Physical Access to Computers
Physical Access to Computers:  Where have we been?  Where are we now?  Where are we going?   Michael O’Leary B Occ Thy HON...
AT keeping up with IT <ul><li>CPU Microprocessors - Moore’s Law (number of transistors on a chip doubles every two years) ...
Early History of PCs June 1979: Apple II+  US$1195 August 1981: IBM PC  US$1595 1982: BBC Model B (Beeb) £335 NB – No Hard...
Assisted Keyboard <ul><li>How to press two keys at once with a mouth stick or head-pointer?  e.g.  @  =  Shift  key +  2  ...
Switch Access <ul><li>Started in the mid 80’s with Atari and Nintendo video games </li></ul>Emulating the fire buttons
Switch Access <ul><li>Donkey Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Press the fire button to avoid Mario being blown up </li></ul>
Switch Access <ul><li>Apple II Emulating Joystick fire buttons </li></ul>
Switch Access <ul><li>Micro-LADS Software from </li></ul>
Adaptive Firmware Card <ul><li>convert any standard software program so that it can be controlled by a single switch or th...
Alternative Keyboards In 1979, to help a friend with Cerebral Palsy,  Steve Gensler  created the  Unicorn Keyboard . This ...
Concept Keyboard – BBC and PC
GUI (Graphical User Interface) <ul><li>24 th  January 1984 introduced in the USA US$2495 </li></ul><ul><li>by September 19...
GUI (Graphical User Interface) <ul><li>Keyboard and Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Apple IIGS followed by Macintosh </li></ul><ul...
Microsoft Windows <ul><li>22 May 1990: Windows 3.0 Released </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 1991: Microsoft releases the second vers...
Curb Cuts <ul><li>Late 80’s Dr Gary Moulton developed: </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Keys </li></ul><ul><li>Sticky Keys  </li></u...
Text-To-Speech <ul><li>DECTalk </li></ul><ul><li>text-to-speech synthesiser developed in early 80’s by Digital Equipment C...
Text-To-Speech As made famous by Stephen Hawking with his EZ Keys for Windows speech generating device by Words+ Inc
Text-To-Speech As made famous by Stephen Hawking with his EZ Keys for Windows speech generating device by Words+ Inc Now u...
Text-To-Speech Today Nuance RealSpeak Voices including: Karen http://nextupdownloads.com/scansamples/Karen.wav   Lee  http...
Voice Recognition <ul><li>100’s of millions of dollars spent on voice recognition – sadly for defence purposes! </li></ul>...
Voice Recognition <ul><li>Accessibility for the Physically Impaired Dragon speech recognition software enables PC accessib...
Alternative Keyboards In the mid-eighties, Arjan Khalsa, joins Unicorn Engineering. His and Dave Schmidt’s creativity help...
IntelliKeys <ul><li>Unicorn Engineering + Print Shop = IntelliTools </li></ul><ul><li>IntelliKeys with 6 bar-coded standar...
TASH Mini Keyboard <ul><li>QWERTY and Frequency-of-Use layouts </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for mouth-stick users  </li></ul>
Big Keys – 1” Square Keys
Ultra Compact Keyboard
Half QWERTY <ul><li>for one handed typing </li></ul>
Keyboard & Mouse Alternatives <ul><li>Ke:nx  from Don Johnston Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Alternative Access methods to Maci...
Keyboard & Mouse Alternatives <ul><li>EZ Keys  on-screen and switch access to Windows from Words+ </li></ul>
Keyboard & Mouse Alternatives EZ Keys  is just about the only system on the market today that offers morse code input, the...
Keyboard & Mouse Alternatives Discover:Board Discover:Screen Discover:Switch
Touch Window
Edmark Software
1991 1992 1995 1984
Touch Screen Monitors today
Mouse Alternatives
Track Balls
Joystick Mouse
Head Tracking <ul><li>HeadMaster  is a head pointing system that takes the place of a mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Head movemen...
Head Tracking <ul><li>TrackerPro  is a computer input device that takes the place of a mouse for people with little or no ...
Swype <ul><li>28 th  Jan 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Guinness World Record for  “Fastest Hands-Free Typing” </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Eye-Gaze Technologies <ul><li>Developed for tracking eye-movements, and later modified as an input method </li></ul><ul><l...
Eye-Gaze Technologies <ul><li>DynaVox EyeMax with VMax  </li></ul>
Switch Access Today <ul><li>Switch adapted mouse </li></ul><ul><li>DJ Switch Interface Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Crick USB Swi...
Inclusive Educational Software <ul><li>Universal Design for: </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexia </li></u...
iPad <ul><li>It's the device everyone wanted Apple to create, even though most of us weren't sure how it was going to fit ...
