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1
Table of Contents
About this Book 2
Introduction 3
Chapter 1 Sentence 4
Chapter 2 Parts of speech 5
Chapter 3 Noun 6
Cha...
2
About this Book
This Book is designed for the benefit of the Non-English Medium students and for the
teachers who teach ...
3
Introduction
In the present day rat racing for marks and ranks the students as well as the teachers neglect
the importan...
4
Chapter 1
SENTENCE
GRAMMAR is a study of the rules for the words and structures of a language.
The base for any language...
5
Chapter 2
PARTS OF SPEECH
There are EIGHT kinds of parts of speech.
1. NOUN → Name of a person, place or thing.
2. PRONO...
6
Chapter 3
NOUN
ANOUN is a naming word. It indicates the name of a person, Place or thing.
e.g. Syam, Ramya, Boy, Girl, C...
7
Chapter 4
PRONOUN
A Pronoun is word, which is used instead of a Noun.
e.g. Ramya is a beautiful girl. SHE plays tennis.
...
8
→ It rains; It shows; It thunders;
The Pronoun ‗it’ here seems to stand for no noun whatever, though this can be readily...
9
Chapter 5
ADJECTIVE
AP state syllabus – class-VIIITM
– page-53 to 56
An Adjective is a word which qualifies a noun.
e.g....
10
e.g.: I have the few coins in my pocket that are given by my father.
The little hope I had, helped me in getting the po...
11
Chapter 6
DEGREES OF COMPARISON
1. Positive Degree. 2. Comparative Degree. & 3. Superlative Degree
Here, various forms ...
12
Silly Sillier Silliest
Lovely Lovelier Loveliest
Jolly Jollier Jolliest
Dry Drier Driest
Some exceptions to the above
G...
13
Comparative
Degree
Structure 2nd
N +V+as+PDA+as+2nd
Sentence Ravi is as clever as Siva
AP state VIIITM
–
75&76
Type III...
14
Chapter 7
ARTICLES
Articles are like adjectives and are used before nouns.
There are two kinds of articles in English l...
15
7. Before an adjective when the noun is understood.
e.g. The rich are enjoying life. (the rich people)
8. When we speak...
16
Chapter 8
VERB
Verb is the chief part of a sentence. It tells what the subject is, what the subject does, what
the subj...
17
„Have‟ forms : ( have, has, had )
e.g.: I havetwo pens. She hasa nice dress.
They had a lot of money.
Note: In the abov...
18
e.g.: I go ( have gone, went, will go) there lestthey (you, he, she)
should misunderstand me.
1. in the sense of „duty‟...
19
„Could‟ is very polite and is used when speaking with strangers or superiors.
„Dare‟
„Dare‟ means ‘to have the courage ...
20
Chapter 9
MAIN VERBS:
Mainverbsor Principle verbs are divided into several types.
Finite verbs: The verbs that change a...
21
It is usually verbal adjective.
e.g.: I saw him crossing the road.
She has observed them listening the lesson.
Gerund :...
22
Chapter 10
TENSES
Generally tenses are three types- Present tense, Past tense and Future tense.
But again the tenses ar...
23
e.g.: Hehas just gone; I have finished the work.
To express past actions whose time is not given and not definite;
e.g....
24
had already been teaching there for five years.
The Simple Future Tense is used for an action that has still to take pl...
25
Chapter 11
VERB AND ITS CONJUGATIONS
A List of Strong Verbs
Sl. Present Tense Past Tense Past participle
1 Am / Is / Be...
26
37 crow crew crown
38 deal dealt dealt
39 dive dove dove
40 dwell dwelt dwelt
41 dig dug dug
42 draw drew drawn
43 drea...
27
78 leap leapt leapt
79 learn learnt learnt
80 leave left left
81 lend lent lent
82 lie lay lain
83 lie lied lied
84 lig...
28
119 slay slew slain
120 sleep slept slept
121 slide slid slid
122 sling slung slung
123 slink slunk slunk
124 sleep sle...
29
The verbs having no change in their conjugation
Sl. Present Tense Past Tense Past participle
1 bet bet bet
2 bid bid bi...
30
Chapter 12
VOICE OF VERBS
Voice is a form of the verb. It shows whether the word denoted by the subject or has
somethin...
31
Sentences
A song has been sung by Sita
Songs have been sung by Sita.
4. Simple Past Tense
A.V.
Structure Subject+v2+Obj...
32
b) Present continuous tense am/is/are+v+ing am/is/are+being+v3
c) Present perfect tense has/have+v3 has/have+been+v3
d)...
33
e.g.: The thief was caught. --- Some one caught the thief.
Promises should be kept--- We should keep promises.
Now let ...
34
Chapter 13
ASKING QUESTIONS AND QUESTION TAGS (Making Statements, Negatives,
Questions, And Question Negatives)
Asking ...
35
Negative Question TagsforPositive statements
It‘s raining, isn‘t it?
You are free, aren‘t you?
Sita can swim well, can‘...
36
Chapter 14
REPORTED SPEECH (Direct And Indirect Speech)
In English speech is two types- Direct speech & Indirect speech...
37
He will say, ―I agree to this.‖
He will say that he agreesto that.
6. If the reported part is a universal truthor a hab...
38
He requestedher togive him her pen.
 She said to him, ―What is your name?‖ (question)
 She askedhim whathis name was....
39
Chapter 15
ADVERB
An ‗Adverb‘ is a word which modifies a verb or an ‗adjective‘ or another ‗adverb‘.
e.g.: Sathish eats...
40
Chapter 16
PREPOSITION
The word „preposition‟ means ‘that which is placed before’. It is placed before a noun
or pronou...
41
‗Upon‘ is used in speaking of things in motion.
e.g.: He stood onthe platform;
The dog sprang uponhim.
‗About‘ is used ...
42
9. to indicate concerning : What do you think of me?
„At‟is used to indicate ;
1. a point of time : I shall meet you at...
43
Chapter 17
CONJUNCTIONS
A „conjunction‟ is a word which is used to join words or sentences or phrases.
There are three ...
44
1. I will not attend the function, unless I am personally invited.
2. Whilehe was going through the forest, a wasp stun...
45
Chapter 18
INTERJECTION
An „Interjection‟ is a word which expresses some sudden feeling or emotion.
It expresses:
AP st...
46
Chapter 19
PUNCTUATION
„Punctuation‟ means the right use of putting in pauses or stops writing.
The following are the p...
47
(c) Between sentences grammatically independent but closely
connected in sense.
e.g.: study to acquire a habit of think...
48
e.g.: B.A., M.A., Bharatha Ratna, Sunday, June, Bible, etc.
49
Chapter 20
SUBJECT, PREDICATE, PHRASE AND CLAUSE
Every sentence has two parts: Subject and predicate.
The Subject : The...
50
Chapter 21
SIMPLE, COMPOUND, COMPLEX SENTENCES
As for the clauses and phrases used in the sentence, the sentences are d...
51
Chapter 22
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES (If & Unless)
If is used in three conditions:
AP state syllabus – class-IXTM
– page-33, ...
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English grammar book

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This Book is designed for the benefit of the Non-English Medium students and for the teachers who teach to those students.

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English grammar book

  1. 1. 1 Table of Contents About this Book 2 Introduction 3 Chapter 1 Sentence 4 Chapter 2 Parts of speech 5 Chapter 3 Noun 6 Chapter 4 Pronoun 7 - 8 Chapter 5 Adjective 9 - 10 Chapter 6 Degrees of comparison 11 - 13 Chapter 7 Articles 14 - 15 Chapter 8 Verbs - Helping verbs 16 - 19 Chapter 9 Main verbs 20 - 21 Chapter 10 Tenses 22 - 24 Chapter 11 Conjugation of verbs 25 - 29 Chapter 12 Voice of verbs 30 - 33 Chapter 13 Asking Questions and Question Tags (Making Statements, Negatives, Questions, And Question Negatives) 34 - 35 Chapter 14 Reported Speech (Direct And Indirect Speech) 36 - 38 Chapter 15 Adverb 39 Chapter 16 Preposition 40 - 42 Chapter 17 Conjunction 43 - 44 Chapter 18 Interjection 45 Chapter 19 Punctuation 46 - 48 Chapter 20 Subject, Predicate, Phrase and Clause 49 Chapter 21 Simple, Compound, Complex Sentences 50 Chapter 22 Conditional Clauses (If & Unless) 51
  2. 2. 2 About this Book This Book is designed for the benefit of the Non-English Medium students and for the teachers who teach to those students. It will be more helpful for the Telugu medium students and teachers who are in touch with the A.P. State Syllabus. Here I mentioned the page nos. of the academic text books for class VIII, IX and X also (A.P. State Syllabus) against the topic in the book, which are existed in the respective page nos. In future I will give page nos. for more text books. In this book I give only explanation and a few examples for better understanding. For the exercises I suggest some suitable links against the topic. I think that this book may be helpful to the teachers and the students to understand and achieve more marks in the examinations. You can use it as your hand book by copying the book for a print. Thank you very much for choosing my bool to read.
  3. 3. 3 Introduction In the present day rat racing for marks and ranks the students as well as the teachers neglect the importance of language skills. The result is that even the students who have high caliber in their respective subjects can‘t present their knowledge where ever necessary and lose the opportunities in the open market. They can‘t enjoy the essence of a language. In addition to this now-a-days using short massaging system, chatting and other latest techno- communicative factors may be the causes of great loss in feeling and sharing the values and making fun of English Language. To overcome this shortage of language skills one must learn at least the basic grammar and make a little bit practice, and I think this book will be helpful for that. It is helpful for you to make self study by learning little by little and if you are learned and want to make a speed recall among all the grammatical awareness, you make it as fast as you can. Try it as for your choice and make a call for me, if you have any doubt.
