Smart antenna made_by_nitmas_2008-12_batch

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Smart antenna made_by_nitmas_2008-12_batch

  1. 1. GROUP - 6
  2. 2. Group members Name Roll NoSubhabrata Biswas 18Sourish Mukherjee 28Souptik Roy 38Ankit Pandey 55Avishek Paul 56Soumyajit Mazumdar 23
  3. 3. Contents Smart antenna array Why smart antenna array Elements of a smart antenna Types of smart antenna Switched Lobe Dynamically phased array Adaptive array Application Advantage &Disadvantage Conclusion Reference
  4. 4. Smart Antenna Array: Antenna array with a digital signal processingcapability to transmit and receive in an adaptive and spatially sensitive manner.
  5. 5. Why Smart Antenna Higher Capacity Higher Coverage Higher bit rate Improved link quality Spectral efficiency Mobility
  6. 6. Elements of a Smart Antenna Number of radiating elements A combining/dividing network Control unit
  7. 7. Types of Smart Antennas Switched lobe (SL) Dynamically phased array (PA) antenna Adaptive antenna array
  8. 8. Basic Working Mechanism
  9. 9. Beam-forming  Technique in which the gain pattern of an adaptive array is steered to a desired direction through either beam steering or null steering signal processing algorithms Adaptive beam forming algorithms can provide substantial gains (of Antenna Pattern of 7-element the order of 10log(M) dB, where M uniform equally spaced is number of array elements) circular array.
  10. 10. Adaptive Beam-forming An adaptive beam former is a device that is able to separate signals co-located in the frequency band but separated inthe spatial domain. This providesa means for separating the desired signal from interfering signals. A two element adaptive array for interference suppression
  11. 11. Switched beam Consists of a set of predefined beams. Allows selection of signal from desired user. Beams have narrow main lobe & small side lobes. Signals received from side lobes can be significantly attenuated. Uses a linear RF network called Fixed Beam-forming network that combines M antenna elements to form up-to M directional beams.
  12. 12. Why we need to form all the beams ?
  13. 13. Dynamically phased array :Consists of either a number of fixed beams with one beam turned on towards the desired signal or a single beam (formed by phase adjustment only) that is steered toward the desired signal.
  14. 14. Dynamically phased array : A Direction of arrival algorithm(DoA) tracks the user’s signal as he roams within the range of that beam that is tracking him Generalization of switched beam concept where received power is maximized. More efficient than Switched beam system
  15. 15. What is DoA?The goal of direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation is to use the data received on the downlink at the base-station sensor arrayto estimate the directions of the signals from the desired mobile users as well as the directions of interference signals.
  16. 16. Types of Dynamically phased array Time domain beamformers: Delays the incoming signal from each array element by a certain amount of time & then adds them. Frequency domain beamformers: Different frequencies are separated. Applying different sum & delay to each frequency it is possible to point out the main lobe.
  17. 17. Comparison betweenSwitched lobe & Phased array
  18. 18. Comparison betweenSwitched lobe & Phased array
  19. 19. Adaptive ArrayReducing output noise and enhancing the detection of desired signals.Array of antenna element.Real-time adaptive receiver- processor
  20. 20. Types of Adaptive Array Processing TDMA addaptive array processing CDMA addaptive array processing
  21. 21. TDMA Adaptive Array Processing Reverse link configuration for a TDMA system Forward link configuration for a TDMA system
  22. 22. CDMA Adaptive Array ProcessingReverse link configuration for a CDMA system.Forward link configuration for a CDMA system.
  23. 23. Comparison betweenSwitched lobe, Phased array & Adaptive Array
  24. 24. Application Mobile Communication GSM CDMA Wireless Communication Aerospace Application. IS-136 SDMA EDGE
  25. 25. Mobile Communication Improved services. Advanced mobile phone system(AMPS). Advanced TDMA. User friendly services.
  26. 26. GSM (Global system for Mobile Communication) Mainly used in the base station. Full beam adaptation in uplink & downlink. Bit rate of 1% Carrier interference of -14 db.
  27. 27. CDMAFeatures Diversity Cellular Antennas with 800/1900 MHz bands High accuracy GPS receiver Supports UART and/or USB interfacesBenefits Designed for easy internal integration no need of SIM card Provides integrators with a network pre-approved communication device Fleet Management and diagnostics In-dash Internet access General Automotive Aftermarket
  28. 28. Wireless Communication Over come the limitations of omni-directional antenna. Secterized antenna and coverage pattern.
  29. 29. Aerospace Application Smart antenna adapts the electromagnetic condition. Increase of antenna gain Airborne satellite communication. Reliable source of communication.
  30. 30. SDMA Spatial Division Multiple Access Uses an array of antennas to provide control of space Network planning (frequency) is simpler More network management upgrade required
  31. 31. IS-136 TDMA with 3 users per channel 162 symbols/slot 14 symbol synchronization sequence Two receive antennas at base
  32. 32. Smart antennas in generation 3 rd systems: EDGE High data rate ( 384 kbps) service based on GSM, for both Europe and North America BPSK at 270.833 kbps 26 symbol training sequence 3 58 26 58 3 8.25 576.92 s
  33. 33. Advantages of smart antenna Both phased and adaptive arrays provide increased power by providing higher gain for the desired signal. In terms of interference suppression, phased arrays reduce the probability of interference with the narrower beam, and adaptive arrays adjust the beam pattern to suppress interference.
  34. 34. Conclusion The use of smart antennas is not purely a radio transmission issue. It also influences network services such as handover and connection setup. A smart antenna is a digital wireless communications antenna system that takes advantage of diversity effect at the source (transmitter), the destination (receiver), or both.
  35. 35. Reference G. K. Chan, “Effects of Sectorization the Spectrum Efficiency of Cellular Radio systems,” Transaction on Vehicular Technology, pp.217-225, vol.41, no.3, Aug 1992. M. G. Jansen, R. Prasad, “Capacity, Throughput, and Delay Analysis of a Cellular DS CDMA System with Imperfect Power Control and Imperfect Sectorization,” Transaction on Vehicular Technology, pp.67-75, vol.44, no.1, Feb 1995. X. Yang, S. Ghaheriand N. R. Tafazolli, “Sectorization Gain in CDMA Cellular Systems,” First Conference on 3G Mobile Communication Technologies, pp.70-75, 2000.

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