Steve Jobs’ Swan Song <ul><li>“ Touch technology and large clear finger-friendly on-screen menus have been around for fift...
The Future? <ul><li>Assistive Technology in the Clouds   </li></ul>Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure http://gpii.net/
Webinar on Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII)  for Australia and New Zealand Have you seen the  GPII animation ...
Webinar on Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII)  for Australia and New Zealand Have you seen the  GPII animation ...
<ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
Suggested Links <ul><li>http://applemuseum.bott.org/sections/history.html   </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.disaboom.com/disa...
History of Computers <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NbhbssXWDAE </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2...
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Physical Access To Computers

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Presentation from the University of Otago Inaugural "Disability Studies: Every Body In" Inaugural conference 27 - 30 November 2011

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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Physical Access To Computers

  1. 1. Physical Access to Computers
  2. 2. Physical Access to Computers: Where have we been? Where are we now? Where are we going? Michael O’Leary B Occ Thy HONS Managing Director 29 th November 2011
  3. 3. AT keeping up with IT <ul><li>CPU Microprocessors - Moore’s Law (number of transistors on a chip doubles every two years) from 4,500 in 1974 to 731 Million in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Memory - from 10’s of KiloBytes to GigaBytes </li></ul><ul><li>Storage – punch cards, punch tapes, cassette tapes, floppy disks (8”, 5¼”, 3½”), CDs, DVDs, thumb drives, GigaByte hard-drives </li></ul><ul><li>VDU’s from Monochrome, Green Screens to full colour, digital, touch sensitive flat screens </li></ul><ul><li>Internet – from 56K modems to 100s MegaBits/ second </li></ul><ul><li>Yet the QWERTY Keyboard and Mouse remain the major input devices </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early History of PCs June 1979: Apple II+ US$1195 August 1981: IBM PC US$1595 1982: BBC Model B (Beeb) £335 NB – No Hard Drive! Applications and data stored on floppy disks
  5. 5. Assisted Keyboard <ul><li>How to press two keys at once with a mouth stick or head-pointer? e.g. @ = Shift key + 2 key </li></ul><ul><li>1985 – amazing what one can do with an old wire coat hanger! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Switch Access <ul><li>Started in the mid 80’s with Atari and Nintendo video games </li></ul>Emulating the fire buttons
  7. 7. Switch Access <ul><li>Donkey Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Press the fire button to avoid Mario being blown up </li></ul>
  8. 8. Switch Access <ul><li>Apple II Emulating Joystick fire buttons </li></ul>
  9. 9. Switch Access <ul><li>Micro-LADS Software from </li></ul>
  10. 10. Adaptive Firmware Card <ul><li>convert any standard software program so that it can be controlled by a single switch or the unicorn board (a touch sensitive tablet), thus giving people with physical handicaps access to many computer programs </li></ul><ul><li>includes a slowdown mode so that games can be played by people with delayed responses. </li></ul><ul><li>It is installed in Apple II+, IIe, & IIGS computers </li></ul>from Don Johnston Developmental Equipment Inc
  11. 11. Alternative Keyboards In 1979, to help a friend with Cerebral Palsy, Steve Gensler created the Unicorn Keyboard . This remarkable tool, accessed with a head pointer, launches the firm Unicorn Engineering . It plugged into the Adaptive Firmware Card and was the precursor to IntelliKeys
  12. 12. Concept Keyboard – BBC and PC
  13. 13. GUI (Graphical User Interface) <ul><li>24 th January 1984 introduced in the USA US$2495 </li></ul><ul><li>by September 1985 sold 500,000 </li></ul>
  14. 14. GUI (Graphical User Interface) <ul><li>Keyboard and Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Apple IIGS followed by Macintosh </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.1 through to today </li></ul><ul><li>“ The mouse was actually invented in California in the early sixties--but its first real impact on our world was with the &quot;graphic user interface&quot; on the Apple Macintosh in the 80's. This initially caused havoc in the disability world which had learned to harness keyboard short cuts and wasn't at all sure about analogue movements on screen.” Martin Littler, CEO Inclusive Technology, Friends of ATIA Newsletter “The Global Edition”, Nov 2011 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Microsoft Windows <ul><li>22 May 1990: Windows 3.0 Released </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 1991: Microsoft releases the second version of Windows, version 2.03. Seeing as 1.01 was almost unusable, many improvements (much of which was taken from the Mac) were made: Mac-like icons, and overlapping instead of tiling windows </li></ul>
  16. 16. Curb Cuts <ul><li>Late 80’s Dr Gary Moulton developed: </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Keys </li></ul><ul><li>Sticky Keys </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustable Key Repeat & Delay </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse Keys </li></ul><ul><li>CloseView (x2 to x16 screen magnifier) </li></ul><ul><li>For both Mac and Windows </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.apple.com/accessibility/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.microsoft.com/enable/ </li></ul>