  4. 4. 4 Chapter 1 SENTENCE GRAMMAR is a study of the rules for the words and structures of a language. The base for any language is sounds. The sounds appear in the forms ofLETTERS. The letters in English are divided into VOWELS andCONSONENTS VOWELS : A,E,I,O,U. CONSONENTS : B,C,D,F,G,H,J,K,L,M,N,P,Q,R,S,T,V,W,X,Y,Z. WORD : A collection of letters, which gives some sense. e.g.: school, girl, write, beautiful, beside, fast, etc. SENTENCE : A group words, which gives complete meaning. e.g.: I go to school everyday. She is an English teacher. SENTENCES ARE OF FOUR KINDS 1. Assertive sentence 2. Imperative sentence 3. Interrogative sentence 4. Exclamatory sentence ASSERTIVE SENTENCE : It starts with a subject and ends with full stop. e.g. I saw a snake. We got independence in 1947. IMPERATIVE SENTENCE : It starts with a verb and ends with full stop. (All commands, requests, orders, suggestions) e.g. Sit down, Stand up, Open the window, etc. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE : It appears in two ways. (a) It starts with a question words like ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘why’, ‘which’, ‘how’, etc. e.g. What is your father? How old are you? Who is your English teacher? (b) It starts with helping verbs like ‘is’, ‘was’, ‘does’, ‘has’ ‘have’ ‘will’ ‘won’t’, etc. e.g. Is he your father? Have you had your lunch? Did you finish your work? Note: Every Interrogative sentence must be ended with a Question Mark. (?). EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE : It starts with a question word or an exclamation word and ends with an exclamation mark (!) e.g. What a beautiful flower it is! Oh! My God, He is coming again.
  5. 5. 5 Chapter 2 PARTS OF SPEECH There are EIGHT kinds of parts of speech. 1. NOUN → Name of a person, place or thing. 2. PRONOUN → Used instead of a noun. 3. VERB → What the subject is / has / does / what happened to it. 4. ADJECTIVE → Qualifies a noun. 5. ADVERB → Qualifies an adjective / a verb / another adverb. 6. PREPOSITION → Shows the relationship of a noun with another. 7. CONJUNCTION → Joins two things. 8. INTERJECTION → A strong and sudden feeling.
  6. 6. 6 Chapter 3 NOUN ANOUN is a naming word. It indicates the name of a person, Place or thing. e.g. Syam, Ramya, Boy, Girl, Cattle, Bunch, Table, Fan, Love, Beauty, etc. NOUNS ARE OF FIVE KINDS 1. PROPER NOUN 2. COMMON NOUN 3.MATERIAL NOUN 4. COLLECTIVE NOUN AND 5. ABSTRACT NOUN 1. PROPER NOUN is the personal name of a particular person, place or thing. e.g. RAMYA is a beautiful girl. SYAM is her friend. 1. COMMON NOUN is the name used commonly to all the things of same kind. e.g. Ramya is a beautiful GIRL. Her Mother is a brave WOMAN. 1. MATERIAL NOUN is the name used to the things made by any kind of material. e.g. The TABLE is made of wood. It is broken by an iron HAMMER. 1. COLLECTIVE NOUN is the name used to the things, when they appear collectively. e.g. The CATTLE is grazing there. I saw a BUNCH of keys on the table 1. ABSTRACT NOUN is the name used to the feelings, ideas, qualities, etc., which are uncountable. We can‘t touch them, see them or show them. e.g. I can‘t express myLOVE. We can‘t bear this NEGLIGENCE.
  7. 7. 7 Chapter 4 PRONOUN A Pronoun is word, which is used instead of a Noun. e.g. Ramya is a beautiful girl. SHE plays tennis. NOTE: Pronouns, which are related to persons, are called PERSONAL PRONOUNS These are THREE kinds. 1st PERSON: The person speaking (I, We) 2nd PERSON: The person spoken to (You) 3rd PERSON: The person or thing spoken about. (He, She, It & They) PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL 1st PERSON I WE 2nd PERSON YOU YOU 3rd PERSON HE, SHE, IT. THEY The personal pronouns appear differently depending on their placements. PERSON SUBJECTIVE OBJECTIVE POSSESSIVE Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural FIRST I We Me Us My Our SECOND You You You You Your Your THIRD M F N All M F N All M F N All He She It They Him Her It Them His Her Its Their REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS AP state syllabus – class-IXTM – page-43 1st PERSON : I -- My self; We -- Ourselves; 2nd PERSON : You -- Yourself; You -- Yourselves; 3rd PERSON : He -- Himself; She -- Herself; It -- It self; They -- Themselves The uses of the pronoun ‘IT’: AP state syllabus – class-XTM – page-42 The pronoun ‗IT‘ is used 1. for things without life → Here is your book; tale it away. 2. For animals, unless we clearly wish to speak of them as male or female: → The horse fell and broke itsleg. 1. For a young child, unless we clearly wish to refer to the sex: → When I saw the child, it was crying. 1. To refer to some statement going before; → He is telling what is not true; as he knew it. 1. As a provisional and temporary subject before the verb to be when the real subject follows: → It is easy to find fault. (To find fault is easy.) 2. To give emphasis to the noun or pronoun following: → Itwas you who began the quarrel. → It was at Hyderabad that the Afro-Asian Games were held. 1. As an indefinite nominative of an impersonal verb.
  8. 8. 8 → It rains; It shows; It thunders; The Pronoun ‗it’ here seems to stand for no noun whatever, though this can be readily supplied from the verb. Thus, → ‘It rains’ means ‘The rain rains’. ‘It’so used is called an Impersonal Pronoun. So also the verb ‗rains‘ is here called an impersonal verb‘ 1. In speaking of the weather or the time; → Itis fine; Itis winter; It is ten O‘ clock.
  9. 9. 9 Chapter 5 ADJECTIVE AP state syllabus – class-VIIITM – page-53 to 56 An Adjective is a word which qualifies a noun. e.g. I saw a WHITE elephant.She wears a NICE sari. KINDS OF ADJECTIVES: Adjectives are two types; 1. Descriptive Adjectives. 2. Limiting Adjectives. 1.Descriptive Adjectives : These can describe the state or quality of a noun. These are four types. 1. Adjectives of Quality: Shape : round, square, circular, rectangular, oval, angular, triangular, etc. Size : long, narrow, thick, thin, huge, big, small, high, lengthy, little, etc. Color : red, blue, dark, green, light, white, black, purple, pink, alive, etc. Taste : sweet, sour, bitter, hot, salty, astringent, pungent, chili, etc. Condition : good, bad, dirty, weak, strong, smooth, rough, sick, dead, live, etc. Behavior : Kind, cruel, angry, gentle, harsh, nice, mischievous, naughty, etc. Feeling : hard, cold, smooth, rough, thorny, hot, sultry, easy, nice, etc General Impression : Pleasant, beautiful, excellent, great, nice, attractive, etc. 1. Proper Adjectives: formed from proper nouns; e.g.: Indian, American, Chinese, Japanese, Australian, Canadian, etc. AP state syllabus – classVIIITM – page-99 1. Epithet Adjectives: A noun functioning as an adjective; e.g.: Express train, coir factory, master key, etc. 1. Participle Adjectives: Present and past partciples functioning as adjectives e.g..: a sleeping dog,; a wounded soldier; a moving train; a jumping ball; 2. Limiting Adjectives: those that limit the scope of the noun. e.g.: Latha and Devi are in the same class; Sujatha bought four saris; Limiting Adjectives are three types 1. Emphasising Adjectives : there would be some stress in saying them; e.g.: I saw the same film five times; He saw the accident with his own eyes. 1. Quantitative Adjectives : show the quantity (any, no, many, much, a little, little, the little, etc.) e.g.: There are no fruits in the basket; I haven‘t much time to discuss it. The Usage of FEW & LITTLE: 1. Few and Little : they give negative meaning; e.g.: I have few coins in my pocket. (I have no coins in my pocket) I have little hope of getting post. (I have no hope) 2. A Few and A Little : in the sense of some or some thing. e.g.: I have a few coins in my pocket. ( some coins ) I have a little hope of getting the post. ( some hope ) 3. The Few and The Little : in the sense of that particular something.
