Names: not the same. To those that “what’s in a name” matters, you can appreciate there is variability in the literature that has not been reconciled. For those who are not sticky on the name, let’s move on to this idea that exposure to media matters. Just by having technology, I’m different than you. This is based on the assumption that more technology is related to your birth year, ergo you are digitally savvy. This is problmeatic: it assumes the whole generation is the same, it assumes an end to the generation. But let’s be good critical appraisers of research and look at the evidence. Some is opinion. Notably, Prensky – video game company owner. Some is research –based. Variety of results. Focus in on big studies – even big studies don’t say “media = media savvy user”
But this lit only looks at part of the picture
There is a bigger picture
Technology use is actually complexLet’s widen gaze, look at other researchCitations at bottom relate to various areas of research – business, education, economics, population statisticsShows that there are multiple factors in media adoption that cut across populations and generations – not just a generation issue!
acquire content knowledge and achieve proficiency with its use
Assumes developmental process
Building expertise for the knowledge economy
Preparing Students for the Knowledge Economy
Session Objectives1. Define and discuss competency and expertisedevelopment2. Synthesize and apply the concepts ofcompetency and expertise development to youreducational context.3. Construct digital content based on theprinciples of expertise development, and withappropriate metrics to measure competency.
Education, and the Knowledge Economy By Sage Ross (Own work) [CC-BY-SA]
Author Generation Name Evidence Birth YearsTapscott, 1997 1977-1997 Media Online chat with 28 teens GenerationHowe, 2000 1982 - 2000 Millenials 500 high school seniors in southeastern U.S.Prensky, 2001 unspecified Digital Natives Exposure to mediaBeck and Wade, 1975 - 2004 Gaming Playing video games2004 Generation Survey business leadersRideout et al., “young Gen M 1999 report: 2,065 children aged 8-181999, Rideout et people aged 2004 report: 2,032 students ages 8-18al., 2005, Rideout 8 to 18” 2009 report: 2002 students ages 8–18et al., 2010Dede, 2005 unspecified Neomillenials Exposure to mediaOblinger and 1982–1991 Net Generation Exposure to mediaOblinger, 2005Ito, M. 2009 “Under the Digital Youth 659 semi-structured interviews, 28 diary studies, focus age of 25” group in 2005 interviews with 67 participants; 78 interviews; 363 survey respondents; 5,194 observation hours; 10,468 profiles on social sites; 15 online discussion group forums, and more than 389 videos.Kent, 2004 “young Young people Survey in 2001: n=1818 people ages Survey in 2003: n= 1471 9 – 18” Group semi-structured interviews: n=192 Family interviews: n=19 (representing 11 families)
• Attitudes • Career cycle • Gender • Geographic location • Educational achievement • Economic (“digital divide”) • Net NeutralityBarron, 2004; Caison et al, 2008; Hargittai, 2008; DiMaggio, Hargittai, Celeste, and Shafer,2004; Meng et al, 2010; Parasuraman, 2001; Slater, Crichton and Pegler, 2010; StatisticsCanada, 2009; US Bureau of Commerce, 2010; US Statistics Branch, 2010; Warschauer,2000
Message #1:Students vary in their skills & experiences
Message #2: Knowing isn’t enough“There’s no competitiveadvantage today inknowing more than theperson next to you.The world doesn’t carewhat you know.What the world caresabout is what you cando.” - Tom Wagner
Knows Knows How Shows How Does Synthesizes AppliesAn educated and skilled populationthat can create, share, and useknowledge well. - The Knowledge Economy Innovate Framework, World Bank, 2009
“We can teach new hires the content, and we will have to because itcontinues to change, but we can’t teach them how to think — to ask the right questions — and to take initiative.” - Thomas L Friedman, New York Times, March 30, 2013
Message #3: We need to help students build expertise. Klein, 1999
Expertise follows a developmental curve Master Expert Proficient Competent Novice Dreyfus and Dreyfus, 1980
Adaptive Learning - Benefits Adaptive Learning - Benefits• feel more confident in class discussions and on exams• helps them learn lessons faster• understand difficult concepts• get better grades.
Adaptive Learning Needs to be Tailored Adaptive Learning - Benefits “Benefits of the system tested only accrue when the course learning objectives closely match those of the textbook and adaptive learning system.” Griff, E. R., & Matter, S. F. (2013). Evaluation of an adaptive online learning system. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(1), 170- 176.
Adaptive Learning Needs to be Tailored Missing and poorly developed knowledge construction processes impair students’ ability to transfer to new situations, and to problem solve.
Learners need a solution www.getsparkworks.com