Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom

Spectronics
SpectronicsSales and Marketing Director at Spectronics
Integrating AT and AAC
     throughout the
       classroom
Charlene Cullen
Speech Pathologist
Speech Language and AAC Consultant
Today’s Outline
9 – 10.30     Introduction
              SETT framework
              Visual Supports

11 – 12.30    iPads in special education

1.30 – 3.00   AAC

3.30 – 5.00   A typical day
It Can’t Teach
Student
Environment
Tasks
Tools
• What are the student’s
  current abilities?
• What are the student’s
  special needs?
• What are the functional
  areas of concern?
• What are the other students
  doing that this student
  needs to be able to do?
• What does the student
  need to be able to do that
  is difficult or impossible to
  accomplish independently
  at this time?
• What activities take place
  in the environment?
• Where will the student
  participate?
• What is the physical
  arrangement?
• What activities do other
  students do that this student
  cannot currently participate
  in?
• What assistive technology
  does the student currently
  use?
•What specific tasks occur in
the environments?

•What activities is the student
expected to do?

•What does success look like?
•Tools - no/low to high-tech.
•Tools must be student
centered and task oriented
and reflect the student’s
current needs.
•Describe tool features that
are needed rather than brand
names.
•Consider the cognitive load
required
• What are the training
requirements for students and
staff?
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Inclusive Technologies Continuum



 Low/No              Mid          High


 Least restrictive         Most restrictive
Assistive Technology Continuum
 Access to books – Low/Lite Tech solution.
Assistive Technology Continuum
   Access to books – Mid Tech solution.




             http://tarheelreader.org
Assistive Technology Continuum
  Access to books – High Tech solution.
Getting organised
Getting Organised
• What do we need to do to make the school
  day successful?
• Clear workspaces
• Schedule ready to go
• Batteries checked
What are Visual Supports?

   Things that we SEE to
       enhance the
  communication process.
Why Visual Supports?
• Some people find the world to be chaotic.
• Expectations and demands they cannot
  understand may confuse them.
• Verbal instructions and explanations are often
  not adequate to provide the information
  needed in order to comprehend.
• These people (and others) often need the
  support of having information presented in
  visual form.
• Some people learn best through what they
  see, and using visual strategies builds on this
  strength.
                From “Visual Strategies”
                Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2000
Why Visual Supports?
•Many people are not easily able to understand
spoken directions.
•It is not always obvious that a person is having
difficulty because they may be quite adept at
following environmental cues.
I hear and I forget
I see and I remember
I do and I understand
Making a Paper Plane
What visual supports do you
           use?
Types of Visual Supports
• Body Movement: such as body language,
  natural gesture, key-word sign
• Environmental cues: such as objects and
  signs e.g. logos, labels
• Traditional tools for organisation of
  information: such as calendars, shopping
  lists, recipes, instruction manuals
• Specialised communication aids and
  materials: such as picture stories, behaviour
  scripts, activity schedules
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Visual Support Continuum

Coloured photos              Real objects

            Black & white photos
Sign Language
                              Written words

                      Object symbols
     Line drawings
Communication is...
  Use of speech with..
           gesture
           sign
           object symbols
           photos
           pictures

… selected according to the person’s
comprehension skills and communication needs
Visual supports are helpful in
many ways….
 • They may improve a student’s behaviour
   by clearly showing expectations and
   visually depicting what will happen next.
 • They allow people to function more
   independently and gain confidence.
 • They improve the student’s ability to
   understand!
Timetables, Activity Schedules,
Calendar Boxes
• Backs up verbal with visual information
• Provides consistent cues about daily routine
• Teaches that symbols (3D or 2D) can
  represent daily activities
• Encourages participation in planning &
  choice-making
• Ongoing strategy (we all rely on visual
  supports)
Visual Strategies
Timetables & Schedules
Class Timetable
Mini Schedule
Boardmaker
Finished Strategies
• Formal strategies to indicate
   - Completion of a task
   - Break needed
   - Need to avoid/escape activity
• Finished mat - checkered placemat
• Finished box - may incorporate checkered
  icon
• Finished symbols - eg. check icon, finish
  sign, abstract symbols
Augmentative Resources

http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/catalogue/au
  gmentative-resources-and-products
Symbols
• PCS Classic and PCS Thinline
• Symbolstix
• Widgit
www.google.com.au
www.flickr.com
Social Stories
• Are a tool for helping people to control or
  redirect behaviour
• Identifies the consequence of the behaviour
• Acts as a visual reminder - content is
  important
• Use consistent language across changing
  communication partners
• Remind, Rehearse, Review
Social Stories
• The situation is described in detail and focus
  is given to a few key points: the important
  social cues, the events and reactions the
  individual might expect to occur in the
  situation, the actions and reactions that
  might be expected of him, and why.
• The goal of the story is to increase the
  individual’s understanding of, make him
  more comfortable in, and possibly suggest
  some appropriate responses for the situation
  in question.
Social Stories
Input Before Expecting Output