  10. 10. 10 e.g.: I have the few coins in my pocket that are given by my father. The little hope I had, helped me in getting the post. 1. Pronominal Adjectives: these are made from the pronouns; five types. 1. Possessive Adjectives : her book, their car, its mouth, etc. 2. Demonstrative Adjectives : that girl, those fruits, this shirt, etc. 3. Distributive Adjectives : each bench, every boy, either side, etc. 4. Interrogative Adjectives : which question, what answer, how many, how much, whose advice, etc. 5. Relative Adjectives: The man whose land we wanted to buy is here. This is the girl whom did I want to meet. NOTE : To show the differences in the forms of an Adjective, Degrees of comparison are to be used. There are three kinds of Degrees of Comparison
  11. 11. 11 Chapter 6 DEGREES OF COMPARISON 1. Positive Degree. 2. Comparative Degree. & 3. Superlative Degree Here, various forms of Adjectives are given. POSITIVECOMPARATIVESUPERLATIVE RULE : Single syllable adjectives are added by „er‟ & „est‟. High Higher Highest Tall Taller Tallest Bold Bolder Boldest Kind Kinder Kindest Hard Harder Hardest Sweet Sweeter Sweetest Small Smaller Smallest Clever Cleverer Cleverest Young Younger Youngest Great Greater Greatest Thick Thicker Thickest POSITIVECOMPARATIVESUPERLATIVE RULE : The adjectives, end with „e‟, are simply added by „r‟ & „st‟ Brave Braver Bravest Sure Surer Surest Able Abler Ablest Fine Finer Finest Wise Wiser Wisest White Whiter Whitest Large Larger Largest Noble Nobler Noblest Dense Denser Densest Pure Purer Purest Rare Rarer Rarest RULE: When an adjective ends with a ‗consonant‘, preceded by a ‗vowel‘, the consonant must be doubled and then write„er‟ & „est‟ Hot Hotter Hottest Slim Slimmer Slimmest Fat Fatter Fattest Thin Thinner Thinnest Sad Sadder Saddest Big Bigger Biggest RULE : When an adjective ends with„y‟ preceded by a ‗consonant‘ „y‟ is replaced by „ier‟ & „iest‟ Easy Easier Easiest Holy Holier Holiest Happy Happier Happiest Merry Merrier Merriest Wealthy Wealthier Wealthiest Heavy Heavier Heaviest Worthy Worthier Worthiest
  12. 12. 12 Silly Sillier Silliest Lovely Lovelier Loveliest Jolly Jollier Jolliest Dry Drier Driest Some exceptions to the above Gay Gayer Gayest Gray Grayer Grayest RULE :The adjectives of two or more syllables must be preceded by „MORE‟ & „MOST‟ Beautiful More Beautiful Most Beautiful Difficult More Difficult Most Difficult Courageous More Courageous Most Courageous Industrious More Industrious Most Industrious Learned More Learned Most Learned Proper More Proper Most Proper Splendid More Splendid Most Splendid Sincere More Sincere Most Sincere Diplomatic More Diplomatic Most Diplomatic Fruitful More Fruitful Most Fruitful intelligent More intelligent Most Intelligent Ideal More Ideal Most Ideal Modest More Modest Most Modest Honest More Honest Most Honest DEGREES OF COMPARISON If we want to say about only one thing, we should write it in „Positive degree‟. If we want to make comparison between two things we use „Comparative degree‟. When we want say about the best of its kind we use „Superlative degree‟. But, if a sentence is in comparative degree, we can change it into positive degree only. If it is in the Superlative degree, we can change it into comparative as well as positive degree, vise versa. The following tables will be helpful. Type Degree Example Type I Comparative Degree Structure 1st N+V+CDA+than+2nd N Sentence Hari is taller than Rama Positive Degree Structure 2nd N +V+not+so+PDA+as+2nd Sentence Rama is not so tall as Hari Type II Positive Degree Structure 1st N+V+not+CDA+than+2nd N Sentence Siva is not cleverer than Ravi
  13. 13. 13 Comparative Degree Structure 2nd N +V+as+PDA+as+2nd Sentence Ravi is as clever as Siva AP state VIIITM – 75&76 Type III Superlative Degree Structure Sub+V+the+SDA+--- Sentence Geeta is the youngest girl in the class Comparative Degree Structure Sub+V+CDA+than+any other+--- Sentence Geeta is younger than any other girl in the class Positive Degree Structure No other +---+V+so/as+PDA+as+sub Sentence No other girl in the class is so young as Geeta Type IV Superlative Degree Structure Sub+V+ one of the+SDA+--- Sentence Shilpa is one of the most beautiful girl in the town Comparative Degree Structure Sub+V+CDA+than+many other+plu.N+--- Sentence Shilpa is more beautiful than many other girls in the town Positive Degree Structure Very few+plu.N+---+V+as/so+PDA+as+sub Sentence Very few girls in the town are as beautiful as shilpa Type V Superlative Degree Structure Sub+V+not+the+SDA+of all+--- Sentence Venkat is not the greatest of all Musicians Comparative Degree Structure Sub+V+not+CDA+than+some other+--- Sentence Venkat is not greater than some other musicians Positive Degree Structure Some+---+V+at least+as+PDA+as+sub Sentence Some musicians are at least as great as Venkat N=Noun; V=verb; PDA=Positive degree of adjective; CDA=Comparative degree of adjective; SDA=Superlative degree of adjective.
  14. 14. 14 Chapter 7 ARTICLES Articles are like adjectives and are used before nouns. There are two kinds of articles in English language. Indefinite article : „A‟ or „An‟ ( because it leaves indefinite the person or thing spoken of.) e.g. I sawaman ( not a particular man ) Definite article : „The‟ (because it refers to some particular person or thing) e.g. I sawtheman, who helped him. (a particular man) Note: Generally, an article is used before a common noun, singular number. Indefinite Article : A / An : The choice between „A‟ and „An‟ is determined by sound. USAGE: An: → is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound(a,e,i,o,u,) and before a silent ‘h’. e.g. an apple, an eye, an ink-bottle, an ox, an orange,anumbrella, anhour, an honest man, an honorable man, etc. A: → is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound and before ‘h’ when it is pronounced heavily. e.g. a boy, a girl, a park, a street, a road, a box, a pen, a hotel, a hundred, a hill, a hen. → Some times, even though the word starts with the vowel„U‟, or „E‟, it pronouns like a consonant.(long U) e.g. a university, auniform, a European. → Some words start with „O‟ but pronouns the consonant sound„V‟. e.g. a one rupee note, a one eyed giant. → In the meaning of any, „a‟ is used. e.g. I want to havea cup of coffee. Definite Article : The : is used 1. Before a singular noun representing a whole class. e.g. Thecow is a useful animal. 2. Before the names of rivers, oceans, seas, gulfs, groups of islands, ranges of mountains, and descriptive nouns of countries and provinces. e.g. The Godavari, theIndian Ocean, the Black sea, the Persian gulf, theAndamans, theHimalayas, the United states, the Punjab, the Central provinces 3. Before certain words of famous books. e.g. The Ramayana, the Mahabharatha, the Bible, the Koran, 4. Before certain words which are unique. e.g. the sun, the moon, the sky, the earth, the stars. 5. Before a proper noun only when it is qualified by an adjective. e.g. thegreat Kalidasa, the immortal Shakespeare . 6. Before the superlatives. e.g. Rama isthecleverest boy in the class.
  15. 15. 15 7. Before an adjective when the noun is understood. e.g. The rich are enjoying life. (the rich people) 8. When we speak of a thing as the best of its kind. e.g. This is the book on the subject. (the best book) 9. With the force of a superlative. e.g. He is theleader today. ( he is the greatest leader) 10. As an adverb with comparatives. e.g. The more you read, thebetter the marks. The higher you climb, the better the view. 11. With abbreviations. e.g. The U.S.A., TheU.K., The U.S.S.R., TheU.N.O. 12. With ordinals. e.g. He isthe first boy to enter the class. 13. Before a proper noun used as a common noun. e.g. Kalidasa istheShakespeare of India. 14. Before the Newspapers and ships. e.g. The Indian Express, TheHindu, The Mail, The Jala Usha, 15. To refer to a whole family. e.g. The Nehrus, the Kennedys Articles should not be used in the following cases: 1. Before proper nouns, material nouns and abstract nouns : e.g. Govind is good boy; Cotton grows in Bombay. Knowledge is power. 2. Before „man‟ and „woman‟ when used in general sense. e.g. Man is mortal. Woman isman’s companion. 3. Before names of substances like metals and fluids. e.g.: Gold is a precious metal. I don‘t take coffee. 4. Before the names of single mountains or islands and town and cities. e.g.: Everest is the highest peak. Kakinada is small town. Primary purpose & secondary purpose Before certain places like temple, church, market, shop, prison, hospital, etc. we shouldn‟t write any article when that place is used for the primary purpose. When it is used for the secondary purpose we should use the article ‘the’ before it. 1. She went totemple.(for worship). I went to the temple to bring her. 2. He went to church.(for prayers). She went to the church to meet him. 3. I went tomarket (to buy goods). He came to the market to talk to me. 4. She went to shop (to purchase). I wentthe shop to give some money to her. 5. He is admitted in hospital. (for treatment). They went tothe hospital to see him. Note: Repetition of the articles: 1. She has a green and red sari. (one sari) She has agreen and ared sari( two saris) 1. Thesecretary and correspondent says it. (one person) The secretary and the correspondent say it. ( two persons)
  16. 16. 16 Chapter 8 VERB Verb is the chief part of a sentence. It tells what the subject is, what the subject does, what the subject has and what happened to the subject. e.g.: Raghuisa teacher. (state / position of the subject ) Sowmyawrote a letter. (work / action of the subject ) Amarhas two pens ( possession / ownership of the subject ) The snakewas killed by Sriram. (something is done/ happened to the subject) CLASSIFICATION : Verbs are divided into two types. They are: 1. Helping verbs 2. Main verbs Helping verbs: These are also called Auxiliaries. These are ‗24‘ „Be, forms : Am, Is, Was, Are, Were, (Be, Been, Being ) „Do‟ forms : Do, Does, Did, (Done, Doing ) „Have‟ forms : Have, Has, Had, (Having ) „Will‟ forms : Will, Would „Shall‟ forms : Shall, Should „Can‟ forms : Can, Could „May‟ forms : May, Might „Must‟ : Must „Used‟ : Used (to) „Dare‟ : Dare (to) „Need‟ : Need (to) „Ought‟ : Ought (to) While using these verbs they must agree with the subject, which is called the agreement of the verb or „concord‟. Subject „BE‟forms „Do‟forms „Have‟forms Present tensePast tensePresent tensePast tensePresent tensePast tense Iperson Singular Am Was Do Did Have Had Plural Are Were Do Did Have Had IIperson Singular Are Were Do Did Have Had Plural Are Were Do Did Have Had III person Singular Is Was Does Did Has Had plural Are Were Do Did Have Had The usage of the helping verbs „Be‟ forms :(am, is, was, are, were, be, been, being) e.g.: Iam a boy. She is a girl. Hewas a student. They areactors. We wereplayers. I will be there in a minute. You have been suffering from fever for the last two days. It, beinga rainy day, we were in doors.
