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Industrial Project Report

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Industrial Project Report

  1. 1. SOUMYADIP GHOSAL Final Year B.Tech Student Department of Food Technology Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India) Summer Intern For Allied Blenders & Distillers Private Limited (Kalyani Unit) MR. ARINDAM RAY Plant HR Manager Allied Blenders & Distillers Private Limited Kalyani Industrial Growth Centre, Phase-III Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal (India) Submitted to Submitted on: 31st August, 2016
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is my pleasure to acknowledge the fact that the Industrial Training, at Allied Blenders & Distillers (ABD) has enriched my knowledge base and provided a good exposure to the principle operations of IMFL manufacturing. It was all possible with the continuous guidance and support of many teams as well as individuals. This is an opportunity to acknowledge their immense contributions throughout this event. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr Arindam Ray ( Plant HR Manager) and Mr Pratim Pal (Unit-in-charge) for considering me for providing Summer Internship at the plant. I would like to show my indebt gratitude to the entire Production department, headed by Mr Surender Dhariwal (Manufacturing Manager), Mr Dhanpal Tasewal (On-Site Engineer) and Mr Dileep Singh (Manufacturing Executive) for inducting me with their skills, knowledge and experience and helping me during my internship. The Quality department, led by Mr Lasat Tanu Basu (Reagional Head- Quality), Mr Amaresh Panja (Blender-Head), Mr Manoj Kumar (QA in- charge) and Mr Nagendra Kumar Singh (Blender in-charge) and the entire team deserves an indebt acknowledgement. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr Avik Mukherjee (Professor and Head), Mr Gourab Chatterjee (Assistant Professor), Dr Sumita Das (Assistant Professor) and the entire department of Food Technology for supporting constantly and arranging the summer training successfully. I would not forget the strength and unconditional support provided by my parents and inspiring me constantly, making me strong and determinant during this period. Lastly, I would like to thank almighty for the successful completion of the training programme, providing a valuable opportunity to develop a few of the required sets of skills along with widening the scope for knowledge.
  3. 3. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ABD‘s first company-owned unit in Eastern India, Wales Distillers Private Limited is dedicated to IMFL manufacturing sold under West Bengal Excise is prepared by reduction of ENA, distilled through modern technology with Demineralised water followed by blending of Caramel, Scotch Malt Spirit and various flavouring spirits. The manufacturing unit hardly need to compromise with the water quality due to the presence of its in-house water Demineralization plant. The admiring task of outsourcing the rarest variety of grain spirits are undertaken by the distilleries, which are transported to the unit in tankers crossing through checks at various stages. Similarly, the other key ingredients are thoroughly scrutinized before reception. The incoming packaging materials are not an exemption to scrutiny. Received ENA, free from unacceptable contaminants is reduced with circulation of demineralized water (strictly maintaining 4:5 ratio ) followed by addition of soluble ingredients such as Caramel, Scotch Malt Spirit, and flavouring spirits (if required).The Quality Assurance (QA) team usually maintain a busy schedule during the entire blending operation as they work to establish the uniformity of the portfolio brands in order to retain the quality. The blend passes to the Service Tanks not until QA department‘s green signal and thereafter, reaches the filling point. The quality packaging materials, selected through sampling inspection are stored in isolation and utilized in ―first come-first serve‖ basis. As soon as the packaging materials are unleashed, the bottles are sorted to start its journey from rinsers to fillers to meet the blend. After filling, cap feeding and sealing, the liquor turns out to be a product and head s ahead on the bottling line. If aseptic packaging is to be considered, the continuous blend flow from Service Tank to the machine is fused with an inert fluid (strictly maintaining 4:1 ratio) and aseptically packed in shelf-stable cartons. The QA department place a high importance level in assuring the quality throughout the production. The support of the online-QC team during run-time defects make up for the reduced line efficiency. The unit accounts for its responsibility to prevent Environmental pollution by checking the outgoing effluents to accepted levels through an installed Effluent Treatment Plant, reducing the chances to contaminate the surrounding area. This report is a conscious effort to observe and make a thorough study of the operations of the unit, catering as an IMFL manufacturer.