  Others need to use the visual
  support to communicate with
   the person before expecting
        the person to use it.
What do you need for a visual
      support to work?
An opportunity to learn and to
    use the visual support
       at many times,
     with many partners,
     in many situations!
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Introduction to the iPad/iPod in the
            classroom
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
The iPad
•   Engagement
•   Portable
•   Mainstream device
•   Price
•   Supports universal design
•   Wide range of apps
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
“Every new literacy changes the
way we think about the world. The
alphabet did this to oral cultures.
Cheap books did it after
Gutenberg. Mobile, interactive
multimedia technologies are doing
it in our time. As educators are we
up to the challenge?”

Pat Clifford, Galileo Educational Network
iPad basics
•   Physical
•   Home Screen
•   The Dock
•   Included Apps
•   Rearrange and delete Apps
•   Create and use folders
•   Multitasking and closing apps
•   Screenshot
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
iTunes
Tips and Tricks
•   Restrictions
•   Bub Caps
•   Selecting Text
•   Cut, copy and paste
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Accessibility


• Settings
  • VoiceOver
  • Zoom Magnification
  • White on Black Display
  • Large text
Apps for
• Communication
  • Tap Speak Sequence
  • Touch Chat
  • Predicatable


• Visual Supports
  • First Then
  • Pictello
  • Time Timer
Access


• Pointers, keyboards and
keyguards
• App embedded assistive
technology
Accessibility


• Switch Access




  Blue2 Bluetooth Switch      Switchbox
        By Ablenet         by Therapy Box
Accessories
Assessment
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Rubrics
• http://learninginhand.com/



• http://treetops.org.au/groups/ipadagogy/
• Student
          • Environment
          • Tasks
          • Tools

•www.joyzabala.com
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Things to think about
•   Fragile
•   Access to other distracting Apps
•   Using in outside light
•   No USB
•   Alternative access methods limited
•   Trialling Apps difficult
•   Management
Curriculum
• Reading
  • Green Eggs and Ham, Stinky Socks,
  iBooks
• Writing
  • Pages, SpeakIt, Verbally, Word Wall
• Numeracy
  • Jungle Coins, Math Bingo
• Creative Arts
  • Paint Sparkles, Clicky Sticky
www.spectronicsinoz.com/blog/apple

www.aseaq.org.au/files/School_iPad_advice.pdf
Quality Apps Review
Spectronics App lists
• http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/article/iph
  oneipad-apps-for-aac
• http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/article/ap
  ps-for-literacy-support
• http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/blog/tools-
  and-resources/visual-support-apps-for-
  ipodipad/
Quality Apps Review
Others
• http://a4cwsn.com/
• http://broxtermansblog.blogspot.com/
• http://digital-storytime.com/wp/
• http://www.iear.org/
• http://www.inov8-ed.com/
• http://www.ipadinschools.com/
• http://spedapps2.wikispaces.com/
And much more!
Other favourite resources
• iTeach Special Education – iDevices in
  Special Education (Facebook group)
• Assistive Technology (Facebook Group)
• Twitter
  • #edapp
  • #iPadEd
  • #spedchat
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Alternative and Augmentative
       Communication
What is AAC?
• Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC): An
   area of specialised clinical and educational practice that
   provides communication options and interventions for people
   with complex communication needs. The term augmentative
   in this context means supplemental or additional to speech.
   Augmentative techniques (e.g. gestures, and facial
   expressions) are commonly used when communicating and
   interacting with others.
• The use of the term alternative acknowledges that there are
   some individuals whose speech is sufficiently impaired that
   they must rely completely on standard and special
   augmentative techniques, which do not augment speech but
   are alternatives to speech (Vanderheiden & Yoder, 1996).
(Speech Pathology Australia AAC Position Paper 2004)
AAC System
• AAC system: An integrated group of
  components, including the symbols, aids,
  strategies and techniques used by
  individuals to enhance communication. The
  system serves to supplement any gestural,
  spoken, and/or written communication
  abilities
(American Speech and Hearing Association,
  1991).
AAC System
Unaided and Aided AAC
• Unaided AAC: All techniques that do not require
  any physical aids (e.g. gesture, sign, facial
  expression).
• Aided AAC: Techniques where some type of
  physical object or device is used (e.g. object
  symbols, communication boards, books, wallets).
  Aided AAC is often divided into high technology or
  low/light technology systems.
(Speech Pathology Australia AAC Position Paper 2004)
AAC Myths and Legends
• Introducing AAC will stop someone from
  developing speech
• Low tech before High tech
• Has a little speech so doesn’t need AAC
• Too cognitively impaired for AAC
• AAC will fix all communication difficulties
• Too young for AAC
• Doesn’t need AAC as they can express
  basic needs
So how do we introduce AAC?
Good Practice Approaches to
AAC
•   Aided Language Displays (ALDs)
•   Engineering the Environment
•   Chat Now
•   PODD
•   Core Vocabulary
High Tech AAC
• Custom Speech Generating Devices
• Mainstream Technology
  • iPod touch/iPad
  • Android Phones/Tablets
  • Laptops
Communicative Competence
• Light (1989)
  • Linguistic Competence (mastery of the linguistic
    code)
  • Operational Competence (access methods,
    on/off)
  • Social Competence
  • Strategic Competence (make the most of the
    vocab they have)
Aided Language Displays
Aided Language Displays
• Prospective users must be provided with
  frequent examples of interactive,
  generative use to acquire any semblance of
  proficiency.
• No one would dispute the fact that it would
  be very difficult to become a fluent speaker
  of French, if your instructor seldom used
  French in your presence.