  17. 17. 17 „Have‟ forms : ( have, has, had ) e.g.: I havetwo pens. She hasa nice dress. They had a lot of money. Note: In the above sentences ‘have’ is used to denote the possession of the subject. Apart from this ‗have‘ is used as the helping verb in the perfect tenses. e.g.: She has been living in these house since 2002. They have come a few minutes ago. We had completed our work before he came. „Do‟ forms: the verb „do‟ has two functions. 1. as a main verb. 2. as a helping verb. As a main verb it is used: 1. in the sense of perform - e.g.: I shall do the work. 2. to avoid the repetition of the previous verb. e.g.: she wrote as carefully as you did.(wrote). 1. as an intransitive verb. - e.g.: you must do so. As a helping verb it is used: 1. for the sake of emphasis -e.g.: I do say that it‘s wrong. 2. in asking questions. -e.g.: Did you go to market? 3. in replying to a question -e.g.: Yes, I did. 4. in negative sentences -e.g.: I did not go there. Use of „SHALL‟ and „WILL‟ – „SHOULD‟ and „WOULD‟ 1. „Shall‟ and„should‟ in the first person represent futurity. e.g.: I shall go to Chennai; You shouldgo to Hyderabad; b) „Shall‟ and „should‟ in the second and third person represent command or compulsion, promise or threat, implying determination on the part of the speaker. AP state syllabus – class-XTM – page-15 e.g.: You shalldo it. or You shoulddo it. He (she, it or they) shall do it. or He (she, it or they) shoulddo it. 1. „will‟ and „would‟ in the first person represent determination and intention. e.g.: I willnever break my promise. or I would never break my promise. d) „will‟ and „would‟ in the second and third persons represent futurity. e.g.: you will(would) finish the work. He or she or It or they will(would) finish the work. Exceptions in the use of „Should‟. Should is used in all the three persons: 1. after the conjunction „lest‟, irrespective of the tense of the verb going before.
  18. 18. 18 e.g.: I go ( have gone, went, will go) there lestthey (you, he, she) should misunderstand me. 1. in the sense of „duty‟ ( meaning ‘ought to’ ). e.g.: I feel, I ( you, he, she ) should begin it without postponement. c) in conditional clauses. e.g.: If, I (you, she) shouldperform this. d) „Should‟ signifies ‘advice’ and refers to the immediate future. e.g.: you should, on no account, miss seeing the film Sankar Dada MBBS. e) „should‟ signifies a wish. e.g.: I should very much like to meet your friend. Exceptions in the use of „will‟ and „would‟ : 1. „will‟ and „would‟ can be used in all the three persons to denote habit. e.g.: 1. An engineerwill study the house-site before drawing a plan. 2. I would go on shire with her every evening. 3. I think you wouldbe at the Sai Baba temple everyday. b) in the sense of „had willed‟ - e.g.: would god I had died. c) in the sense of „wish‟ - e.g.: would to god I were dead. d) in the sense of „it seems‟ e.g.: One wouldthink, from his talk last night, that he had not liked it. Note: „Will‟ is not used at all in the first person in asking questions. e.g.: Will I go there? (wrong). ShallI go there? (right) „May‟ and „Might‟ AP state syllabus – class-VIIITM – page-99 „May‟ and „Might‟ would mean is ‘to be allowed’or ‘to be permitted to’. They are used: 1. to denote permission or request e.g.: Youmay go ; May I come with you? b) to denote possibility -e.g.: It mayrain today c) to express a wish - e.g.: May god bless you. d) to emphasis uncertainty in a question - e.g.: Who may this girl be? e) to express a purpose -e.g.: we eat so that we may live. Note: Although „May‟ and „Might‟ both describe a future action, only „Might‟, can be used when it follows a verb in the past tense. e.g.: I thought that you might perform it. „Can‟ and „Could‟ „Can‟ means ‘to have the power to’or ‘to be able to’. e.g.: I can speak English. It is generally used in the sense of ‗to have permission’. e.g.: CanI come to your house? „Could‟ is the past form of „Can‟. But it is used to signify the present tense. e.g.: I couldwrite today. Note: „Can‟ is used between equals and suggests familiarity.
  19. 19. 19 „Could‟ is very polite and is used when speaking with strangers or superiors. „Dare‟ „Dare‟ means ‘to have the courage to do something’. It is always used as the Principle verb, because it expresses a distinct meaning of its own. It is used Even for the third person singular in present tense without adding „s‟. e.g.: He dare not utter a single word; How dareyou to tell me so? She dared to accept the challenge. „Need‟: AP state syllabus – class-IXTM – page-54 It is used in the sense of ‘require’ and ‗want’. e.g.: The boy neednot go there. She needssome money. „Must‟: „Must‟ indicates ‘necessity’ or ‘compulsion’. It has no past tense, But the past tense meaning can be shown by ‘had’ or ‘ought to have’. e.g.: I mustleave this place; We must not speak falsehood. The bell rang, and the students had to go. „Ought‟: AP state syllabus – class-XTM – page-15 & IXTM – page-54 & 55 The verb „ought‟ is the past participle form of „owe‟. It is now used only to express the sense of duty. It is a transitive verb and the infinitive following is its object. e.g.: She oughtto have done it; We ought to love our parents. „Used to‟: AP state syllabus – class-VIIITM – page-03 It is always in the past tense form, it has no present tense form. It is used to represent the habitual actions in the past tense. Its always followed by an infinitive. e.g.: I usedto smoke; She usedtolive in Chennai.
  20. 20. 20 Chapter 9 MAIN VERBS: Mainverbsor Principle verbs are divided into several types. Finite verbs: The verbs that change according to the person and number of the subject and the tense of the verb. e.g.: Sita singssongs. They singsongs. Ramya sang songs. They have sung songs. Finite verbs are two kinds: transitive & intransitive Transitive verbs : The verbs that have objects after them are called the transitive verbs. These verbs transfer the action from subject to object. e.g.: she atean apple. Ravi loves cricket Intransitive verbs : These verbs don‘t have any objects and no transformation of action. e.g.: The birds fly. The dogs bark. The trees grow. Non-Finite verbs : The verbs that don‘t change their forms according to the Person and number of the subject and the tense of the verb. These are three types: Infinitive, participle & gerund. Infinitive : These are two kinds: Plain/Bare Infinitive & To Infinitive. Plain / Bare Infinitive : Every root form of the verb is called plain infinitive Sometimes it is used without changing its form. Irrespective of its subject and tense. This is used Generally after the verbs make, help, let, etc. e.g.: My fatherhelped him clearthe debts. She made him winthe match. They let him go. To Infinitive : AP state syllabus – class-XTM – page-2, class-VIIITM – page-11 & 14 Sometimes the root form of the verb is preceded by „to‟, irrespective of its subject and tense of the verb. e.g.: They asked him to vote for their leader. She always begs him to love her. The teacher has asked the students to do the home work. Participle : These are two types; Past participle & Present participle. Past participle : The third form of the verb. It is always used in the passive construction and also in the perfect tenses. e.g.: The elephant is shotdead by the hunters. They have celebrated the anniversary excellently. Present participle: The root form of the verb is added by an „ing‟ form. It is used for the on going actions at a particular point of time. Main verbs Finite verbs Non-finite verbs (i) Transitive (ii)Intransitive Infinitive Participle Gerund To infinitive Plain infinitive Present participle Past participle
  21. 21. 21 It is usually verbal adjective. e.g.: I saw him crossing the road. She has observed them listening the lesson. Gerund : It isverbal noun. It is used as the subject or object of the verb. It also appears with the „ing‟ form. e.g.: Smoking is injurious to health. I like swimming; Collecting stamps was his habit. Note: The present participle form of a verb, present continuous form of a verb and Gerund appear alike. But there was a lot of difference in their usage. e.g.: Swimmingmakes a man healthy. (gerund) He saw his son swimming in the river. ( present participle) They are swimming in the river. ( present continuous tense) In the above sentences the word „swimming‟ worked as gerund, present participle and present continuous. Gerund - verbal noun ; (used as subject or object) Present participle - verbal adjective; Present continuous - verb
  22. 22. 22 Chapter 10 TENSES Generally tenses are three types- Present tense, Past tense and Future tense. But again the tenses are divided into four types. – Simple tense, continuous tense perfect tense and perfect continuous tense. Then, we get twelve tenses. 1. Present tense a) Simple tense 2. Past tense b) Continuous tense 3. Future tense c) Perfect tense d) Perfect continuous tense various forms of forms of a verb and its structure must be as given bellow. per example various forms of the verb „eat‟ are as follows Tenses Simple tense Continuous tense Perfect tense Perfect continuous tense Present tense V1/v+ s/es eat/eats Am/is/are+ v+ing is eating Have/has+ v3 have eaten Have/has+been +v+ing have been eating Past tense V2 ate Was/were+ v+ing was eating Had +v3 had eaten Had +been + v+ing had been eating Future tense w/s/c/m+v1 will eat w/s/c/m+be+v+ing will be eating w/s/c/m+have +eaten will have eaten w/s/c/m+have+ been +v+ing will have been eating W=will; S=shall; C=can; M=may; V1=verb in present tense; V2=verb in past tense; V3=verb in past participle tense The uses of the tenses The simple present tense is used : 1. To express a habitual action : He takes milk every morning. 2. To express general truth : The sun rises in the east. 3. In the exclamatory sentences beginning with „here‟ and „there‟. e.g.: Here comesthe bus! There she goes! 4. In vivid narrative, as substitute for the Simple past : e.g.: Akbar winsthe battle against Rana Prathap. 5. To indicate a future event that is part of a fixed programme or time table: e.g.: He retiresnext month; The match startsat 9 O‘ clock. 6. To introduce quotations : Keats says, ―A thing of beauty is a joy for ever.‖ Thepresent continuous Tense is used: 1. For an action going on at the time of speaking: She is singing now. 2. For a temporary action which may not be actually happening at the time of speaking : I am reading a novel (but not at this moment.). 1. For an action that is planned or arranged to take place in the near future: e.g.: I am going to the cinema tonight. 4. We use the present continuous tense with an adverb like always, continually, constantly, etc. e.g.: My dog is very silly; he is always running out into the road. The present perfect tense is used : To indicate completed activities in the immediate past.