  4. 4. PLEADGE OF CONFIDENTIALITY I heartily respect each and every decisions of ‗Allied Blenders & Distillers Private Limited‘ that correlates with the Industrial Training, undertaken as a part of the Summer Internship Programme of one month. I also understand the fact that there are different levels of confidentiality in a liquor industry. Therefore, I hereby take pledge to strictly abide by the rules and regulations of the company and always honour and maintain the confidentiality of the company, as a developing professional. I assure to refrain from any activities that may potentially harm the reputation and goodwill of the business corporate. In this context, I would like to mention that being a representative of my institution ‗Haldia Institute of Technology‘, I feel honoured and hereby pledge to carry forward the reputation to the industr y during my internship programme.
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS S.L. Nos. TITLES PAGE Nos. START END 1. COMPANY PROFILE 1 3 2. PRODUCT PROFILE 4 9 3. SAFETY ASSURANCE 10 10 4. LEGAL DEFINITIONS 11 16 5. PLANT DESCRIPTION 17 18 6. PRODUCE OF THE UNIT 19 19 7. PRECAUTIONS TO THE UNIT 20 20 8. PRODUCT RAW MATERIALS 21 21 9. EXTRA NEUTRAL ALCOHOL 22 22 10. DEMINERALIZED WATER 23 23 11. WATER DEMINERALIZATION 24 25 12. BLENDING SECTION 26 27 13. WASHING SECTION 28 29 14. BOTTLING SECTION 31 34 15. ASEPTIC PACKAGING 33 34 16. STORAGE AND DESPATCH 35 35 17. EFFLUENT TREATMENT SECTION 36 36 18. QUALITY CONTROL @ RQCL 37 37 19. DRY LABORATORY OPERATIONS 38 42 20. METHODOLOGY OF QUALITY REJECTION 43 43 21. SENSORY LABORATORY OPERATIONS 44 45 22. WET LABORATORY OPERATIONS 46 48 23. CONCLUSION 49 49 24. REFERENCES 50 50
  6. 6. COMPANY PROFILE The liquor industry can be associated with either unbelievable success or heart-breaking defeat. A sound recipe that captures the imagination, and delights the palette is just not enough, rather it is more of a series of prerequisites that are required to be planned and executed at corporate level for establishment of a specific brand. There are licenses to obtain, production to arrange, and logistics to be planned. But Allied Blenders & Distillers (ABD) overcame all these hurdles and exhibited its presence in almost all alcohol categories to emerge as one of the leading IMFL (Indian Manufactured Foreign Liquor) companies that manufactures and sells alcoholic beverages all by itself. The emergence of ABD is believed to be around 1990s, when Mr. Kishore Chhabria, the founder of Allied Blenders & Distillers (ABD), broked partnership with Vijay Mallya and moved out of Herbertson with a single brand ―Officer‘s Choice‖ under his belt. ABD‘s flagship brand, Officer's Choice historically targeted the economically marginalized sections of the society especially, the daily wage earners. It made possible for every common man to have a taste of the best. In the following years, ABD introduced semi-premium versions of Officer's Choice namely Officer's Choice Blue, and Officer's Choice Black to extend its consumer scope. The black variety is a blend prepared using Indian grain spirits and rare Scotch malts that have been aged in charred oak barrels. Currently, Officer‘s Choice is regarded as the largest-selling whisky brand in the world, and is one of the largest spirits brands exported out of India. Since the last seven years, the pace of transition for ABD is such that today, Allied Blenders & Distillers is a multi-brand company with a strong presence in 23 countries. The other major brands of ABD include Jolly Roger Rum, Class 21, Wodka Gorbatschow, Officer‘s Choice Brandy, Lord Master Brandy and Kyron Premium Brandy. ABD has emerged as the fastest growing spirits company in India with a compounded growth rate of 26% over the last 3 years. 1