Goossens’, Crain and Elder (1988); Goossens’
 (1989)
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Aided Language Displays
• Aided Language Displays are NOT choice
  making boards.
• Choice making boards supplement ALDs.
• E.g. in music time a choice board of songs is
  followed by boards for singing the songs.
It is critical for an individual to not only
   have symbols, but also to have
   experience with those symbols in a
   symbol rich environment / print rich
   environment. The typically developing
   child will have been exposed to oral
   language for approximately 4,380
   waking hours by the time he begins
   speaking at about 18 months of age.
If someone is using a different symbol
  set and only has exposure to it two
  times a week, for 20-30 minutes each,
  it will take the alternate symbol user 84
  years to have the same experience
  with his symbols that the typically
  developing child has with the spoken
  word in 18 months!!!


 Jane Korsten (2011) QIAT Listserv 4th April
Aided Language Displays
• If children are to gain proficiency in using
  their aided AAC systems, others must begin
  to use the children's AAC system to
  communicate with them.
From “Being a Model Communicator,” ComTEC, 2010
Aided Language Displays
• By modelling how to use a display to initiate
  and maintain communication, you show a
  student how to initiate and maintain – not
  just respond!
Aided Language Stimulation
Aided Language Display Design
• If you (as a person proficient in language)
  cannot use a communication system or
  display throughout an interaction then how
  can you provide Aided Language
  Stimulation?
• If you cannot use it, is it designed well?
Exercise
• In pairs: Design an Aided Language Display
  for making things from pipecleaners.
• Remember to include vocabulary such as
  names, actions, positions, requests,
  commands....
Boardmaker Software Family
•   Boardmaker
•   Boardmaker Plus
•   Boardmaker with SD Pro
•   Boardmaker Studio
www.boardmakershare.com
Engineering the Environment
Engineering the Environment
Engineering the Environment
Storing displays
• Must be stored in close proximity to where
  they are needed
• Must be stored in a way that helps with
  quick access and set-up
• E.g. in dress-up box, on back of bookshelf,
  on walls, in plastic bucket, inside game box,
  with props, in eye gaze arrangement
CHAT-Now
• Developed by Gayle Porter (Cerebral Palsy
  Education Centre) and Marnie Cameron
  (Communication Resource Centre)
• Children’s Aided Language Tools
  Children s
• Consists of aided language displays for early
  childhood settings and general interactive
  board(s)
CHAT-Now
• A series of ALDs for different activities.
• Designed for early childhood but suits many
  special education settings
• Also includes a general interactive board for
  use throughout the whole day
CHAT-Now – Book
CHAT-Now – Music play
CHAT-Now – Music play
CHAT-Now General Interactive
Tap Speak Choice – AAC App
Yes/No
• Need to watch the number of yes/no
  questions we ask AAC users
• BUT
• Every AAC user needs to develop a good,
  clear Yes/No response
Yes/No
Pragmatics
Pragmatics
• Pragmatics – social use of language
• Using language for different purposes, such
  as greeting, informing, demanding,
  promising, requesting
• Changing language according to the
  needs of the listener
• Following conversational rules
                                 www.asha.org
Pragmatics
• Need to ensure AAC users have access to
  and know how to use a range of pragmatic
  skills
• Dewart and Summers “Pragmatics Profile”
                       Pragmatics Profile
  (1998)
• http://wwwedit.wmin.ac.uk/psychology/pp/
Pragmatically Organised
Dynamic Displays (PODD)
PODD