  17. 17. Text-To-Speech <ul><li>DECTalk </li></ul><ul><li>text-to-speech synthesiser developed in early 80’s by Digital Equipment Corporation based largely on the work of Dennis Klatt (Klatt-Talk) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Text-To-Speech As made famous by Stephen Hawking with his EZ Keys for Windows speech generating device by Words+ Inc
  19. 19. Text-To-Speech As made famous by Stephen Hawking with his EZ Keys for Windows speech generating device by Words+ Inc Now using NeoSpeech http://www.neospeech.com/audios/NeoSpeech_Paul.wav
  20. 20. Text-To-Speech Today Nuance RealSpeak Voices including: Karen http://nextupdownloads.com/scansamples/Karen.wav Lee http://nextupdownloads.com/scansamples/Lee.wav Check out Rachel by Acapela: http://www.acapela-group.com/text-to-speech-interactive-demo.html
  21. 21. Voice Recognition <ul><li>100’s of millions of dollars spent on voice recognition – sadly for defence purposes! </li></ul><ul><li>Late 80’s - Dragon Dictate (discrete speech) by Dragon Systems ≈ $18,000 (US accent) took about 10 hours to learn a person’s voice </li></ul><ul><li>Today – Dragon NaturallySpeaking (Continuous Speech) developed by Nuance Version 11 ≈$200 (other accents) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Voice Recognition <ul><li>Accessibility for the Physically Impaired Dragon speech recognition software enables PC accessibility for people with paralysis, quadriplegia, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, apraxia, visual impairments and repetitive stress injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodations for Language and Speech Impairments Even people with articulation and pronunciation problems can use the Faster, Better, Smarter DNS 11 Premium software to complete their daily PC tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive Technology for the Visually Impaired Dragon offers speech output capabilities so that users can have text previously dictated, read back to them </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive Technology for Students with Learning Disabilities Dragon generates new excitement for writing and learning for students with learning disabilities such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, working memory issues and other cognitive challenges </li></ul>
  23. 23. Alternative Keyboards In the mid-eighties, Arjan Khalsa, joins Unicorn Engineering. His and Dave Schmidt’s creativity helps forge IntelliTools, Inc. in 1991, and shapes a new vision for assistive technology.
  24. 24. IntelliKeys <ul><li>Unicorn Engineering + Print Shop = IntelliTools </li></ul><ul><li>IntelliKeys with 6 bar-coded standard overlays & 2 programmable switch ports </li></ul><ul><li>Overlay Maker </li></ul><ul><li>IntelliTalk </li></ul><ul><li>IntelliPics </li></ul><ul><li>ClickIt + Instant Access Overlays for Broderbund “Just Grandma and Me” & Edmark Software </li></ul>
  25. 25. TASH Mini Keyboard <ul><li>QWERTY and Frequency-of-Use layouts </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for mouth-stick users </li></ul>
  26. 26. Big Keys – 1” Square Keys
  27. 27. Ultra Compact Keyboard
  28. 28. Half QWERTY <ul><li>for one handed typing </li></ul>
  29. 29. Keyboard & Mouse Alternatives <ul><li>Ke:nx from Don Johnston Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Alternative Access methods to Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>Assisted Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>On:Screen Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Morse Code (1,2 or 3 switch) </li></ul><ul><li>Switch Access (1, 2 or 3 switch scanning) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Keyboard & Mouse Alternatives <ul><li>EZ Keys on-screen and switch access to Windows from Words+ </li></ul>
  31. 31. Keyboard & Mouse Alternatives EZ Keys is just about the only system on the market today that offers morse code input, the fastest computer access method possible for a switch user
  32. 32. Keyboard & Mouse Alternatives Discover:Board Discover:Screen Discover:Switch
  33. 33. Touch Window
  34. 34. Edmark Software
  35. 35. 1991 1992 1995 1984
  36. 36. Touch Screen Monitors today
  37. 37. Mouse Alternatives
  38. 38. Track Balls
  39. 39. Joystick Mouse
  40. 40. Head Tracking <ul><li>HeadMaster is a head pointing system that takes the place of a mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Head movements cause the mouse to move on the screen </li></ul><ul><li>For mouse selection (click, drag, etc.), a sip 'n puff switch can be attached to the headset </li></ul><ul><li>Typing is replicated by an on-screen keyboard </li></ul>
  41. 41. Head Tracking <ul><li>TrackerPro is a computer input device that takes the place of a mouse for people with little or no hand movement </li></ul><ul><li>Simply plug it in and it works just like a mouse </li></ul><ul><li>tracks a tiny reflective dot worn on your forehead or glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Clicking can be accomplished by using an ability switch, or dwell click software such as MagicCursor 2000 </li></ul>
  42. 42. Swype <ul><li>28 th Jan 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Guinness World Record for “Fastest Hands-Free Typing” </li></ul><ul><li>Hank Torres from Round Rock Texas </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1tNXWpmA5I&feature=player_embedded </li></ul>Developed by Cliff Kushler & Randy Marsden Acquired by Nuance 6 th October, 2011