  7. 7. 2 Besides, IMFL manufacturing, ABD ventured into the Indian snacks market with its flagship brand, considering the rich tradition and culture of Indigenous spices and recognizing the transition in the trend of taste of the new generation. The initiative received appreciations from all the sections of the society and helped greatly in revenue generation. The Company feels proud in engaging itself in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through its brands that reflected when Officer‘s Choice was associated with ‗Salaam India Awards‘-the celebration of extraordinary acts of courage by ordinary people. Officer‘s Choice Blue is also on a mission to spread awareness among the consumers to take a stand against social evils, through the slogan of ‗Raise Your Voice‘. Officer‘s Choice Black encourages customers to give better than their best with the slogan of ‗Be More than Big. Be Great.‘ While accomplishing its corporate goals, the company do not forget to nurture its workforce by various programmes and initiatives like culture building initiatives, employees wellness programme and launch of online e-learning portal-EMPOWER and Portal of Knowledge (pk2), as an integrated part of ABD Learning Academy. With 15 sales offices and 50 bottling units (of which 8 are company- owned), and a pan-India presence, ABD currently enjoys a national market share of approximately 11% in India‘s alcoholic beverage industry in FY 2015-16.
  8. 8. 3 A D M I R I N G T R A J E C T O R I E S I N C R E D I B L E J O U R N E Y
  9. 9. PRODUCT PROFILE Allied Blenders & Distillers (ABD) proudly presents itself as a multi- brand company initiating from the whisky segments that includes products like OFFICER’S CHOICE WHISKY Mature & Rare- A smooth whiskey with a finely balanced malt blend Officer‘s Choice Whisky is one of the largest whisky brands in the world. Believed to be launched in 1988 and positioned in the regular whiskey segment. Conceptualizing ‗Righteousness‘ that encourages consumers to make the right choice in life and awaken the hidden Officer within them. Available across India in attractive packs in 2 ltrs, 750 ml, 500 ml, 375 ml, 180 ml & 90 ml. It is a market leader in 18 states across India with a national market share of 40%. Growing at a CAGR of 14%, over the last 3 years, it has registered a sale of 25.7 million cases in 2015-2016. OFFICER’S CHOICE BLUE PURE GRAIN WHISKY- A fine blend of scotch malts and selected Indian grain spirits Officer‘s Choice Blue is a premium variant of Officer‘s Choice. Believed to be launched in mid-2011 and positioned in the regular whiskey segment. An elegantly designed, well-shaped pack gives it a premium and scotch-like look and feel. Spreading awareness among the consumers to take a stand against social evils, through the slogan of ‗Raise Your Voice‘. Available in 2ltrs, 1ltr, 750ml, 375ml, 180ml and 90ml packs. First brand in the alcoholic beverage industry to introduce the innovative Twist-Lock and Tear-Off caps. 4
  10. 10. OFFICER’S CHOICE BLACK WHISKY- An authentic and exquisite blend of Scottish malts from three regions – Highland, Lowland and Speyside Derives the distinctive taste and character from the charred oak barrels where it is matured in. A complex harmony of fruity and floral flavours makes it a rich and rare blend. Available in 1ltr, 750ml, 375ml, 180ml and 90ml packs. Encourages customers to give better than their best with the slogan of ‗Be More than Big. Be Great.‘ CLASS 21- India’s first grain vodka in the regular segment Launched with the tagline ―Thank God for 21‖, highlights the fun, zestful side of being 21. Stands a class apart from other spirit brands in the category, with a unique, cutting-edge bottle to capture the imagination of hip and trendy consumers. Available in three exciting flavours – Orange, Green Apple and Fusion. Its contemporary, modern and immaculate packaging has broken new ground in the market in terms of design and uniqueness. Available across India in attractive packs of 750 ml, 375 ml, 180 ml & 90 ml sizes. Connects with the spirit of today‘s youth generation. WODKA GORBATSCHOW- Germany’s No.1 brand of vodka, introduced in India through a joint venture between ABD and Henkell & Co. Available in three exciting flavours – Green Apple, Orange and Vanilla. The unique triple-chill filtration process, carried out at -12oC, has popularised the brand as one of the ‗purest‘ vodkas in the world. Exhibits its classy design with an edgy, irreverent and bold personality. Available in attractive packs in 750 ml, 375 ml, 180 ml, 90 ml and 60 ml sizes. Encourages them to play each role with passion, integrity and above all, Purity. 5
