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Sickle Cell Disease Teaching Presentation

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This is a powerpoint presentation I did for my Vulnerable Communities class in nursing school.

Published in: Health & Medicine

Sickle Cell Disease Teaching Presentation

  1. 1. Assessment & Vulnerability Protection of Patients with Sickle Cell Disease By Tosin Ola, RN
  2. 2. What is Sickle Cell? <ul><li>Inherited disease </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic mutation against malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Defective hemoglobin in red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Under stress, cells assume inverted C (sickle), rigid shape </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to blockage of veins/arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Blockage causes excruciating pain </li></ul>
  3. 3. Genetics and the Transmission of SCD
  4. 4. Who Does it Affect? <ul><li>85,000 people in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>4 million people worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Affects mostly those of African descent in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Also found in African, Caribbean, Middle Eastern, Indian, Latin American, Native American and Mediterranean heritage </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sickle Cell Variations <ul><li>All forms of SCD can exhibit the complications associated with the disease (OHSU, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle cell trait (HbAS) </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle cell anemia (HbSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin C disease (HbSC) </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin E disease </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin S-beta thallasemia </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assess Patient For <ul><li>Anemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syncope, dizziness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pallor, cold extremities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache, chest pain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Infections </li></ul><ul><li>Jaundice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>yellowing in skin, mouth, eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respiratory distress </li></ul>
  7. 7. Complications of SCD <ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Gallstones </li></ul><ul><li>Splenic Sequestration </li></ul><ul><li>Avascular Necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Leg ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Priapism </li></ul><ul><li>Renal failure </li></ul><ul><li>Acute chest syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Retinal damage </li></ul><ul><li>Opioid tolerance, addiction or pseudoaddiction </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hospital Management <ul><li>Oxygenation </li></ul><ul><li>Pain management </li></ul><ul><li>Hydration </li></ul><ul><li>Blood transfusions </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Bone marrow transplants & gene therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Medications given: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NSAIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opioids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroxyurea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folic acid </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Complementary & Alternative Therapies <ul><li>Herbal remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sauna/Heat therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reiki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acupuncture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yoga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Health Disparities in SCD Patients <ul><li>Structural barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic </li></ul><ul><li>Patient-provider communication problems </li></ul><ul><li>Provider discrimination and lack of cultural competency </li></ul>
  11. 11. Vulnerability Assessment <ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Learning method </li></ul><ul><li>Medical history </li></ul><ul><li>Pain assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Financial barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle cell risk factors </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle factors </li></ul><ul><li>Sex and genetic counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Personal safety </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health </li></ul>Please see Appendix A Vulnerability Assessment for SCD Patients
  12. 12. Action Plan <ul><li>Do a thorough and proper assessment of all SCD patients </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an individualized care plan focusing on their vulnerabilities and pain issues </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate this plan to help increase their self-care management ability </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a caring relationship while focused on enhancing trust, cultural competency and support </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>Assess vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Manage pain </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stereotyping & bias </li></ul><ul><li>Practice cultural competency </li></ul><ul><li>Provide compassionate care </li></ul>
  14. 14. References <ul><li>Dorsey, C. J., & Murdaugh, C. L. (2003). The theory of self care management for vulnerable populations. The Journal of Theory Construction and Testing , 7 (2), 43-49. </li></ul><ul><li>Fiaskerud, J. H., Kim, S., Strehlow, A., Tullman, D., Verzemniek, I., & Koniah-Criffin, D. et al. (2002). Health disparities among vulnerable populations: Evolution of knowledge over five decades in Nursing Research publications. Nursing Research, 5 (2), 74-85. </li></ul><ul><li>Goldberg, J., Hayes, W., & Huntley, J. (2004, November). Understanding Health Disparities . Retrieved from Health Policy Institute of Ohio: http://healthpolicyohio.org/pdf/healthdisparities.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy People (n.d.). What are the Leading Health Indicators? Retrieved November 30, 2008, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>Lusher, J., Elander, J., Bevan, D., Telfer, B., & Burton, P. (2006). Analgesic addiction and pseudoaddiction in painful chronic illness. Clinical Journal of Pain , 22 (3), 316-24. </li></ul><ul><li>Massers, L. J. (November 18, 2008). Willamette Falls Hospital Merges with Providence Health System. Clackamas Review . Retrieved from http:// clackamasreview.com </li></ul>
  15. 15. References cont. <ul><li>National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (2007). Sickle Cell Anemia . Retrieved November 8, 2008, from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Steiner, C., & Miller, J. (2006, December). Sickle cell disease patients in U.S. hospitals, 2004 (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). Rockville, MD: HCUP. </li></ul><ul><li>Strickland, O. I., Jackson, G., Jilead, M., Mcguire, D. B., Quarles, S., & Douglas, P. et al. (2001). Use of focus groups for pain and quality of life assessment in adults with sickle cell disease. Journal of the National Black Nurses Association , 12 (2), 36-43. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanabe, P., & Myers, R. (2007). Emergency department management of acute pain episodes in sickle cell disease. Emergency Medicine , 14 (2), 419-425. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (January, 2000). Healthy People 2010: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives . Retrieved November 29, 2008, from http://healthpeople2010.gov </li></ul><ul><li>Watson, J. (1985). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring (2nd ed.). Boulder: Colorado Associated Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Weissman, D. E., & Haddox, J. D. (1999). Opioid pseudoaddiction--an iatrogenic syndrome. Pain , 36 (3), 363-366. </li></ul>

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