  23. 23. 23 e.g.: Hehas just gone; I have finished the work. To express past actions whose time is not given and not definite; e.g.: I have read that book; Mr. Hari has been to Japan. To denote an action beginning at some time in the past and continuing up to to the present moment: e.g.: I have known him for a long time. We haven’t seen Padma for several months. The following words can be used with the present perfect tense: Just, often, yet, never, ever, so far, till now, already, since, for, today, this week, this month, etc. The Present perfect continuous tense is used : for an action which began at some time in the past and is still continuing: e.g.: They have been building the bridge for several years. They have been playing foot ball since four O‘ clock. The Simple past tense is used: AP state syllabus – class-VIIITM – page-64-66 & 70 To indicate an action completed in the past. e.g.: Ireceivedhis letter a week ago; Sheleftschool last year. To indicate historical or time implied actions : e.g.: Babar defeated Rana Sanga at Kanwaha; He learntHindi in Nagpur. For the past habitual actions Simple Past Tense is used with the ‗used to‘ construction; He used to smoke cigarettes. (but now, he stopped smoking). The Past Continuous Tense is used: AP state syllabus – class-XTM – page-34 To denote an action going on at some time in the past. The time of the action may not be indicated. e.g.: We were listening to the radio all evening. Some times the Past Continuous Tense and Simple Past are used together, when a new action happened in the middle of a longer action. The Simple Past Tense is used for the new action. e.g.: The light went out while I was reading. When I saw him, he was playing chess. The Past Perfect Tense is used : AP state syllabus – class-XTM – page-23 To describe an action completed before a certain moment in the past e.g.; I had seen him last five years before. If two actions happened in the past, it may be necessary to show which action happened earlier than the other. The Past Perfect is mainly used in such cases. e.g.: When I reached the station the train had already started. I had written the letter before he arrived. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used : for an action that began before a certain point in the past and continued up to that time: e.g.: At that time he had been writing a novel for two months. When Mr. Mukherji came to the school in 2002, Mr. Anand
  24. 24. 24 had already been teaching there for five years. The Simple Future Tense is used for an action that has still to take place: e.g.: I shall see him tomorrow; Tomorrow will be Sunday. Some times Future Tense is used with ‘going to+infinitive construction. e.g.; He is going to build a new house. Future Continuous Tense represents an action as going on at some time in future. e.g.: When I get home, my children will be playing. This Tense is also used for future events that are planned: e.g.: I will be staying here till Sunday. Future Perfect Tense is used to indicate the completion of an action by a certain future time: e.g.: Before you go to see him, he will have left the place. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense indicates an action represented as being in progress over a period of time that will end in the future: e.g.: By next July we shall have been living here for four years.
  25. 25. 25 Chapter 11 VERB AND ITS CONJUGATIONS A List of Strong Verbs Sl. Present Tense Past Tense Past participle 1 Am / Is / Be was Been 2 Are were Been 3 Has / have had had 4 Do / does did done 5 Abide abode abode 6 arise arose arisen 7 awake awoke awaken 8 bear bore born 9 beat beat beaten 10 become became become 11 begin began begun 12 bend bent bent 13 befall befell befallen 14 beget begot begotten 15 behold beheld beheld 16 breed bred bred 17 beseech besought besought 18 bereave bereft bereft 19 bethink bethought bethought 20 bind bound bound 21 bite bit bit 22 bleed bled bled 23 blow blew blown 24 break broke broken 25 bring brought brought 26 build built built 27 burn burnt burnt 28 buy bought bought 29 catch caught caught 30 choose chose chosen 31 cling clung clung 32 come came come 33 creep crept crept 34 choose chose chosen 35 chide chided chidden 36 cleave clove cloven
  26. 26. 26 37 crow crew crown 38 deal dealt dealt 39 dive dove dove 40 dwell dwelt dwelt 41 dig dug dug 42 draw drew drawn 43 dream dreamt dreamt 44 drink drank drunk 45 drive drove driven 46 eat ate eaten 47 fall fell fallen 48 feed fed fed 49 feel felt felt 50 fight fought fought 51 find found found 52 flee fled fled 53 fling flung flung 54 fly flew flown 55 forbid forbade forbidden 56 freeze froze frozen 57 foresee foresaw foreseen 58 foretell foretold foretold 59 forget forgot forgotten 60 forgive forgave forgiven 61 forsake forsook forsaken 62 get got gotten 63 give gave given 64 go went gone 65 gild gilt gilt 66 gird girt girt 67 grind ground ground 68 grow grew grown 69 hang hung hung 70 hear heard heard 71 hide hid hid 72 hold held held 73 keep kept kept 74 kneel knelt knelt 75 know knew known 76 lay laid laid 77 lead led led
  27. 27. 27 78 leap leapt leapt 79 learn learnt learnt 80 leave left left 81 lend lent lent 82 lie lay lain 83 lie lied lied 84 light lit lit 85 lose lost lost 86 make made made 87 mean meant meant 88 meet met met 89 misspell misspelt misspelt 90 misdeal misdealt misdealt 91 misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood 92 mistake mistook mistaken 93 overcome overcame overcome 94 overtake overtook overtaken 95 oversee oversaw overseen 96 rebuild rebuilt rebuilt 97 rebind rebound rebound 98 relay relaid relaid 99 rend rent rent 100 repay repaid repaid 101 rewrite rewrote rewritten 102 ride rode ridden 103 ring rang rung 104 rise rose risen 105 run ran run 106 say said said 107 see saw seen 108 seek sought sought 109 sell sold sold 110 send sent sent 111 shake shook shaken 112 shine shone shone 113 shoot shot shot 114 shrink shrank shrunk 115 shrive shrove shriven 116 sing sang sang 117 sink sank sunk 118 sit sat sat
  28. 28. 28 119 slay slew slain 120 sleep slept slept 121 slide slid slid 122 sling slung slung 123 slink slunk slunk 124 sleep slept slept 125 smell smelt smelt 126 smite smote smitten 127 speak spoke spoken 128 spell spelt spelt 129 spend spent spent 130 spill spilt spilt 131 spin span spun 132 spit spat spat 133 spring sprang sprung 134 stand stood stood 135 stave stove stove 136 steal stole stolen 137 stick stuck stuck 138 sting stung stung 139 stink stank stunk 140 stride strode stridden 141 strike struck stricken 142 string strung strung 143 strive strove striven 144 swear Swore sworn 145 sweep swept swept 146 swim swam swum 147 swing swung swung 148 take took taken 149 teach taught taught 150 tear tore torn 151 tell told told 152 think thought thought 153 throw threw Thrown 154 thrive throve thriven 155 tread trod trodden 156 unbind unbound unbound 157 undergo underwent undergone 158 understand understood understood 159 undertake undertook undertaken
  29. 29. 29 The verbs having no change in their conjugation Sl. Present Tense Past Tense Past participle 1 bet bet bet 2 bid bid bid 3 broadcast broadcast broadcast 4 burst burst burst 5 cast cast cast 6 cost cost cost 7 cut cut cut 8 hit hit hit 9 hurt hurt hurt 10 knit knit knit 11 let let let 12 put put put 13 read read read 14 rid rid rid 15 set set set 16 shed shed shed 17 spread spread spread 18 slit slit slit 19 shut shut shut 20 thrust thrust thrust 21 wet wet wet 22 upset upset upset 23 quit quit quit 24 sweat sweat sweat 25 forecast forecast forecast 160 wake woke waken 161 wear wore worn 162 weave wove woven 163 weep wept wept 164 win won won 165 wind wound wound 166 withdraw withdrew withdrawn 167 withhold withheld withheld 168 withstand withstood withstood 169 wring wrung wrung 170 write wrote written
  30. 30. 30 Chapter 12 VOICE OF VERBS Voice is a form of the verb. It shows whether the word denoted by the subject or has something done to it. There are two kinds of voice namely. 1. Active Voice.: The verb is said to be in the Active Voice when the subject represents the doer. 2. Passive voice: The verb is said to be in the passive voice when the subject represents the person or thing that has something done to him or it. e.g.: Raghu ate an apple. (Active Voice- A.V.) ( In the above sentence „Raghu‟ is the ‘Subject’ in singular. „Ate‟ is the ‘verb’ in the past tense. „An apple‟ is the ‘Object’ of the sentence ) An apple was eaten by Raghu. (Passive Voice – P.V.) Note: While changing the verb from active voice to passive voice, the following rules are to be observed. AP state syllabus – class-XTM – page-52 1. Change the Object into Subject. 2. Recognize the tense of the verb and the number and person of the subject. 3. If the verb is in the present tense, „is‟ must be added to the ‘singular subject’ or „are‟ must be added to the ‘plural subject’. If the verb is in the past tense,„was‟ must be added to the ‘singular subject’, or „were‟ must be added to the ‘plural subject’. 1. Then the past participle form of the verb must be added. 2. The preposition „By‟ must be added then. 3. Lastly, „Subject‟ must be changed into „Object‟. If the subject has no object, we can‘t change the sentence into passive voice. AS FOR THE TENSES THE VOICE IS CHANGED AS FOLLOWES: 1. Simple Present tense A.V. Structure Sub+v1/v1+s/es+Obj Sentences Sita sings a song Sita sings songs P.V. Structure Object+am/is/are+v3+by+Subject Sentences A song is sung by Sita Songs are sung by Sita. 2. Present Continuous Tense A.V. Structure Subject+am/is/are+v+ing+Object Sentences Sita is singing a song. Sita is singing songs P.V. Structure Object+am/is/are+being+v3+by+Subject Sentences A song is being sung by Sita Songs are being sung by Sita. 3. Present Perfect Tense A.V. Structure Subject+Has/Have+v3+Object Sentences Sita has sung a song Sita has sung songs P.V. Structure Object+Has/Have+been+v3+by+Subject