  11. 11. LORD & MASTER BRANDY - ABD’s first foray into the semi-premium brandy segment A blend of French grape spirit and exotic natural ingredients. Available in Kerala, AP and Pondicherry in 1 ltr, 750 ml, 500 ml, 375 ml, 180 ml, 90 ml packs. The brand is positioned as the ultimate choice for the ‗Man of Substance‘. Through a strong visual symbol – the Lion, bringing out connotations of authority and innate power and helps the consumer make a statement without being overt. KYRON PREMIUM BRANDY- an XO blend of French brandy and exotic ingredients Creates an aura of French legacy and is a premium brand with a classy, sophisticated demeanour. Its warm, deep amber glow and tantalising bouquet emerges from a melange of exquisite ingredients. Available in A.P, Kerala, Delhi and Bengaluru in 750 ml, 375ml and 180 ml packs. Designed to recreate the experience of French Grandeur, the bottle has a unique shape that is reminiscent of an era of class and legacy. OFFICER’S CHOICE BRANDY- Made from the finest grapes Specially crafted from the finest variety of grape spirit and high quality natural ingredients to give a smooth and pleasant flavour and taste. Available in attractive packs in 750 ml, 375 ml, 180 ml & 90 ml. Savour and experience its smooth, pleasant and authentic brand character. 6
  12. 12. OFFICER’S CHOICE STRONG BEER- Positioned in the strong beer segment Made from the best malted Barley, which lends a great flavour, aroma and appropriate bitterness. Brewed with special fermenting yeast and lagered at low temperature to mature for a period of 21 days. Offers a refreshing taste and is targeted at young consumers of today. OC beer has been introduced in UAE, Singapore and Malaysia. JOLLY ROGER PREMIUM XXX RUM - ABD’s premium offering in the dark rum segment Blended with original matured Jamaican pot-still rum and natural spices, it offers an unmatched quality and exotic taste in every sip. Comes in elegantly designed family-shaped bottles with tamper- proof Guala caps. Available in select states across India in attractive packs of 1Litre, 750 ml, 500 ml, 375 ml, 180 ml & 90 ml bottles. Connects with achievement-driven, and distinctiveness-seeking consumers through the platform of ‗The Winning Spirit‘, resonates well with their desire to push his boundaries for greater heights. OFFICER’S CHOICE WAFERS- Over 30 years of Officer’s Choice promise Uses best locally grown potatoes, choicest ingredients, spices and seasonings. Produced through world class machines, and passes strict international quality standards and systems like HACPP & FSS. Fresh from farm to the Officer‘s Choice potato chip bag. OFFICER’S CHOICE STIXX- Rice crispies (along with corn & gram) made from all natural ingredients. Eat-anytime snack is made from locally grown ingredients and milled at local mills before arriving at the plant. 7
  13. 13. The secret recipe is mixed and then made into our fun-to-eat STIXX shape that is then fried and howered with the most awesome spices and seasonings. The freshly cooked and still hot STIXX are then whisked away to the waiting packing machines on little bucket elevators and are dropped into our gorgeously designed STIXX pillow pouch bag in servings. Ultimately, brightens up your day a little with a lot of flavour. OFFICER’S CHOICE STIXX- A tribute to the great Indian snacking culture Made using the same age old rich Indian snacking traditional recipe with a big new-age Tadka. Using the best and choicest ingredients, each batch is made by our master artisans and cooked to perfection before being packed into convenient pillow pouch bags. 8 W H I S K Y S E G M E N T
  14. 14. 9 B R A N D Y S E G M E N T V O D K A S E G M E N T S N A C K S S E G M E N T R U M S E G M E N T