• PODD is a way
  of organising whole word
  and symbol vocabulary in
  a communication book or
  speech generating
  device to provide
  immersion and modelling
  for learning.
PODD
• The aim of a PODD is to provide vocabulary:
   • for continuous communication all the
     time
   • for a range of messages
   • across a range of topics
   • in multiple environments.
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
PODD
• PODDs can have different formats,
  depending on the individual physical,
  sensory and communication needs of the
  person who will use it.
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
PODD
• PODDs have been developed over the past
  15 years by Gayle Porter, a speech
  pathologist with the Cerebral Palsy
  Education Centre (CPEC) in Victoria.
  Each PODD format has been shaped by the
  experiences of both children with Complex
  Communication Needs (CCN), and their
  communication partners.
Let’s have a look....
   ’
Core Vocabulary
• Using common English words on an AAC
  display to enable a user to construct their
  own sentences.
• Approach used in lots of high tech systems
  but not used as much in low tech due to
  difficulty of arranging vocabulary for access.
Core Vocabulary
• CORE VOCAB          • FRINGE VOCAB
• High frequency      • Low frequency
  words                 words
• Can be combined     • Only useful in one or
  to get your           two situations
  message across in   • Often related to a
  lots of different     specific topic
  situations
Core Vocabulary
Core Vocabulary




•WordPower 24 in TouchChat, AAC App
Core Vocab to supplement ALDS
• From the Disability Services Commission WA




  http://www.boardmakershare.com/Activity/969086/Core-Vocabulary-Display
The Language Stealers
Technology
High Tech and Light Tech
• Both are just tools
• Both need good vocabulary design and
  good modelling to ensure success
• High Tech can be less forgiving but can offer
  more access options
• Some students more motivated by high tech
  and some don’t like it!!
• Most people need both – for different
  situations
Speech Generating Devices
• STATIC DISPLAY   • DYNAMIC DISPLAY
Access Options
• For a user who need alternative access,
  SGDs can offer:
  • Large range of access options
  • Flexibility
  • Complete control over device and other
    software
Low Tech Scanning & Eye Gaze
• Add movie file here
High Tech Scanning
High Tech Eye Gaze
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Building A Well-balanced Program
Using Assistive Technology & AAC
Our Day
• Working through a typical day – from
  morning news to afternoon activities
• Looking at how we would use assistive
  technology and AAC all through the day
Remember



 Repetition with variety is
   crucial for learning
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Going to the Movies
Morning News
Morning News
• A great chance for peers to interact
• Highly predictable and easily scripted –
  great place to use new skills e.g. learning to
  use your switch in conversation
• Can be made very errorless!
Newstime!
Literacy
• Doing a balanced literacy program giving
  students a chance to read and write each
  day.
• Guided reading, self selected reading,
  writing and working with words occur
  throughout the week.
Guided Reading
• Help our students to understand that
  reading involves thinking and meaning-
  making.
• Help them to become more strategic in their
  own reading.
Book of the Week for Guided
Reading
Toy Story book in Boardmaker
Studio
Talking Books
• Used as part of a balanced literacy
  approach
• Using a simple talking book with common
  sight words
• Students have the opportunity to read and
  re-read independently outside of this session
Switch Access
Switches
Switches, switches, switches
• AbleNet Switch Comparison Chart
• http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/article/abl
  enet-access-switch-comparison-chart
Self-selected Reading
• Help our students to understand why they
  might want to learn.
• Become automatic in skill application.
• Choose to read after they learn how.