  31. 31. 31 Sentences A song has been sung by Sita Songs have been sung by Sita. 4. Simple Past Tense A.V. Structure Subject+v2+Object Sentences Sita sang a song Sita sang songs P.V. Structure Object+was/were+v3+by+subject Sentences A song was sung by Sita Songs were sung by Sita. 5. Past Continuous Tense A.V. Structure Subject+was/were+v+ing+Object Sentences Sita was singing a song Sita was singing songs P.V. Structure Object+was/were+being+v3+by+subject Sentences A song was being sung by Sita. Songs were being sung by Sita. 6. Past Perfect Tense A.V. Structure Subject+had+v3+Object Sentences Sita had sung a song Sita had sung songs P.V. Structure Object+had+been+v3+by+Subject Sentences A song had been sung by Sita Songs had been sung by Sita 7. Simple Future Tense A.V. Structure Subject+w/s/c/m+v1+Object Sentences Sita will sing a song Sita will sing songs P.V. Structure Object+w/s/c/m+be+v3+by+Subject Sentences A song will be sung by Sita Songs will be sung by Sita. 8. Future Perfect Tense A.V. Structure Subject+w/s/c/m+have+v3+Object Sentences Sita will have sung a song. Sita will have sung songs P.V. Structure Object+w/s/c/m+have+been+v3+by+Sub Sentences A song will have been sung by Sita Songs will have been sung by Sita. W=will; S=shall; C=can; M=may; V1=verb in present tense; V2=verb in past tense; V3=verb in past participle tense The following things are to be noted while changing the voice: 1. Subject: The doer of the action; 2. Object : The person or a thing, to which something has done; 3. Verb : Which denotes what the subject is/has/does/what happen to it; 4. Only EIGHT tenses can be changed into passive voice; Perfect Continuous Tenses and Future Continuous Tense can‘t be changed. 5. In every passive sentence we can find past participle form of the verb; A.V. P.V. a) Simple present tense v1/v1+s/es am/is/are+v3
  32. 32. 32 b) Present continuous tense am/is/are+v+ing am/is/are+being+v3 c) Present perfect tense has/have+v3 has/have+been+v3 d) Simple past tense v2 was/were+v3 e) Past continuous tense was/were+v+ing was/were+being+v3 f) Past perfect tense had+v3 had + been +v3 g) Simple future tense w/s/c/m+v1 w/s/c/m+be+v3 h) Future perfect tense w/s/c/m+have+v3 w/s/c/m+have+been+v3 In Future tenses the words ―will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might, must‖ will be appear. Rules for changing Imperative sentences: e.g.: Bring me a cup of coffee. A.V. Let a cup of coffee be brought (to) me (by you). P.V. In the Imperative sentences the sentence starts with a verb and endswith a full stop. We can‘t find the subject here. But the subject ‗You‘ is always understood. We need not to change it as the object. While changing the sentences into passive voice the following things are to beobserved. 1. Start the sentence with „Let‟ 2. Change the ‗object‘ as the „subject‟ 1. Directly ‗Be‘ must be used instead of „Be‟ form. 2. The past participle form of the verb should be added. e.g.: Post this letter A.V. Let this letter be posted (by you). P.V. Note: Some times the imperative sentences starts with the word „please‟ then we should remove it and write „you are requested to‟ to change it. e.g.: Please, post the letter --- You are requested to post the letter. Interrogative sentences must be changed as follows: 1. Why did he write the letter? --- Why was the letter written by him? 2. How did they solve the problem? --- How was the problem solved by them? 3. Where did you hide the book? --- Where was the book hidden by you? 4. When did she bring the file? --- When was the file brought by her? Note: The Interrogative sentences should be changed as the assertive sentences can be, with some changes. 1. We should write the question word (why, where, etc.) first. 2. The helping verb must be written before the subject. 3. Some of the questions start without a question word, e.g.: Did they finish the work?. --- Was the work finished by them? Have you repaired the box?--- Has the box been repaired by you? Some times we may have two objects, for which we can make passive in two ways. e.g.: He gave me a book. A.V. --- A book was given (to) me by him. P.V. I was given a book by him. P.V. We can change the sentences in passive voice into active voice by following the rules in rivers. But in some passive sentences we can‘t find the object then we have to adopt some words like, ‗some one, we, they, you, etc‘. as the subject.
  33. 33. 33 e.g.: The thief was caught. --- Some one caught the thief. Promises should be kept--- We should keep promises. Now let us see the above sentences, structure wise in a table: 1. Imperative sentences commands A.V. Structure V1+ Object Sentences Open the door. P.V. Structure Let+ object+be+v3 Sentences Let the door be opened. Requests A.V. Structure Please+v1+object Sentences Please open the door. P.V. Structure You are requested to+v1+object Sentences You are requested to open the door 2. Interrogative sentences Question words A.V. Structure Q.W.+H.V.+subject+v1/(v3)+ object? Sentences How did you finish the work? How had he finished the work? P.V. Structure Q.W+H.V+object+(been)+v3+by+subject? Sentences How was the work finished by you? How had the work been finished by him? Helping verbs A.V. Structure H.V.+subject+v1/v3+object Sentences Did he complete the work Had he completed the work P.V. Structure H.V.+object+v3+by+subject Sentences Was the work completed by him Had the work been completed by him. 3. Double objects A.V. Structure Subject+ V +IDO+DO Subject + V + DO + to + IDO Sentences She gave me a book She gave a book to me P.V. Structure DO + H.V.+ V3 + IDO + by + subject IDO+ H.V.+ V3 + to +DO +by+subject Sentences I was given a book by her A book was given (to) me by her. QW=Question word, HV=Helping verb, DO=Direct object, IDO=Indirect object Usually in the passive construction the object is preceded by the preposition ‗by‘,but in some constructions ‗by‘is not suitable for them. In such cases we should take the prepositions ‗in‘, ‗to‘, etc. as per the necessity AP state syllabus – class-IXTM – page-87-89 .e.g.: The bottle contains water.--Water is contained in the bottle. I know him -- He is known to me. Some times there is no need of using any preposition after the verb because there isn‘t much scope for the object in passive voice; it may be unknown. e.g.: Some one has stolen my watch—My watch has been stolen.
  34. 34. 34 Chapter 13 ASKING QUESTIONS AND QUESTION TAGS (Making Statements, Negatives, Questions, And Question Negatives) Asking Questions : Questions can be asked in two ways; 1. Started with question words like, ‗what‘, ‗where‘, ‗when‘, ‗why‘, ‗which‘, etc. e.g.: What is your name? When did you come here? AP state syllabus – class-VIIITM – page-99-102 The structure must be—Q.W + H.V + Subject + M.V. + ----- + ? The answers for these questions must be in at least one or two sentences. 2. Started with Helping Verbs like, ‗do‘, ‗is‘, ‗can‘, ‗will‘, ‗may‘, etc. e.g.: May I go home? Can I sit here? Do you remember? The structure must be --- H.V. + Subject + M.V. + ----- + ? These questions asked for making conformation, and we can answer them by saying simply ‗yes‘ or ‗no‘. What ever the question is we must put the Helping Verb before the Subject, where as in statements, after the subject; Some other Specific ways of seeking information: AP state syllabus – class-VIIITM – page-22,23,86 & 87 e.g.: How far, How long, How many, How much, How old, How big, etc. Structure : How------+ ( Adjective + ) Verb + Subject + ------- + ? Making Statements, Negatives, Questions, and Question negatives: Sl . no Sentence Structure Example 1. Statement Subject + Verb +----- He wrote a book. He had written a book. He is writing a book. 2. Negative Subject + H.V.+ not + Verb + --- He did not write a book. He hadn‘t written a book. He is not writing a book. 3. Question H.V. + subject + Verb + -----? Did he write a book? Had he written a book? Is he writing a book? 4. Question negative H.V. + not + subject + Verb + ---- -? Didn‘t he write a book? Hadn‘t he written a book? Isn‘t he writing a book? Question Tags: AP state syllabus – class-XTM – page-69 It is common practice in conversation to make a statement and ask for conformation; as, ―It‘s very hot, isn‘t it?‖ The later part, (‗isn‘t it?‘)is called a question tag. The pattern is (i) Helping verb+ n‘t + Subject, if the statement is positive, (ii) Helping verb + Subject,if the statement is negative.
  35. 35. 35 Negative Question TagsforPositive statements It‘s raining, isn‘t it? You are free, aren‘t you? Sita can swim well, can‘t she? Gopi broke the glass, didn‘t he? Your sister cooks well, doesn‘t she? I‘m alright, aren‘t I? He was brilliant, wasn‘t he? They were good boys, weren‘t they? You cross your limits, don‘t you? They have committed a mistake, haven‘t they? She has listened the story, hasn‘t she? My mother had cooked the dinner, hadn‘t she? My father hadn‘t stopped smoking, had he? They will go to Chennai, won‘t they? She shall meet him, shan‘t she? Ravi can complete this, can‘t he? Positive Question Tags forNegative statements. You aren‘t busy, are you? She can‘t swim, can she? Mohan doesn‘t work hard, does he? They haven‘t come yet, have they? She isn‘t your aunt, is she? I‘m not a fool, am I? He wasn‘t there, was he? We weren‘t waiting, were we? You don‘t go there, do you? She hasn‘t believed him, has she? I won‘t do it again, will I? He shan‘t come again, shall he? Lalitha can‘t accept this, can she? Note: The subject of the question tag is always a pronoun, never a noun and it starts with a small letter.
  36. 36. 36 Chapter 14 REPORTED SPEECH (Direct And Indirect Speech) In English speech is two types- Direct speech & Indirect speech Direct speech is always in the quotation marks AP state syllabus – class-IXTM – page-21-23, 64 & 100 e.g.: Rama said to Krishna, “I am going to market” (Direct speech) Rama told Krishna that he was going to market. (Indirect speech) In the above example the words in the quotation marks are told directly by Rama. But in the next sentence the words are told indirectly by others. while changing the sentences from the direct speech into indirect speech the following things should be observed 1. The sentence in the direct speech is divided into two parts-Reporting part & Reported part 2. The part, which is out side of the inverted commas is the Reporting part. i.e. Rama said to Krishna. 3. The part, which is in the inverted commas is the Reported part of the sentence i.e. “I am going to market”. 4. If the „verb‟ in the reporting part is in the past tense there will be some changes in the reported verb as follows. Simple present tense - Simple past tense Present continuous tense - Past continuous tense Present perfect tense - Past perfect tense Simple past tense - Simple past tense/ past perfect tense Present perfect continuous tense - Past perfect continuous tense will, shall, can, may, - would, should, could, might. e.g.: Sita said, ―I goto school today‖ Sita said that she wentto school that day. Ramya said, ―I am teachingEnglish‖ Ramya said that she was teachingEnglish. Kumar said to Radha, ―I have metyour father‖ Kumar told Radha that he had mether father. Rahim said to Janaki, ―I completedmy work yesterday‖ Rahim told Janaki that he had completedhis work the day before. Kavya said to them, ―I have been livinghere for five years‖. Kavya told them that shehad been livingthere for five years. She said to him, ―I will goto Chennai‖ She told him that she would goto Chinnai. 5. But when the reporting verb is in the simple presenttense or in the simple futuretense no changes, required. e.g.: She says, ―My father is a doctor.‖ She says that her fatherisa doctor.