  15. 15. SAFETY ASSURANCE Every individual considers safety as his or her primary concern . The term Safety is not merely about being physically fit rather, it associates now with many aspects including quality. Therefore, Safety has been identified as a game changer with a significant role to play in this era of globalization. In this context, it is worthwhile to claim that safety is one major characteristic factor who establishes quality. Recently, the world witnessed some of the safety systems like HACCP, ISO 22000:2005 to take care of the risks and safety hazards in manufacturing plants very efficiently. Although, the system demands several pre-requisite programs before it can function but once, all these PRPs are checked, the system takes no time to eliminate for the best or reduce their limits to an accepted level. Understanding the fact that the liquor industry is prone to frequent hazards which when uncontrolled can lead to heavy damages in terms of money and goodwill of the company, ABD has incorporated Safety Assurance system to each of their processing phases. This strategy deserves applaud as it integrates quality into the process. By sailing on their constant innovation, ABD cruises to realize its vision ―To be the most admired spirits company.‖ While taking plant safety into consideration, it is also a significant area of concern for a liquor manufacturer like ABD. Like every alcoholic beverage company, ABD too is in fond of glass bottles as a primary packaging, due to its inertness, ease of recycling and a classy show attracting consumers at a glance. So, working with it makes it susceptible to breakage bringing in various hazards to the system as well as to the workers and employees. This calls for an effective safety management strategy to be in place ensuring overall safety of the working environment. In addition to plant safety, fire accidents are frequent threats to any liquor industry due to the fact that these industries deals with spirits and alcohol, considered as good inflammables. Fire fighting proves to be another challenge needs combated with. For an efficient safety management, proper induction, providing safety accessories and frequent monitoring are inevitable. 10
  16. 16. LEGAL DEFINITIONS Indian Standard ALCOHOLIC DRINKS Indian Made Foreign Liquor: IMFL is primarily referred to spirits that are produced in foreign countries and imported to India in bulk quantities and bottled in an Excise Bonded Warehouse by the Importers such as Gin, Vodka, Whisky and Brandy. Rectified Spirit: ‘ Rectified spirit (revised) are considered to be inferior, thus they fail to qualify for use in the manufacture of alcoholic drinks. Neutral Spirit: Neutral spirit is ethanol, which will only have the characteristic taste and odour of ethanol. Molasses Neutral Spirit: Neutral spirit made from molasses will be called Molasses Neutral Spirit. Grain Neutral Spirit: Neutral spirit made from grain or malt will be named as Grain Neutral Spirit. Whisky: Whisky is a distilled alcoholic liquor possessing the distinctive colour, aroma and taste of whisky. Whisky shall be made either from neutral spirit conforming to IS 6613 or rectified spirit, Grade I, conforming to IS 323 or a mixture of both. Malt or Grain Whisky: Malt or Grain Whisky shall be the alcoholic distillate produced from fermented mash of malted or unmalted cereals or mixture of both. The distillation shall be carried out to a suitable strength in such a way that the distillate has a distinct aroma and taste characteristics derived from raw materials or constituents formed during fermentation.  Single Malt Whisky: It shall be the alcoholic distillate produced from fermented mash of malted barley and distilled in pot still only. 11
  17. 17. Blended Malt or Grain Whisky: Blended malt or grain whisky shall be a mixture of at least 2 per cent malt or grain whisky with whisky. Rum: Rum is an alcoholic distillate obtained from fermented sugarcane/sugar beet molasses, possessing distinctive aroma and taste characteristic of rum. White Rum: Rum without colour shall be designated as white rum. Premix Rum: Premix rum shall be alcoholic beverage made out of rum and flavourings, with or without colour and with or without added sugar. NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL ACT 1993 (NAFDAC) (AS AMENDED) Spirit Drinks Regulations 2005 Blended Spirit: Blended spirit shall be a spirit obtained from alcohol of agricultural origin and permitted additives with or without sugar(s). Spirit drink: “Spirit drink” means an alcoholic beverage : intended for human consumption; having particular organoleptic properties; peculiar to that class of drinks; which contains a minimum alcoholic strength of 15% volume; and shall be produced by one of the following methods -  directly by distillation, with or without added flavouring from naturally fermented products, or  by the maceration of vegetable substances, or  the addition of flavourings, sugars or other sweetening products or other agricultural products or a combination of two or more of the above to ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin, or 12
