6. • What are the student’s
• What are the student’s
• What are the functional
areas of concern?
• What are the other students
doing that this student
needs to be able to do?
• What does the student
need to be able to do that
is difficult or impossible to
at this time?
7. • What activities take place
in the environment?
• Where will the student
• What is the physical
• What activities do other
students do that this student
cannot currently participate
• What assistive technology
does the student currently
8. •What specific tasks occur in
•What activities is the student
expected to do?
•What does success look like?
9. •Tools - no/low to high-tech.
•Tools must be student
centered and task oriented
and reflect the student’s
•Describe tool features that
are needed rather than brand
•Consider the cognitive load
• What are the training
requirements for students and
16. Getting Organised
• What do we need to do to make the school
• Clear workspaces
• Schedule ready to go
• Batteries checked
17. What are Visual Supports?
Things that we SEE to
18. Why Visual Supports?
• Some people find the world to be chaotic.
• Expectations and demands they cannot
understand may confuse them.
• Verbal instructions and explanations are often
not adequate to provide the information
needed in order to comprehend.
• These people (and others) often need the
support of having information presented in
• Some people learn best through what they
see, and using visual strategies builds on this
From “Visual Strategies”
Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2000
19. Why Visual Supports?
•Many people are not easily able to understand
•It is not always obvious that a person is having
difficulty because they may be quite adept at
following environmental cues.
20. I hear and I forget
I see and I remember
I do and I understand
23. Types of Visual Supports
• Body Movement: such as body language,
natural gesture, key-word sign
• Environmental cues: such as objects and
signs e.g. logos, labels
• Traditional tools for organisation of
information: such as calendars, shopping
lists, recipes, instruction manuals
• Specialised communication aids and
materials: such as picture stories, behaviour
scripts, activity schedules
26. Communication is...
Use of speech with..
… selected according to the person’s
comprehension skills and communication needs
27. Visual supports are helpful in
• They may improve a student’s behaviour
by clearly showing expectations and
visually depicting what will happen next.
• They allow people to function more
independently and gain confidence.
• They improve the student’s ability to
28. Timetables, Activity Schedules,
• Backs up verbal with visual information
• Provides consistent cues about daily routine
• Teaches that symbols (3D or 2D) can
represent daily activities
• Encourages participation in planning &
• Ongoing strategy (we all rely on visual
39. Social Stories
• Are a tool for helping people to control or
• Identifies the consequence of the behaviour
• Acts as a visual reminder - content is
• Use consistent language across changing
• Remind, Rehearse, Review
40. Social Stories
• The situation is described in detail and focus
is given to a few key points: the important
social cues, the events and reactions the
individual might expect to occur in the
situation, the actions and reactions that
might be expected of him, and why.
• The goal of the story is to increase the
individual’s understanding of, make him
more comfortable in, and possibly suggest
some appropriate responses for the situation
47. The iPad
• Mainstream device
• Supports universal design
• Wide range of apps
49. “Every new literacy changes the
way we think about the world. The
alphabet did this to oral cultures.
Cheap books did it after
Gutenberg. Mobile, interactive
multimedia technologies are doing
it in our time. As educators are we
up to the challenge?”
Pat Clifford, Galileo Educational Network
50. iPad basics
• Home Screen
• The Dock
• Included Apps
• Rearrange and delete Apps
• Create and use folders
• Multitasking and closing apps
76. What is AAC?
• Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC): An
area of specialised clinical and educational practice that
provides communication options and interventions for people
with complex communication needs. The term augmentative
in this context means supplemental or additional to speech.
Augmentative techniques (e.g. gestures, and facial
expressions) are commonly used when communicating and
interacting with others.
• The use of the term alternative acknowledges that there are
some individuals whose speech is sufficiently impaired that
they must rely completely on standard and special
augmentative techniques, which do not augment speech but
are alternatives to speech (Vanderheiden & Yoder, 1996).
(Speech Pathology Australia AAC Position Paper 2004)
77. AAC System
• AAC system: An integrated group of
components, including the symbols, aids,
strategies and techniques used by
individuals to enhance communication. The
system serves to supplement any gestural,
spoken, and/or written communication
(American Speech and Hearing Association,
79. Unaided and Aided AAC
• Unaided AAC: All techniques that do not require
any physical aids (e.g. gesture, sign, facial
• Aided AAC: Techniques where some type of
physical object or device is used (e.g. object
symbols, communication boards, books, wallets).
Aided AAC is often divided into high technology or
low/light technology systems.
(Speech Pathology Australia AAC Position Paper 2004)
80. AAC Myths and Legends
• Introducing AAC will stop someone from
• Low tech before High tech
• Has a little speech so doesn’t need AAC
• Too cognitively impaired for AAC
• AAC will fix all communication difficulties
• Too young for AAC
• Doesn’t need AAC as they can express
84. Communicative Competence
• Light (1989)
• Linguistic Competence (mastery of the linguistic
• Operational Competence (access methods,
• Social Competence
• Strategic Competence (make the most of the
vocab they have)
86. Aided Language Displays
• Prospective users must be provided with
frequent examples of interactive,
generative use to acquire any semblance of
• No one would dispute the fact that it would
be very difficult to become a fluent speaker
of French, if your instructor seldom used
French in your presence.