• Remember:
  • It isn’t self-directed if you don’t choose it yourself.
  • You can’t get good at it if it is too difficult.
Toy Story books for self-selected
reading
Writing
• Each student has the opportunity to write a
  story or sentence about Toy Story – at their
  own level and with appropriate supports
  and a pencil that works for them!
Supports for writing
Joe writing
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Working with Words
• Help our students become strategic in
  reading words
• Word wall
• Onset rime
• Word games e.g. Bingo
• Making words
Word Wall
Toy Story Bingo in Boardmaker
Studio
Onset Rime in Clicker 5
Making Words in Clicker 5
MeVille to WeVille
Numeracy
 Opportunities for access to mathematical
 ideas through high quality child centred
                  activities

Varied, interesting, appropriately targeted for
maximum results, engaging and presented in
       a fun, success oriented manner
Numeracy
Drill & Practice
Numeracy
Barrier Games & Maths

Barrier games are activities based on giving
and receiving instructions, require interaction,
and use language to complete a task.

Maths barrier games support the
development, understanding and practice of
mathematical language.
Numeracy
Barrier Games & Maths
Numeracy
Transformational technology
Buying a Movie Ticket
Toy Story Dance Party
Social Chat at the dance – role
playing
Social chat
Social Story
Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
Toy Story Dance Party
Reflection
• Think of your student(s) again.
• What technology do you want to
  investigate to help them do the tasks they
  want to do?
• What tools?
Thanks for coming!
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Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom

  • 1. Integrating AT and AAC throughout the classroom
  • 2. Charlene Cullen Speech Pathologist Speech Language and AAC Consultant
  • 3. Today’s Outline 9 – 10.30 Introduction SETT framework Visual Supports 11 – 12.30 iPads in special education 1.30 – 3.00 AAC 3.30 – 5.00 A typical day
  • 6. • What are the student’s current abilities? • What are the student’s special needs? • What are the functional areas of concern? • What are the other students doing that this student needs to be able to do? • What does the student need to be able to do that is difficult or impossible to accomplish independently at this time?
  • 7. • What activities take place in the environment? • Where will the student participate? • What is the physical arrangement? • What activities do other students do that this student cannot currently participate in? • What assistive technology does the student currently use?
  • 8. •What specific tasks occur in the environments? •What activities is the student expected to do? •What does success look like?
  • 9. •Tools - no/low to high-tech. •Tools must be student centered and task oriented and reflect the student’s current needs. •Describe tool features that are needed rather than brand names. •Consider the cognitive load required • What are the training requirements for students and staff?
  • 11. Inclusive Technologies Continuum Low/No Mid High Least restrictive Most restrictive
  • 12. Assistive Technology Continuum Access to books – Low/Lite Tech solution.
  • 13. Assistive Technology Continuum Access to books – Mid Tech solution. http://tarheelreader.org
  • 14. Assistive Technology Continuum Access to books – High Tech solution.
  • 16. Getting Organised • What do we need to do to make the school day successful? • Clear workspaces • Schedule ready to go • Batteries checked
  • 17. What are Visual Supports? Things that we SEE to enhance the communication process.
  • 18. Why Visual Supports? • Some people find the world to be chaotic. • Expectations and demands they cannot understand may confuse them. • Verbal instructions and explanations are often not adequate to provide the information needed in order to comprehend. • These people (and others) often need the support of having information presented in visual form. • Some people learn best through what they see, and using visual strategies builds on this strength. From “Visual Strategies” Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2000
  • 19. Why Visual Supports? •Many people are not easily able to understand spoken directions. •It is not always obvious that a person is having difficulty because they may be quite adept at following environmental cues.
  • 20. I hear and I forget I see and I remember I do and I understand
  • 21. Making a Paper Plane
  • 22. What visual supports do you use?
  • 23. Types of Visual Supports • Body Movement: such as body language, natural gesture, key-word sign • Environmental cues: such as objects and signs e.g. logos, labels • Traditional tools for organisation of information: such as calendars, shopping lists, recipes, instruction manuals • Specialised communication aids and materials: such as picture stories, behaviour scripts, activity schedules
  • 25. Visual Support Continuum Coloured photos Real objects Black & white photos Sign Language Written words Object symbols Line drawings
  • 26. Communication is... Use of speech with.. gesture sign object symbols photos pictures … selected according to the person’s comprehension skills and communication needs
  • 27. Visual supports are helpful in many ways…. • They may improve a student’s behaviour by clearly showing expectations and visually depicting what will happen next. • They allow people to function more independently and gain confidence. • They improve the student’s ability to understand!
  • 28. Timetables, Activity Schedules, Calendar Boxes • Backs up verbal with visual information • Provides consistent cues about daily routine • Teaches that symbols (3D or 2D) can represent daily activities • Encourages participation in planning & choice-making • Ongoing strategy (we all rely on visual supports)
  • 34. Finished Strategies • Formal strategies to indicate - Completion of a task - Break needed - Need to avoid/escape activity • Finished mat - checkered placemat • Finished box - may incorporate checkered icon • Finished symbols - eg. check icon, finish sign, abstract symbols
  • 36. Symbols • PCS Classic and PCS Thinline • Symbolstix • Widgit
  • 39. Social Stories • Are a tool for helping people to control or redirect behaviour • Identifies the consequence of the behaviour • Acts as a visual reminder - content is important • Use consistent language across changing communication partners • Remind, Rehearse, Review
  • 40. Social Stories • The situation is described in detail and focus is given to a few key points: the important social cues, the events and reactions the individual might expect to occur in the situation, the actions and reactions that might be expected of him, and why. • The goal of the story is to increase the individual’s understanding of, make him more comfortable in, and possibly suggest some appropriate responses for the situation in question.
  • 42. Input Before Expecting Output Others need to use the visual support to communicate with the person before expecting the person to use it.
  • 43. What do you need for a visual support to work? An opportunity to learn and to use the visual support at many times, with many partners, in many situations!
  • 45. Introduction to the iPad/iPod in the classroom
  • 47. The iPad • Engagement • Portable • Mainstream device • Price • Supports universal design • Wide range of apps
  • 49. “Every new literacy changes the way we think about the world. The alphabet did this to oral cultures. Cheap books did it after Gutenberg. Mobile, interactive multimedia technologies are doing it in our time. As educators are we up to the challenge?” Pat Clifford, Galileo Educational Network
  • 50. iPad basics • Physical • Home Screen • The Dock • Included Apps • Rearrange and delete Apps • Create and use folders • Multitasking and closing apps • Screenshot
  • 55. Tips and Tricks • Restrictions • Bub Caps • Selecting Text • Cut, copy and paste
  • 57. Accessibility • Settings • VoiceOver • Zoom Magnification • White on Black Display • Large text