  18. 18.  by the mixture of a spirit drink with –  one or more other spirit drinks ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin; or  one or more alcoholic drinks; or  by blending potable ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin with spirit concentrates, natural flavourings, permitted food colours, sugars or permitted sweetening agents. Whisky: Whisky shall – be a potable alcoholic distillate obtained from a mash of cereal grain products; be saccharified by the diastase of the malt contained therewith or without other natural enzymes; be fermented by the action of yeast and matured for a period, contain not less than 37.0 per cent of absolute alcohol by volume.  Malt Whisky: Malt whisky shall be the whisky obtained by distillation of a mash consisting of cereal malt fermented by the action of yeast or a mixture of such distillate and ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin.  Scotch Whisky: Scotch whisky shall be whisky distilled and matured in Scotland qualifying in accordance with the laws applicable thereto in Scotland.  Irish Whisky: Irish whisky shall be whisky distilled in Northern Ireland or in the Republic of Ireland as Irish whisky for domestic consumption in accordance with the laws applicable thereto in Northern Ireland or in the Republic of Ireland.  Canadian Whisky: Canadian whisky, Canadian rye whisky or rye whisky shall be whisky distilled in Canada as Canadian whisky for domestic consumption in accordance with the laws applicable thereto in Canada. 13
  19. 19.  Blended whisky: Blended whisky shall be ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin to which permitted whisky flavours have been added. Rum: Rum shall – be a potable alcoholic distillate obtained exclusively from sugar- cane products; be fermented by the action of yeast or a mixture of yeast and other organisms; or be a mixture of such distillate which has been aged; have the aromatic characteristics specified to rum and may contain caramel, may be flavoured with fruit or any other approved botanical substances/ flavourings; and contain not less than 37.0 per cent of absolute alcohol by volume.  Blended Rum: Blended rum shall be ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin to which permitted rum flavours have been added. Gin: Gin is the product of the blending of ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin with natural and/or nature identical flavouring substances.  Distilled Gin: Distilled gin shall be the product obtained by the redistillation of suitable grain, molasses spirit, other carbohydrate with or over juniper berries:  may contain other approved aromatic botanical substances; or  sugar or flavourings; or a mixture of such distillate and ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin, and  shall contain not less than 37.0 per cent of absolute alcohol by volume.  Dry Gin: Dry Gin shall be gin to which no sugar has been added. 14
  20. 20. Brandy: Brandy shall be potable alcoholic distillate of wine, in the manufacture of which no additional sugar has been used and held for a period in wooden cask and may - contain caramel; be flavoured with fruit, other approved botanical substances, flavouring, or a mixture of such distillate and ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin and shall contain not less than 37.0 per cent of absolute alcohol by volume.  Cognac Brandy: Cognac Brandy or Cognac shall be brandy manufactured in the Cognac district of France for domestic consumption in accordance with the laws applicable in France.  Armagnac Brandy: Armagnac brandy or Armagnac shall be brandy manufactured in the Armagnac district of France for domestic consumption in accordance with the laws applicable in France.  