Goossens’, Crain and Elder (1988); Goossens’
89. Aided Language Displays
• Aided Language Displays are NOT choice
• Choice making boards supplement ALDs.
• E.g. in music time a choice board of songs is
followed by boards for singing the songs.
90. It is critical for an individual to not only
have symbols, but also to have
experience with those symbols in a
symbol rich environment / print rich
environment. The typically developing
child will have been exposed to oral
language for approximately 4,380
waking hours by the time he begins
speaking at about 18 months of age.
91. If someone is using a different symbol
set and only has exposure to it two
times a week, for 20-30 minutes each,
it will take the alternate symbol user 84
years to have the same experience
with his symbols that the typically
developing child has with the spoken
word in 18 months!!!
Jane Korsten (2011) QIAT Listserv 4th April
92. Aided Language Displays
• If children are to gain proficiency in using
their aided AAC systems, others must begin
to use the children's AAC system to
communicate with them.
96. Aided Language Display Design
• If you (as a person proficient in language)
cannot use a communication system or
display throughout an interaction then how
can you provide Aided Language
• If you cannot use it, is it designed well?
• In pairs: Design an Aided Language Display
for making things from pipecleaners.
• Remember to include vocabulary such as
names, actions, positions, requests,
103. Storing displays
• Must be stored in close proximity to where
they are needed
• Must be stored in a way that helps with
quick access and set-up
• E.g. in dress-up box, on back of bookshelf,
on walls, in plastic bucket, inside game box,
with props, in eye gaze arrangement
• Developed by Gayle Porter (Cerebral Palsy
Education Centre) and Marnie Cameron
(Communication Resource Centre)
• Children’s Aided Language Tools
• Consists of aided language displays for early
childhood settings and general interactive
• A series of ALDs for different activities.
• Designed for early childhood but suits many
special education settings
• Also includes a general interactive board for
use throughout the whole day
• Pragmatics – social use of language
• Using language for different purposes, such
as greeting, informing, demanding,
• Changing language according to the
needs of the listener
• Following conversational rules
• Need to ensure AAC users have access to
and know how to use a range of pragmatic
• Dewart and Summers “Pragmatics Profile”
• PODD is a way
of organising whole word
and symbol vocabulary in
a communication book or
device to provide
immersion and modelling
• The aim of a PODD is to provide vocabulary:
• for continuous communication all the
• for a range of messages
• across a range of topics
• in multiple environments.
• PODDs can have different formats,
depending on the individual physical,
sensory and communication needs of the
person who will use it.
• PODDs have been developed over the past
15 years by Gayle Porter, a speech
pathologist with the Cerebral Palsy
Education Centre (CPEC) in Victoria.
Each PODD format has been shaped by the
experiences of both children with Complex
Communication Needs (CCN), and their
124. Core Vocabulary
• Using common English words on an AAC
display to enable a user to construct their
• Approach used in lots of high tech systems
but not used as much in low tech due to
difficulty of arranging vocabulary for access.
125. Core Vocabulary
• CORE VOCAB • FRINGE VOCAB
• High frequency • Low frequency
• Can be combined • Only useful in one or
to get your two situations
message across in • Often related to a
lots of different specific topic
131. High Tech and Light Tech
• Both are just tools
• Both need good vocabulary design and
good modelling to ensure success
• High Tech can be less forgiving but can offer
more access options
• Some students more motivated by high tech
and some don’t like it!!
• Most people need both – for different
147. Morning News
• A great chance for peers to interact
• Highly predictable and easily scripted –
great place to use new skills e.g. learning to
use your switch in conversation
• Can be made very errorless!
• Doing a balanced literacy program giving
students a chance to read and write each
• Guided reading, self selected reading,
writing and working with words occur
throughout the week.
150. Guided Reading
• Help our students to understand that
reading involves thinking and meaning-
• Help them to become more strategic in their
153. Talking Books
• Used as part of a balanced literacy
• Using a simple talking book with common
• Students have the opportunity to read and
re-read independently outside of this session
157. Self-selected Reading
• Help our students to understand why they
might want to learn.
• Become automatic in skill application.
• Choose to read after they learn how.
• It isn’t self-directed if you don’t choose it yourself.
• You can’t get good at it if it is too difficult.
Opportunities for access to mathematical
ideas through high quality child centred
Varied, interesting, appropriately targeted for
maximum results, engaging and presented in
a fun, success oriented manner
Barrier Games & Maths
Barrier games are activities based on giving
and receiving instructions, require interaction,
and use language to complete a task.
Maths barrier games support the
development, understanding and practice of