  37. 37. 37 He will say, ―I agree to this.‖ He will say that he agreesto that. 6. If the reported part is a universal truthor a habitual action, the tense is not changed even though the reporting verb is in the past tense. e.g.: My teacher said, ―The sun rises in the east‖ My teacher said that the sun risesin the east. 1. Generally „said to‟ is changed as „told‟. We should not use „to‟ after „told‟. Some times as for the meaning, „said to‟is changed into ‘asked’, ‘enquired, ‘questioned’, ‘ordered’, ‘commanded’, ‘advised’, ‘requested’, ‘threatened’, ‘agreed’, ‘suggested’, ‘ignored’, etc. 1. Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives in First person and Second person should be into Third person. Observe the following table: Sl. No Person Singular Plural Masculine Feminine 1. I He She --- 2. You (subject) He She They 3. You (object) Him Her Them 4. Me Him Her --- 5. My His Her --- 6. Myself Himself Herself --- 7. Your His Her Their 8. We --- --- They 9. Us --- --- Them 10. Our --- --- Their 11. Ourselves --- --- Themselves Some times, if the person addressed, reports the speech, Second person is changed into First person. 1. While changing the speech, the two parts of the sentence should be connected with a conjunction. There are four types of sentences in reported part. So the conjunctions should be used as follows. Sl. No. Sentence Conjunction 1. Assertive Sentence That 2. Imperative Sentence to 3. Interrogative Sentence Question word Same Question word Helping verb If / Whether 4. Exclamatory Sentence* That * First Exclamatory sentence should be changed into Assertive Sentence and then the conjunction ‗that‘ should be added. 1. My teacher said to me, ―Open the door.‖ (order) My teacher orderedme toopen the door. 2. He said to her, ―Please give me your pen.‖ (request)
  38. 38. 38 He requestedher togive him her pen.  She said to him, ―What is your name?‖ (question)  She askedhim whathis name was. 4. They said to her, ―Did you finish the project?‖(enquiry) They enquiredher whethershe had finished the project. 1. Giri said, ―How beautiful the flower is!‖ *(the flower is very beautiful) Giri exclaimedthatthe flower was very beautiful. 2. Words expressing „nearness‟ are generally changed into words expressing , „distance‟, as given below. DIRECT INDIRECT * DIRECT INDIRECT Now/Just Then * Thus So This That * Here by There by These Those * Today That day Here There * Tomorrow The next day / The day after Hence Thence * Yesterday The day before / The previous day Hither Thither * Last night The night before Ago Before * To-night That night
  39. 39. 39 Chapter 15 ADVERB An ‗Adverb‘ is a word which modifies a verb or an ‗adjective‘ or another ‗adverb‘. e.g.: Sathish eatsslowly. – it modifies a ‘verb’. This is a verysweetmango - it modifies an ‘adjective’. Madhavi reads quitecorrectly. – it modifies an ‘adverb’. Some Adverbs are formed by adding „ly‟ to some adjectives. e.g.: Sweet - Sweetly; Bitter – Bitterly; Sad – Sadly; Glad – Gladly; Happy – Happily; Slow – Slowly; Swift – Swiftly; Quiet – Quietly, Fine – Finely; Smart – Smartly; Adverbs of Time: Now, then, since, ago, before, already, soon, presently, immediately, instantly, early, late, today, tomorrow, yesterday, afterwards, etc. Adverbs of Place : Here, there, hence, thence, hither, thither, in, out, within, without, above, below, far, near, inside, outside, etc. Adverbs of Number: Once, twice, thrice, again, seldom, never, sometimes, always, often, firstly, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, four-fold, five-fold, etc. AP state syllabus – class-XTM – page-59 Adverbs of manner: This, so, well, ill, badly, probably, certainly, slowly, sadly, conveniently, agreeably, etc. Adverbs of Quantity: Almost, quite, partly, wholly, rather, somewhat, a little, half, little, almost, much, very much, etc. Adverbs of Affirmation: Yes, certainly, surely, by all means, definitely, etc. Adverbs of Negation : No, nay, not, at all, etc. Adverbs of Reason : As, because, since, therefore, etc. Interrogative Adverbs : Where, what, when, how, which, why, etc.
  40. 40. 40 Chapter 16 PREPOSITION The word „preposition‟ means ‘that which is placed before’. It is placed before a noun or pronoun to show its relation to some other word or words in the sentence. Make a special note of the use of the following prepositions. Among – Between: ‗Between‘ is used for two things; ‗Among‘ is used for more than two. e.g.: She is sitting betweenher parents; He moves amongthe people of status. With – By: ‗With‘ is used for an instrument; ‗By‘ is used before the agent. e.g. The snake was killed byhim witha stick. From – Since: ‗Since‘ is used in perfect tenses; ‗From‘ is used in all tenses. e.g. I have been working here since2004; He started writing this book from1st July 2005. Beside – Besides: ‗Beside‘ means near, next to, at the side of; ‗Besides‘ means in addition to. e.g.: He lived besidethe sea-side; I take coffee besidestea. Till – To: ‗Till‘ is used for time; ‗To‘ is used for place e.g.: I wake up tilltwelve O‘clock at night; She walked tothe end of the street. Since – For: ‗Since‘ is used for „Point of Time‟; ‗For‘ is used for „Period of Time‟. Both are used in perfect tenses. e.g.: I have been living here since2004. I have been living hereforthe last three years. In – within: ‗In‘ is used in the sense „after the end of‟; ‗Within‘ is used in the sense ‗before the end of‟ e.g.: I shall come inan hour; I shall come withinan hour. On – Upon: ‗On‘ is used in speaking of things at rest;
  41. 41. 41 ‗Upon‘ is used in speaking of things in motion. e.g.: He stood onthe platform; The dog sprang uponhim. ‗About‘ is used for the following: 1. Nearness of time : It is aboutto dawn 2. Nearness of place : He had a friend abouthim. 3. Nearness of state : She is aboutto die. 4. Occupation : He went abouthis daily rounds. 5. Concerning: I know nothing abouther character. ‗Above‘ is used in the sense of : 1. Over : There is a roof aboveour head. 2. More than : She had to spend abovefive hundred rupees. 3. Superior to : The gentleman is aboveall such means. „After‟is used in the sense of : 1. Sequence in place : She is placed afteryou. 2. Sequence in time : He returned afternight fall. 3. Pursuing/ following : They are always after power. 4. According to a name : The collage is named afterhim. 5. Resemblance : The son takes afterfather. „Against‟is used in the sense of: 1. Opposition of place : he beggar was seen leaning againstthe tree. 2. Opposition of aim : A foolish person acts againsthis own interest. 3. Promotion : A wise man stores up food againsta rainy day. 4. Comparison : 5 persons got promotion this year against2 last year. „For‟is used to mean; 1. In exchange for : I bought this book forten rupees. 2. Purpose : She applied fora job. 3. Destination: I am leaving forHyderabad. 4. On account of : She walked slowly forfear of disturbing him. 5. In spite of : Forall his efforts, he is unsuccessful. 6. To express a period of time: I have been living hereforthe lost 20years. „Of‟is used to ; 1. Relationship : The dramas ofShakespeare are excellent. 2. division/measure : I wrote the story on a sheet ofpaper. I took 1metre of cloth for his shirt. 1. to denote a subjective relation : The love ofmother is great. 2. to express cause : She died ofmalaria. 3. to denote source : She comes ofa rich family. 4. to indicate quality : He is a man ofnoble character. 5. to indicate contents: She sent me a basket full offruits. 6. to indicate material : This table is made ofwood. 7. to indicate possession : This is the factory ofher uncle. 8. Point of reference : He is blind ofone eye.
  42. 42. 42 9. to indicate concerning : What do you think of me? „At‟is used to indicate ; 1. a point of time : I shall meet you at4 O‘ clock in the evening. 2. a place or a position : She is atschool. 3. state or condition : India and Pakistan are atwar. 4. rate / degree : Sugar is selling attwelve rupees a kilo. The car is going atfull speed. 1. aim : She threw a stone atthe cat. 2. In the sense of ‘being engaged’ in something : They are atplay. 3. With the names of villages and towns : My friend lives atRajampet. 1. „At‟is used in the following expressions. He is clever atmathematics; I am quite shocked atthe news; She is good atmusic. „By‟is used to mean : 1. near and at the side of : She sat byher mother. 2. during : By night or byday, he is a nuisance to his friends. 3. through the mean of / in the manner of : The whole city was destroyed byan earth quake. I received my royalty bycheque. 1. in measure of : She taller than you bytwo inches „To‟is used to indicate : 1. purpose : She came tomeet me. 2. place : He came tohis own house. 3. limit : We shall pay tothe last pie. 4. effect : Totheir utter surprise, she won the race. „On‟is used to indicate : 1. place : He kept the book onthe desk. 2. the exact time : He was born onthe 15th August 1975, at 8a.m. 3. a condition : He is onprobation this year. 4. the relationship : There is book onthe table. 5. membership : She is onthe staff of the State Bank of India. 6. cause / base : She always acts onmy advice. 7. concerning : This is book ongrammar. „In‟is used to indicate : 1. time : The cloth shop was opened inMay 2002. 2. circumstances : My brother is inhurry to go to office. 3. dress : The young baby is dressed insilk. 4. activity : She spent her time inreading books. 5. „In‟is used with the names of countries and large towns and cities : My brother lives in Bombay. My cousin has settled in America.
