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  1. 1. Materials I 4.26.2010 Username: Crawlspace
  2. 2. Air Barrier Paper <ul><li>Air Barrier Paper is applied to the exterior wall sheathing but underneath the exterior finish. It serves to prevent water and air infiltration. It helps weatherproof the structure. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Attic Ventilation <ul><li>Soffit Vent: </li></ul>Allows air to flow through the attic, allowing heat to escape. This helps cool the structure and save on energy costs. Also increases the life of the roof.
  4. 4. Attic Ventilation <ul><li>Ridge Vents </li></ul>Ridge Vents are located on the ridge of the roof, which is typically the highest point in the structure. They allow heat to escape which cools the structure. They often work in conjunction with soffit vents to provide ventilation.
  5. 5. Attic Ventilation <ul><li>Gable Vent </li></ul><ul><li>Roof Turbine </li></ul>-Gable vents are located at the very top of the gable, create a draft through the attic, helping ventilation. -Turbines are wind powered and help suck hot air out of the structure.
  6. 6. Backhoe <ul><li>a hydraulic excavating machine consisting of a tractor having an attached hinged boom, with a bucket with movable jaws on the end of the boom. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically used for excavation or the placing of backfill </li></ul><ul><li>This bucket was 36” wide </li></ul>
  7. 7. Batter Boards Batter boards are the first step in building a square foundation. They are built perfectly square (using 3, 4, 5 method). String lines are then connected between each set of batter boards to keep the foundation square. Batter Boards at site of foundation already poured.
  8. 8. Brick Arches <ul><li>There are many different shapes for arches, although all use compression to support themselves. Often there is a keystone , placed last and in the center of the arch, which ties the whole structure together and allows the arch to be freestanding. While under construction, arches need centering , a unique type of temporary support structure that can support the weight of the arch until it is complete. </li></ul>-Gothic Arch -Roman Arch -keystone
  9. 9. Brick Bonds <ul><li>Flemish Bond - Alternated between header and stretcher </li></ul><ul><li>Running Bond </li></ul>
  10. 10. Brick Bonds <ul><li>Soldier </li></ul><ul><li>Header </li></ul>
  11. 11. Brick Bonds <ul><li>Rowlock </li></ul><ul><li>Sailor </li></ul><ul><li>Stretcher Rowlock </li></ul>
  12. 12. Brick Sizes This is a picture that shows the two different sizes side by side. The red brick is modular (3 5/8” x 2 2/4” x 7 5/8”). The yellowish brick is an economy brick (3 5/8” x 3 5/8” x 7 5/8”). Modular Brick Economy Brick
  13. 13. Bulldozer <ul><li>a large, powerful tractor having a vertical blade at the front end for moving earth, tree stumps, rocks, etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cladding <ul><li>Cladding is the exterior finish of the structure. It is the final step of weatherproofing and is what must be aesthetically pleasing. </li></ul>Brick Exterior Cladding
  15. 15. Cladding <ul><li>EIFS Exterior Cladding. Also commonly called DryVit </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cladding <ul><li>This is stone exterior cladding. Most of the time, it is actually cast colored concrete. The pattern used in this picture is Coursed Rubble . </li></ul>Stone Cladding
  17. 17. Cladding <ul><li>Wood Boards </li></ul>This shows typical wood board horizontal siding. It is assembled to overlap so that water is able to pass down the wall without entering the structure.
  18. 18. Cladding <ul><li>Wood Shakes- a wood shingle that is split from a log. </li></ul><ul><li>Wood Shingle- a smooth shingle made from wood. (in photo) </li></ul>Wood shake siding can be made out of wood, composite material, concrete, or vinyl. They are assembled to overlap to prevent water intrusion. Real wood shakes are expensive to buy and maintain.
  19. 19. Code Req. <ul><li>This room meets all necessary code requirements. There are 2 means of egress, and the window has the necessary sq. footage (35” x 40”= 9.7 ft 2) and minimum height and width. It is also below the max height from the ground of 44” (32”). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Code Req. <ul><li>This stair meets all applicable codes. The tread exceeds the 10” minimum. The riser is less than the 7 ¾” max. The nosing is between ¾” and 1 ¼”. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Concrete Joints <ul><li>Control Joints-Grooves cut into concrete surfaces to “control” cracking. They are basically designed to weaken the surface so that cracks occur there instead of somewhere else. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation Joints-completely isolate the slab from something else. That something else can be a wall, column, drain pipe, etc. </li></ul>Crack, where control joint failed Isolation Joint- slab from wall Control Joint
  22. 22. Concrete Masonry Units (CMU) <ul><li>Large blocks used in construction that are made from cast concrete. The most common size for CMU is a nominal 8x8x16 block. Actual dimensions are slightly smaller to allow for mortar joints. 1 course of 8x8x16 CMU equals 3 courses of modular brick. </li></ul>
  23. 23. CMU Continued <ul><li>Different shapes of CMU… </li></ul>4x8x16 CMU 12x8x16 CMU
  24. 24. Decorative CMU <ul><li>Decorative Concrete Masonry Units is a cost efficient method of building that does not sacrifice the aesthetic appeal of the building like normal CMU’s </li></ul>Split CMU Block
  25. 25. Doors <ul><li>. </li></ul>Flush door Paneled door Top rail Panel Lock rail Stile Bottom rail Transom- A horizontal crosspiece over a door or between a door and a window above it. Sidelight- a window at the side of a door or another window.