  • 58. Apps for • Communication • Tap Speak Sequence • Touch Chat • Predicatable • Visual Supports • First Then • Pictello • Time Timer
  • 59. Access • Pointers, keyboards and keyguards • App embedded assistive technology
  • 60. Accessibility • Switch Access Blue2 Bluetooth Switch Switchbox By Ablenet by Therapy Box
  • 66. • Student • Environment • Tasks • Tools •www.joyzabala.com
  • 68. Things to think about • Fragile • Access to other distracting Apps • Using in outside light • No USB • Alternative access methods limited • Trialling Apps difficult • Management
  • 69. Curriculum • Reading • Green Eggs and Ham, Stinky Socks, iBooks • Writing • Pages, SpeakIt, Verbally, Word Wall • Numeracy • Jungle Coins, Math Bingo • Creative Arts • Paint Sparkles, Clicky Sticky
  • 71. Quality Apps Review Spectronics App lists • http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/article/iph oneipad-apps-for-aac • http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/article/ap ps-for-literacy-support • http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/blog/tools- and-resources/visual-support-apps-for- ipodipad/
  • 72. Quality Apps Review Others • http://a4cwsn.com/ • http://broxtermansblog.blogspot.com/ • http://digital-storytime.com/wp/ • http://www.iear.org/ • http://www.inov8-ed.com/ • http://www.ipadinschools.com/ • http://spedapps2.wikispaces.com/ And much more!
  • 73. Other favourite resources • iTeach Special Education – iDevices in Special Education (Facebook group) • Assistive Technology (Facebook Group) • Twitter • #edapp • #iPadEd • #spedchat
  • 76. What is AAC? • Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC): An area of specialised clinical and educational practice that provides communication options and interventions for people with complex communication needs. The term augmentative in this context means supplemental or additional to speech. Augmentative techniques (e.g. gestures, and facial expressions) are commonly used when communicating and interacting with others. • The use of the term alternative acknowledges that there are some individuals whose speech is sufficiently impaired that they must rely completely on standard and special augmentative techniques, which do not augment speech but are alternatives to speech (Vanderheiden & Yoder, 1996). (Speech Pathology Australia AAC Position Paper 2004)
  • 77. AAC System • AAC system: An integrated group of components, including the symbols, aids, strategies and techniques used by individuals to enhance communication. The system serves to supplement any gestural, spoken, and/or written communication abilities (American Speech and Hearing Association, 1991).
  • 79. Unaided and Aided AAC • Unaided AAC: All techniques that do not require any physical aids (e.g. gesture, sign, facial expression). • Aided AAC: Techniques where some type of physical object or device is used (e.g. object symbols, communication boards, books, wallets). Aided AAC is often divided into high technology or low/light technology systems. (Speech Pathology Australia AAC Position Paper 2004)
  • 80. AAC Myths and Legends • Introducing AAC will stop someone from developing speech • Low tech before High tech • Has a little speech so doesn’t need AAC • Too cognitively impaired for AAC • AAC will fix all communication difficulties • Too young for AAC • Doesn’t need AAC as they can express basic needs
  • 81. So how do we introduce AAC?
  • 82. Good Practice Approaches to AAC • Aided Language Displays (ALDs) • Engineering the Environment • Chat Now • PODD • Core Vocabulary
  • 83. High Tech AAC • Custom Speech Generating Devices • Mainstream Technology • iPod touch/iPad • Android Phones/Tablets • Laptops
  • 84. Communicative Competence • Light (1989) • Linguistic Competence (mastery of the linguistic code) • Operational Competence (access methods, on/off) • Social Competence • Strategic Competence (make the most of the vocab they have)
  • 86. Aided Language Displays • Prospective users must be provided with frequent examples of interactive, generative use to acquire any semblance of proficiency. • No one would dispute the fact that it would be very difficult to become a fluent speaker of French, if your instructor seldom used French in your presence. Goossens’, Crain and Elder (1988); Goossens’ (1989)
  • 89. Aided Language Displays • Aided Language Displays are NOT choice making boards. • Choice making boards supplement ALDs. • E.g. in music time a choice board of songs is followed by boards for singing the songs.
  • 90. It is critical for an individual to not only have symbols, but also to have experience with those symbols in a symbol rich environment / print rich environment. The typically developing child will have been exposed to oral language for approximately 4,380 waking hours by the time he begins speaking at about 18 months of age.
  • 91. If someone is using a different symbol set and only has exposure to it two times a week, for 20-30 minutes each, it will take the alternate symbol user 84 years to have the same experience with his symbols that the typically developing child has with the spoken word in 18 months!!! Jane Korsten (2011) QIAT Listserv 4th April
  • 92. Aided Language Displays • If children are to gain proficiency in using their aided AAC systems, others must begin to use the children's AAC system to communicate with them.
  • 93. From “Being a Model Communicator,” ComTEC, 2010
  • 94. Aided Language Displays • By modelling how to use a display to initiate and maintain communication, you show a student how to initiate and maintain – not just respond!
  • 96. Aided Language Display Design • If you (as a person proficient in language) cannot use a communication system or display throughout an interaction then how can you provide Aided Language Stimulation? • If you cannot use it, is it designed well?
  • 97. Exercise • In pairs: Design an Aided Language Display for making things from pipecleaners. • Remember to include vocabulary such as names, actions, positions, requests, commands....
  • 98. Boardmaker Software Family • Boardmaker • Boardmaker Plus • Boardmaker with SD Pro • Boardmaker Studio
  • 103. Storing displays • Must be stored in close proximity to where they are needed • Must be stored in a way that helps with quick access and set-up • E.g. in dress-up box, on back of bookshelf, on walls, in plastic bucket, inside game box, with props, in eye gaze arrangement