  43. 43. 43 Chapter 17 CONJUNCTIONS A „conjunction‟ is a word which is used to join words or sentences or phrases. There are three types of conjunctions. Let us see their usage in some sentences. Coordinating Conjunctions: AP state syllabus – class-XTM – page-02 & 78 class-IX – pages-42,79 & class-VIII – pages-32 &43 1. Give me a ball point pen ora pencil. 2. *Hari and Ravi are good friends. 8th 32 3. I wish to see the officer, for I have to talk to him urgently. 4. She wrote to him, but he did not reply. 5. He worked very hard, still he could not get a first class. 6. She is rich, yetshe is unhappy. 7. *The patient‘s condition was bad, so they took him to hospital.8th 43 8. You should run, otherwise you can not catch the train. 9. He has not come to see me, nor has he sent me a message. 10. He has not come to see me, neither has he given me a ring. 11. Ram as well as his brother is studying medicine. Co-relative Conjunction: 1. I can neither read nor speak Urdu. 2. I can‘t saywhether she will come or not. 3. *She spokeso loudly that everyone in the hall heard her clearly.9th 42 4. Mr. Ram‘s elder daughter is not soclever ashis younger daughter. 5. The old man was both blind and deaf. 6. Though he is rich, (yet) he is unhappy. 7. He lost not only his trunkbut also his bag. 8. No sooner did the peon ring the bell, than the boys left the class. Sub-coordinating conjunctions: 1. I did not think that he would come. 2. Tell me whereyou have put my watch. 3. She was not told whyshe was arrested. 4. The girl wanted to know howbirds fly. 5. They were shocked whenthey heard the news. 6. Although I invited her personally, she did not attend the dinner. 7. *Sinceshe was suffering from fever, she could not sit for the exam. 8. The bus started after the tyre was repaired. 10th 78 9. No one left the halltill (until) the national anthem was completed. 10. Do asI tell you. She writes better than she speaks. 11. *The examinations were postponed, becausethe courses could not be finished. 10th 78 & 9th 79 12. *As the courses could not be finished, the examinations were postponed. 10th 78 13. They reached the station, before the train arrived. 14. If you drop it, it will break. It looks as if he is going to jump.
  44. 44. 44 1. I will not attend the function, unless I am personally invited. 2. Whilehe was going through the forest, a wasp stung him. 3. Can you tell me whether you can go there or not? 4. Please remind me, lest I should forget it. 5. Take some more money in case you need it. 6. *I am studying hard so that I can get high percentage. 10th -02 7. You can stay with me as long as you continue this job. 8. As soon as the peon rang the bell, the boys left the class.
  45. 45. 45 Chapter 18 INTERJECTION An „Interjection‟ is a word which expresses some sudden feeling or emotion. It expresses: AP state syllabus – class-IXTM – page-34 joy ( hurrah!, huzza!, Hello!); grief ( Alas!); surprise ( Ha!, Ah!, What!, Oh!); approval(Bravo!, Hush!); Ah me!; For shame!; Well done!; Good gracious!
  46. 46. 46 Chapter 19 PUNCTUATION „Punctuation‟ means the right use of putting in pauses or stops writing. The following are the principle stops: Full stop (.) : It represents the greatest pause and separation. It is used to: (a) To mark the end of a declarative or imperative sentence; e.g. I have seen this book in the shop. (b) To mark abbreviations and initials e.g.: M.P., M.A., M.B.B.S., I.A.S., U.N.O., S.R.Prasad, The Comma ( ,) : It represents the shortest pause, and it is used to: (a) To separate a series of words in the same construction; e.g.: England,France, Russia and Italy formed an alliance. (b) To separate each pair of words connected by „and‟; e.g.: High and low, rich and poor, wise and foolish must all die. (c) After a Nominative Absolute; e.g.: The wind being favourable, they sailed. (d) To mark off a Noun or Phrase in Apposition; e.g.: Milton, the great English poet, was blind. (e) To mark off the Nominative of Address; e.g.: Lord of the universe, shield us and guide us. (f) Before and after phrases or clauses in a sentence. e.g.: His behaviour, to say the least, was very rode. The people of Hyderabad, when they first saw Madhuri, Thought she was an angel. (g) To indicate the omission of a word, especially a verb. e.g.: Rama received a fountain pen; Hari, a watch. (h) To mark off a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence. e.g.; He said to his son, ―Don‘t waste your time‖. The Semicolon (;): It represents a pause of greater importance than that shown by the comma. It is used: (a) To separate the clauses that has a comma. e.g.: He was a brave, large-hearted man; and we all honoured him. (b) To separate a series of loosely related clauses; e.g.: Today we love what tomorrow we hate; today we seek what tomorrow we shun; today we desire what tomorrow we fear. The Colon (:) : It marks a still more complete pause than that expressed by the Semicolon. It is used (often with a dash after it):- (a) To introduce a quotation; e.g.: Bacon says:- ―Reading makes a full man, writing an exact man, speaking a ready man.‖ (b) Before the examples; e.g.: The parts of speech in English are: noun, pronoun, verb, ---
  47. 47. 47 (c) Between sentences grammatically independent but closely connected in sense. e.g.: study to acquire a habit of thinking: no study is more important. The note of interrogation(?): It is used, instead of the full stop, after a direct question; e.g. Have you written your exercise? Note: the note of interrogation is not used after an indirect question. e.g.: He asked me whether I had written my exercise. The note of exclamation (!) : It is used after interjections and after phrases and sentences expressing sudden emotion or wish. e.g.: What a terrible fire this is! Alas! Inverted Commas: These are used to enclose the exact words of a speaker, e.g.: “I‘d rather die,” he exclaimed, ―than join the oppressors of my country. The Dash ( ___ ) is used: (a) To indicate a sudden stop or change of thought; e.g.: I am waiting for ____ O, there she is now! (b) To indicate that a word has been intentionally left out; e.g.: Mr.____________ was sentences to death. (c) To Resume a scattered subject; e.g.: Friends, companions, relatives ___all deserted him. The Hyphen (-) a shorter line than the dash – is used to connect the parts of a compound word; e.g.: Brother-in-law; Man-of-war; Passer-by; ( It is also used to connect parts of a word divided at end of the line.) The Apostrophe ( ‟): It is used: (a) To show the omission of a letter or letters; as, Don’t, e’er, I’ve. (b) In the Genitive Case of Nouns; as, The king’s crown (c) To form the plural of letters and figures. e.g.: Dot your i‘s and cross your t‘s; Add two 5‘s and four 2‘s. Parentheses or Double Dashes are used to separate from the main part of the sentence a phrase or clause which does not grammatically belong to it. e.g.: He gained from Heaven (it was all he wished) a friend. CAPITAL LETTERS: Capitals are used: (a) To begin a sentence. (b) To begin each fresh line of poetry. (c) To begin all Proper Nouns and Adjectives derived from them e.g.: Delhi, Rama, Africa, African, Shakespeare, Shakespearean. (d) For all nouns and pronouns which indicate the Deity; e.g.: The Lord, He is the God. (e) To write the pronoun „I‟ and the interjection „O‟. (f) At the beginning of the Quotations and Interjections. e.g.: She said, ―Bring me water‖. Alas! (g) For the Degrees, Titles, Names of the Weeks, Months, Years, festivals, Sacred books, etc.
  48. 48. 48 e.g.: B.A., M.A., Bharatha Ratna, Sunday, June, Bible, etc.
  49. 49. 49 Chapter 20 SUBJECT, PREDICATE, PHRASE AND CLAUSE Every sentence has two parts: Subject and predicate. The Subject : The part which names the person or thing we are speaking about is called the subject of the sentence. e.g. The sun rises in the east. The predicate : The part which tells about the subject is called the predicate of the sentence. e.g.: The sun rises in the east Usually the subject comes first, sometimes it comes later also. In Imperative sentences the subject is left out. The Phrase : A group of words in a sentence, which gives some sense, but not complete sense is called a phrase. e.g.: The sun rises in the east. The Clause : A group of words which has a subject and a predicate and gives some sense is called a Clause. Clauses are two types : Main Clause and Sub-Clause. Main Clause : Its almost a sentence. It gives complete meaning. e.g.: He has a chain, which is made of gold. The sun, which is a bright star, rises in the east Sub-Clause : It also like a sentence, but it doesn‘t give complete meaning. It always depend on the main clause. e.g.: He has a chain, which is made of gold. The sun, which is a bright star, rises in the east.
  50. 50. 50 Chapter 21 SIMPLE, COMPOUND, COMPLEX SENTENCES As for the clauses and phrases used in the sentence, the sentences are divided into three types: Simple, Compound and Complex sentences. Simple sentence: It has only one subject and one predicate ( the verb is always in the predicate.) It has only one finite verb. e.g.: She bought a computer system. They have met me at the auditorium. Compound sentence: It has two or more principal or main clauses. Each part has a subject and a predicate of its own, and forms part of a large sentence. Each part is therefore a clause and they are added by conjunction. e.g.: The moon was bright and we could see our way. Night came on and rain fell heavily and we all got very wet. Complex sentence : This sentence consists of one Main clause and one or more Sub-ordinate clauses. e.g.: Youth is the time when the seeds of character are sown. I have no advice that I can offer you.
  51. 51. 51 Chapter 22 CONDITIONAL CLAUSES (If & Unless) If is used in three conditions: AP state syllabus – class-IXTM – page-33, 34, VIII-76 1. If you work hard, you will got first class; 2. If you worked hard, you would get first class; 3. If you had worked hard, you would have got first class; In the above sentences, when the ‗if-clause‘ is in the present tense, the main clause must be in ‗will/shall/can/may + V1 construction‘; When the ‗if-clause‘ is in the past tense, the main clause must be in ‗would/should/could/might + V1 construction‘; When the ‗if-clause‘ is in the past perfect tense, the main clause should be in would/should/could/might + have + V3 construction. ‗Unless‘ means ‗if-not‘: We can change them as follows. If you work hard, you will get first class. Unless you work hard, you will not get first class. Unless you hurry up, you can‘t catch the bus. If you hurry up, you can catch the bus. If you come, I shall help you. Unless you come I shall not help you. If you don‘t follow my advice, you will be in trouble. Unless you follow my advice, you will be in trouble.

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