  26. 26. Electrical Components <ul><li>Transformer box - Converts the electricity from high voltage that travels through the power lines to the typical voltage (120 volts for lights, 240 volts for appliances). </li></ul><ul><li>Service Head - The service for this particular install comes from the ground rather on a line through the air. </li></ul><ul><li>Meter Head - The meter reads Kilowatt hours to shows how much energy the service user is consuming. </li></ul>Meter Head Power Pole Service Head
  27. 27. Electrical Components <ul><li>Service Panel - contains may breakers or fuses (older structures). Provides for a systematic distribution of power and allows for certain areas to be shut off for maintenance, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Duplex Receptacle - The point at which the power is used by the consumer. Lights, appliances, etc. are plugged in to receive power. They are both polarized and grounded. </li></ul>Duplex Receptacle Service Panel
  28. 28. Framing Elements 1)anchor bolt 2)sill plate 1) 2)
  29. 29. Framing Elements Cont. 3)floor joist 4)subfloor 3) 4)
  30. 30. Framing Elements Cont. <ul><li>5)sole plate </li></ul><ul><li>6)stud </li></ul>5) 6)
  31. 31. Framing Elements Cont. 7)top plate 9)ceiling joist 10)rafter 11)roof decking 7) 11) 9)
  32. 32. Framing Elements Cont. 12)sheathing 12)
  33. 33. Framing Cont. <ul><li>8) Unfinished Stringer </li></ul>
  34. 34. Front End Loader <ul><li>a loader having a shovel or bucket at the end of an articulated arm located at the front of the vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from a bulldozer because of the ability to pick up and scoop, not just scrape and push. Does not have the control and digging power of a backhoe, but can load or carry more volume of load at a time. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Gypsum Board <ul><li>wallboard composed primarily of gypsum and often used as sheathing. (drywall) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Heat Pump <ul><li>Both cools and heats the structure according to the desired temperature. Consists of an inside air handler, and an outside compressor unit. </li></ul><ul><li>They are not as effective in extreme climates but perform well in mild climates. </li></ul>Outdoor Compressor Unit- is a specialized pump which draws refrigerant gas back to the compressor/condenser unit from the in-building air handler and evaporator coil. Indoor Air Handling Unit- Cools and disperses the air throughout the interior of the house Ductwork
  37. 37. Insulation <ul><li>This is Blanket Insulation . The purpose of insulation is to preserve the temperate of the interior of the house. It helps conserves energy costs and is the best way to conserve. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Insulation <ul><li>Loose Fill </li></ul>Loose fill insulation is the most cost effective and common type of attic insulation. It is blown in which allows it to easily fit into small cracks and crevices.
  39. 39. Insulation <ul><li>Foamed </li></ul>Foamed Insulation is sprayed in and expands tremendously as it dries. It is great to fill in cracks around pipes. It can also be used to insulate an entire home. It is very effective in energy conservation.
  40. 40. Insulation <ul><li>Rigid Foam Board- </li></ul><ul><li>Typically installed on the exterior walls of a structure, underneath cladding and air barrier paper. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Lintel <ul><li>a horizontal architectural member supporting the weight above an opening, as a window or a door. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Mortar This is a flush troweled mortar joint. It was approx. 3/8 inch but varied in different spots. These bricks are on an exterior wall around an old house in Marietta. I would guess this mortar is type N because it has no weight bearing on it. This is a concave tooled mortar joint. The joint is approx. 3/8”. These bricks are on an old building in Auburn. This mortar is probably type N.