  • 104. CHAT-Now • Developed by Gayle Porter (Cerebral Palsy Education Centre) and Marnie Cameron (Communication Resource Centre) • Children’s Aided Language Tools Children s • Consists of aided language displays for early childhood settings and general interactive board(s)
  • 105. CHAT-Now • A series of ALDs for different activities. • Designed for early childhood but suits many special education settings • Also includes a general interactive board for use throughout the whole day
  • 110. Tap Speak Choice – AAC App
  • 111. Yes/No • Need to watch the number of yes/no questions we ask AAC users • BUT • Every AAC user needs to develop a good, clear Yes/No response
  • 112. Yes/No
  • 114. Pragmatics • Pragmatics – social use of language • Using language for different purposes, such as greeting, informing, demanding, promising, requesting • Changing language according to the needs of the listener • Following conversational rules www.asha.org
  • 115. Pragmatics • Need to ensure AAC users have access to and know how to use a range of pragmatic skills • Dewart and Summers “Pragmatics Profile” Pragmatics Profile (1998) • http://wwwedit.wmin.ac.uk/psychology/pp/
  • 117. PODD • PODD is a way of organising whole word and symbol vocabulary in a communication book or speech generating device to provide immersion and modelling for learning.
  • 118. PODD • The aim of a PODD is to provide vocabulary: • for continuous communication all the time • for a range of messages • across a range of topics • in multiple environments.
  • 120. PODD • PODDs can have different formats, depending on the individual physical, sensory and communication needs of the person who will use it.
  • 122. PODD • PODDs have been developed over the past 15 years by Gayle Porter, a speech pathologist with the Cerebral Palsy Education Centre (CPEC) in Victoria. Each PODD format has been shaped by the experiences of both children with Complex Communication Needs (CCN), and their communication partners.
  • 123. Let’s have a look.... ’
  • 124. Core Vocabulary • Using common English words on an AAC display to enable a user to construct their own sentences. • Approach used in lots of high tech systems but not used as much in low tech due to difficulty of arranging vocabulary for access.
  • 125. Core Vocabulary • CORE VOCAB • FRINGE VOCAB • High frequency • Low frequency words words • Can be combined • Only useful in one or to get your two situations message across in • Often related to a lots of different specific topic situations
  • 127. Core Vocabulary •WordPower 24 in TouchChat, AAC App
  • 128. Core Vocab to supplement ALDS • From the Disability Services Commission WA http://www.boardmakershare.com/Activity/969086/Core-Vocabulary-Display
  • 131. High Tech and Light Tech • Both are just tools • Both need good vocabulary design and good modelling to ensure success • High Tech can be less forgiving but can offer more access options • Some students more motivated by high tech and some don’t like it!! • Most people need both – for different situations
  • 132. Speech Generating Devices • STATIC DISPLAY • DYNAMIC DISPLAY
  • 133. Access Options • For a user who need alternative access, SGDs can offer: • Large range of access options • Flexibility • Complete control over device and other software
  • 134. Low Tech Scanning & Eye Gaze
  • 135. • Add movie file here
  • 137. High Tech Eye Gaze
  • 139. Building A Well-balanced Program Using Assistive Technology & AAC
  • 140. Our Day • Working through a typical day – from morning news to afternoon activities • Looking at how we would use assistive technology and AAC all through the day
  • 141. Remember Repetition with variety is crucial for learning
  • 145. Going to the Movies
  • 147. Morning News • A great chance for peers to interact • Highly predictable and easily scripted – great place to use new skills e.g. learning to use your switch in conversation • Can be made very errorless!
  • 149. Literacy • Doing a balanced literacy program giving students a chance to read and write each day. • Guided reading, self selected reading, writing and working with words occur throughout the week.
  • 150. Guided Reading • Help our students to understand that reading involves thinking and meaning- making. • Help them to become more strategic in their own reading.
  • 151. Book of the Week for Guided Reading
  • 152. Toy Story book in Boardmaker Studio
  • 153. Talking Books • Used as part of a balanced literacy approach • Using a simple talking book with common sight words • Students have the opportunity to read and re-read independently outside of this session
  • 156. Switches, switches, switches • AbleNet Switch Comparison Chart • http://www.spectronicsinoz.com/article/abl enet-access-switch-comparison-chart
  • 157. Self-selected Reading • Help our students to understand why they might want to learn. • Become automatic in skill application. • Choose to read after they learn how. • Remember: • It isn’t self-directed if you don’t choose it yourself. • You can’t get good at it if it is too difficult.
  • 158. Toy Story books for self-selected reading
  • 159. Writing • Each student has the opportunity to write a story or sentence about Toy Story – at their own level and with appropriate supports and a pencil that works for them!
  • 163. Working with Words • Help our students become strategic in reading words • Word wall • Onset rime • Word games e.g. Bingo • Making words
  • 165. Toy Story Bingo in Boardmaker Studio
  • 166. Onset Rime in Clicker 5
  • 167. Making Words in Clicker 5
  • 169. Numeracy Opportunities for access to mathematical ideas through high quality child centred activities Varied, interesting, appropriately targeted for maximum results, engaging and presented in a fun, success oriented manner
  • 171. Numeracy Barrier Games & Maths Barrier games are activities based on giving and receiving instructions, require interaction, and use language to complete a task. Maths barrier games support the development, understanding and practice of mathematical language.
  • 174. Buying a Movie Ticket
  • 175. Toy Story Dance Party
  • 176. Social Chat at the dance – role playing
  • 180. Toy Story Dance Party
  • 181. Reflection • Think of your student(s) again. • What technology do you want to investigate to help them do the tasks they want to do? • What tools?