  43. 43. Eye-Gaze Technologies <ul><li>Developed for tracking eye-movements, and later modified as an input method </li></ul><ul><li>Tobii Technologies P10 http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/product/mytobii-p10 </li></ul>
  44. 44. Eye-Gaze Technologies <ul><li>DynaVox EyeMax with VMax </li></ul>
  45. 45. Switch Access Today <ul><li>Switch adapted mouse </li></ul><ul><li>DJ Switch Interface Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Crick USB Switch Interface </li></ul><ul><li>IntelliSwitch </li></ul>
  46. 46. Inclusive Educational Software <ul><li>Universal Design for: </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Switch Access </li></ul><ul><li>Speech and Language Difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Low Vision </li></ul>
  47. 47. iPad <ul><li>It's the device everyone wanted Apple to create, even though most of us weren't sure how it was going to fit into our lives once it got here. But Jobs got sentimental when showing off the first iPad in 2010. He said it was a culmination of years of work, starting with OS X, then iTunes, then the iPhone, then the App Store. </li></ul><ul><li>The shockwaves are still evident more than a year later as manufacturers race to catch up, pumping out their own tablets. But they can't match Apple's success. </li></ul><ul><li>The iPad 2 was Steve's swan song. We all felt it, but few chose to accept it. What nobody can argue is that the man went out on top, crossing the finish line well ahead of everyone else. </li></ul><ul><li>5 th October 2011 RIP </li></ul>
  48. 48. Steve Jobs’ Swan Song <ul><li>“ Touch technology and large clear finger-friendly on-screen menus have been around for fifteen years in assistive technology. Last year Steve Jobs took all of this mainstream. Whether you are into VOCAs, autism or, like my company, simple software for complex needs, then touch tablets, iPads and Apps are going to impact your world.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The iPad has led to an astonishing burst of creativity and user engagement. Software Apps are now being written in bedrooms and kitchens again, just as they were in the 80's.”  </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Littler, CEO Inclusive Technology, Friends of ATIA Newsletter “The Global Edition”, Nov 2011 </li></ul>
  49. 49. The Future? <ul><li>Assistive Technology in the Clouds </li></ul>Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure http://gpii.net/
  50. 50. Webinar on Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII) for Australia and New Zealand Have you seen the GPII animation and website , but want to know more? Don't feel like attending a webinar in the middle of the night? We've scheduled a webinar just for folks in Australia and New Zealand at a convenient time: December 14, 2011; 12 noon AEDT (GMT +11) Attendees will learn some of the details of the project and where we are at in our development plan. This webinar is for a general audience, and will include time for Q&A and feedback -- we want to learn about how GPII should operate in your countries. Click this link to register. There is no limit to the number of attendees, so please feel free to circulate this announcement.
  51. 51. Webinar on Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII) for Australia and New Zealand Have you seen the GPII animation and website , but want to know more? Don't feel like attending a webinar in the middle of the night? We've scheduled a webinar just for folks in Australia and New Zealand at a convenient time: December 14, 2011; 12 noon AEDT (GMT +11) Attendees will learn some of the details of the project and where we are at in our development plan. This webinar is for a general audience, and will include time for Q&A and feedback -- we want to learn about how GPII should operate in your countries. http://raisingthefloor.org/civicrm/event/info?reset=1&id=3 There is no limit to the number of attendees, so please feel free to circulate this announcement.
  52. 52. <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  53. 53. Suggested Links <ul><li>http://applemuseum.bott.org/sections/history.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.disaboom.com/disability-rights-and-advocacy-general/disability-accessibility-and-assistive-technology-interview-with-alan-brightman </li></ul><ul><li>http://i.tuaw.com/2010/01/02/found-footage-knowledge-navigator-concept-from-1987/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://ataccess.ning.com/video/curb-cuts-episode-1-handsfree </li></ul>
  54. 54. History of Computers <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NbhbssXWDAE </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=22JaQK7XUnI&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jH8uFiexU4w&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bbc.co.uk/manchester/content/articles/2008/06/17/210608_computer_timeline_feature.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.technologyreview.com/computing/25151/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.daftmoo.org.uk/bbc/history.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACE_Centre </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2011/10/steve-jobs-greatest-achievements/ </li></ul>

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