  43. 43. Oriented Strand Board (OSB) <ul><li>OSB is manufactured from non-veneered waterproof heat-cured adhesives and rectangular shaped wood strands that are pressed and arranged in cross-oriented layers, similar to plywood. This results in a structural engineered wood panel that shares many of the strength and performance characteristics of plywood. Produced in huge, continuous mats, OSB is a solid panel product of consistent quality with no laps, gaps or voids. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Plumbing Components <ul><li>Lavatory: 1 ½” drain pipe </li></ul>Water Closet (Toilet): Drain size 3”
  45. 45. Plumbing Component <ul><li>Prefabricated Tub/Shower Enclosure </li></ul>
  46. 46. Plumbing Components Vent : This is the exterior view of the plumbing vent. Many new vent stacks don’t have to be vented to the outside. They have a special cap that allows them just to be vented to the attic and work just as well.
  47. 47. Plumbing Components <ul><li>Pictured is an underlayed sink made of aluminum. The typical drain of a bathroom lavatory sink is 1 ½” </li></ul>
  48. 48. Plywood Veneer: any of the thin layers of wood glued together to form plywood. The outside facing veneer is typically better finished. Grain of Wood Veneer
  49. 49. Radiant Barrier <ul><li>Radiant Barrier- Radiant barriers are materials that are installed in buildings to reduce summer heat gain and winter heat loss, and hence to reduce building heating and cooling energy usage. The potential benefit of attic radiant barriers is primarily in reducing air-conditioning cooling loads in warm or hot climates. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Rebar <ul><li>This rebar is ¾” thick and so would be referred to as #6 rebar. Rebar is used to add tensile strength to concrete. The surface of the rebar is deformed so that it has a better grip to the aggregate in concrete and can have better tensile strength. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Steep Roof Drainage <ul><li>Gutter: a channel at the eaves or on the roof of a building, for carrying off rain water. </li></ul><ul><li>Downspout : a pipe for conveying rain water from a roof or gutter to the ground away from the foundation or to a drain. </li></ul><ul><li>Splash Block : helps to disperse water from the downspout away from the foundation. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Steep Roof Materials <ul><li>Underlayment : a waterproof material that is installed between the roof sheathing and roofing material. Helps weatherproof structure. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Steep Roof Materials <ul><li>Shingle: a thin piece of wood, slate, metal, asbestos, or the like, usually oblong, laid in overlapping rows to cover the roofs and walls of buildings. </li></ul>Slate Shingles Clay Tile Roof
  54. 54. Steep Roof Materials <ul><li>Metal roofing-can be made of aluminum, copper, or countless alloys that have good resistance to oxidization. Very long life, and can range from some of the most economical ways to roof a structure to the most expensive. Can handle low pitches. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Steep Roof Shapes Gambrel Roof Hip Roof
  56. 56. Steep Roof Shapes Gable Roof Mansard Roof
  57. 57. Steep Roof Terms <ul><li>Rake Ridge Valley </li></ul>
  58. 58. Steep Roof Terms <ul><li>Eave </li></ul><ul><li>Fascia </li></ul><ul><li>Soffit </li></ul>
  59. 59. Steep Roof Definitions <ul><li>Ridge- The horizontal line formed by the juncture of two sloping planes, especially the line formed by the surfaces at the top of a roof. </li></ul><ul><li>Rake- The inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Valley- The internal angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes. </li></ul><ul><li>Eave- The horizontal, lower edge of a sloped roof </li></ul><ul><li>Soffit- The finished underside of the eaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Fascia- horizontal surface which spans across the top of columns or across the top of a wall </li></ul>
  60. 60. Steep Roof Terms <ul><li>Building with No Fascia </li></ul>
  61. 61. Stone Types Coursed Ashlar Random Rubble Coursed Rubble
  62. 62. Vapor Retarder <ul><li>The purpose of a vapor retarder, like the one shown, is to protect the foundation from water vapor intrusion. </li></ul><ul><li>The one picture is installed before the slab on grade is poured. </li></ul><ul><li>For insulation, vapor retarder is used on the warm in winter side. </li></ul>Vapor Retarder: Polyethylene
  63. 63. Waterproofing <ul><li>This is liquid applied water proofing. It seals under grade basement and crawlspace walls from moisture. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Weep Hole <ul><li>The purpose of a weep hole is to allow water that enters a masonry wall to escape. The water condenses when it hits the air barrier within the wall, weeps down, and exits through the weep hole. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Welded Wire <ul><li>Welded wire mesh is added in concrete foundations as a strengthening material. Concrete is weak in tension. The addition of welded wire helps the overall strength. </li></ul>This shows Welded Wire that was installed and not covered with enough concrete, therefore exposing it.
  66. 66. Windows <ul><li>Double Hung: Two sashes are able to travel along a track and open vertically. The most common in homes today. </li></ul><ul><li>Picture Window: The window is not able to open and lets light in while providing an exterior view. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Windows <ul><li>Casement: This casement window operates via crank and opens outward on a hinge on the right side. </li></ul>