIGMETs 100 to 500 nm 5 minutes METARs 100 to 500 nm, all class B and C airports 5 minutes NOTAM(D), FDC NOTAM, TFRs 100 nm 5 minutes PIREPS 250 to 500 nm 10 minutes Special use airspace 500 nm 10 minutes TAFs 100 to 500 nm, all class B and C airports 10 minutes Winds and Temps aloft 500 to 1000 nm 10 minutes Sportys.com/Stratus
  58. 58. ADS-B vs. XM Weather ADS-B In – how does it work? Data ADS-B XM METARS Small airports within 250 – 500 nm and all class B and C airports Nationwide TAFS Within 250-500 nm Nationwide Winds / Temps Aloft Within 500-1,000 nm Nationwide PIREPS Within 250-500 nm Nationwide Radar Low-resolution CONUS (lower 48) Medium-resolution regional within 250 nm High-resolution nationwide AIRMETS / SIGMETS Within 250-500 nm Nationwide Coverage US, Puerto Rico, and Guam US and Canada Cloud satellite image None Yes NOTAMs Within 100 nm None TFRs Within 100 nm Nationwide Special use airspace status Within 250-500 nm None Cost Free (your tax dollars at work) $35-$55 monthly subscription fee
  59. 59. ADS-B vs. XM Weather ADS-B In – how does it work? XM ADS-B National ADS-B Regional
  60. 60. ADS-B National vs. Regional Radar ADS-B In – how does it work?
  61. 61. ADS-B coverage ADS-B In – how does it work? FAA estimate at 1,500 ft.
  62. 62. ADS-B coverage ADS-B In – how does it work? FAA estimate at 5,000 ft.
  63. 63. Portable ADS-B Receivers
  64. 64. Portables ADS-B In Action • Many of the benefits of installed ADS-B, for less money • iPad has been the game changer • Great for renters, clubs • Portable devices are ADS-B In only • Lots of options to choose from
  65. 65. Poll #2 What iPad app are you flying with?
  66. 66. SkyRadar D and DX • ADS-B weather and GPS • Dual band traffic • Optional AHRS • WiFi connection • Works with WingX, Avilution, iFly • Requires external power • $699 or $849 (with AHRS)
  67. 67. iLevil SW and AW • ADS-B weather and GPS • Single-band traffic • Built-in AHRS • Works with WingX, FlyQ, Xavion • Internal battery and solar panel (SW) • $1195 for SW • $1395 for AW (adds pitot/static)
  68. 68. Dual XGPS190 • ADS-B weather and GPS • Dual-band traffic • AHRS for backup attitude • Built-in battery • Works with WingX Pro7, FlyQ, FltPlan • $849.99
  69. 69. Garmin GDL 39 and GDL 39 3D • ADS-B weather and GPS • Dual band traffic • Optional AHRS model • Optional battery • Works with Garmin Pilot app • Also works with Garmin GPSs • $549 to $899 (AHRS with battery)
  70. 70. Appareo Stratus 1S and 2S • ADS-B weather and GPS • Single or dual band traffic models • Optional AHRS model • Built-in 8-hour battery • No wires or antennas (WiFi) • Works with ForeFlight app • $549 or $899 (dual band + AHRS)
  71. 71. Stratux • Do it yourself kit • ADS-B weather and GPS • Single or dual band • No AHRS • No battery • WiFi connection • Works with most apps • Roughly $150 cost
  72. 72. Choosing a Receiver • ForeFlight Mobile à Stratus 1S or Stratus 2S • Garmin Pilot à Garmin GDL 39 or GDL 39 3D • WingX Pro 7 à SkyRadar, Dual XGPS190, iLevil • FltPlan Goà Dual XGPS190, iLevil First choose an app
  73. 73. Choosing a Receiver • ADS-B reception is comparable among all (good enough). • Consider battery life – if you don’t want to plug in, it’s nice to have; if you’re going to hardwire it’s not important. • Decide if traffic is an important factor – if it’s low priority or you’re ADS-B Out, single band is fine. Buying tips
  74. 74. Choosing a Receiver • Do you fly IFR? If yes, the AHRS is a nice backup; if not you can save some money. • Consider the hardware/app integration – how do features work, how do you complete firmware upgrades? • All receivers include a GPS, so you don’t need a separate one. Buying tips
  75. 75. ADS-B In Action
  76. 76. Turn on weather with map layers ForeFlight and Stratus
  77. 77. Use different chart layers ForeFlight and Stratus
  78. 78. METARs and TAFs ForeFlight and Stratus
  79. 79. METARs and TAFs ForeFlight and Stratus
  80. 80. TFRs ForeFlight and Stratus
  81. 81. AIRMETs and SIGMETs ForeFlight and Stratus
  82. 82. Pilot Reports ForeFlight and Stratus
  83. 83. Winds Aloft ForeFlight and Stratus
  84. 84. NOTAMs ForeFlight and Stratus
  85. 85. Traffic – tap for more info ForeFlight and Stratus
  86. 86. Also includes GPS ForeFlight and Stratus
  87. 87. AHRS – split screen attitude ForeFlight and Stratus
  88. 88. AHRS – synthetic vision ForeFlight and Stratus
  89. 89. Tips for Flying with ADS-B
  90. 90. Tips and Tricks • Take some time to find the right spot – in your airplane • Line of sight for ADS-B (ground based) • View of the sky for GPS (satellite based) • Keep it steady for AHRS (if applicable) • Direct sunlight? Location, location, location!
  91. 91. Tips and Tricks • Use external antennas if needed • Heated windshields can have an effect – experiment (DV window, suction cup) • Don’t worry about low vs. high towers – practically speaking, you’ll get lots Reception issues
  92. 92. Tips and Tricks • Make it a habit to check ADS-B status • Battery life • Age of weather products • GPS reception • LED dimming Checking status
  93. 93. Tips and Tricks Checking status with ADS-B Out
  94. 94. Tips and Tricks Show ADS-B ground stations
  95. 95. Tips and Tricks Connect to multiple devices
  96. 96. Tips and Tricks Measure tool
  97. 97. Tips and Tricks Rubber band flight planning
  98. 98. Tips and Tricks Remember the delay
  99. 99. Tips and Tricks Use your eyeballs!!!
  100. 100. ADS-B: A Pilot’s Guide John Zimmerman Sporty’s Pilot Shop

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