Blended Brandy: Blended brandy shall be ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin to which permitted brandy flavours have been added and it may contain caramel and sugar. Vodka: Vodka shall – be the potable alcoholic beverage obtained by the treatment of grain, potato spirit, molasses spirit with activated charcoal, or the rectification of ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin, so as to render the product without distinctive characteristic aroma or taste; and contain not less than 37.0 per cent of absolute alcohol by volume. Caramel: Caramel shall be prepared from the food grade carbohydrates or their combinations in the presence of food grade acids, alkalis or salts. It shall be of four types, namely:— 15
  21. 21. FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS (FOOD PRODUCTS STANDARDS AND FOOD ADDITIVES) REGULATIONS, 2011  Type-I-Plain Caramel: It shall be prepared by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis, or their salts. No. ammonium or sulphite compounds are used.  Type-II-Caustic Sulphite Caramel: It shall be prepared by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis or their salt in the presence of sulphite compounds; no ammonium compounds are used.  Type - III - Ammonia Process Caramel: It shall be prepared by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis or their salts in the presence of ammonium compounds; no sulphites are used.  Type-IV- Ammonia Sulphite Caramel: It shall be prepared by heating carbohydrates with or without acids or alkalis or their salts in the presence of both sulphite and ammonium compounds. 16
  22. 22. PLANT DESCRIPTION Allied Blenders & Distillers Private Limited (ABD Kalyani), formerly known as Wales Distillers Private Limited is located amongst the scenic beauty in Kalyani, West Bengal off the Barrackpore-Kalyani Expressway approximately, 60km from the airport. The plant is proud of its state- of-the-art infrastructure having a production capacity of 1 lac cases per month and is strictly allowed to sell its produce under the West Bengal Excise only. ABD plans to upscale it to 1.5 in the years to come. The unit operates in General Shifts with a schedule time from 9:00am to 6:00pm along with a lunch break of an hour in between. The initial and final hours of a day are usually the rush hours as they decide the fate of production. It is endowed with a good supply of water, used in its production operations only after demineralization through two of its units. The unit is bifurcated into various sections to facilitate sorted work area, significant to withstand and overcome the pressure of production with ease. These sections, functioning unanimously and arranging smooth operations related to IMFL manufacturing can be identified as namely: Water Demineralization Section (DM Plant): It is responsible for the removal of mineral salts from water. Washing or Rinsing Section: Here, rinsing of the bottles with DM water is done to stabilize pH. Blending Section: Here, unit operations like filtration, reduction, mixing, etc. occurs. Bottling Section: It accounts for filling, labelling and packaging of the products. Regional Quality Control Laboratory (RQCL): It carries out inspection, tests and analysis to assure quality. Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP): It monitors, regulates and prevents environmental contamination and pollution. 17
  23. 23. 18 RQCL RinsingHall BottleStorage Water Demineraliza tionSection (NEW) W a t e r D e mi n e r a l i z a t i o n S e c t i o n ( O L D ) BlendingSection ReceivingPoint Product Storage M a n u fa c t u r i n g O f fi c e L I N E 1 L I N E 2 L I N E 3 L I N E 4 L I N E 5 T E T R A PA K P L A N T L A Y O U T
  24. 24. PRODUCE OF THE UNIT The plant focuses on some of the renowned and prestigious brands of the company, which are in great demands in the states of West Bengal. The products that form the priority in the local and domestic markets in and around the manufacturing unit are as follows: OFFICER’S CHOICE WHISKY Mature & Rare 1000 ml pack 500 ml pack 375 ml pack 180 ml pack 90 ml pack OFFICER’S CHOICE BLUE PURE GRAIN WHISKY 1000 ml pack 750 ml pack 375 ml pack 180 ml pack OFFICER’S CHOICE BLACK WHISKY 1000 ml pack 750 ml pack 375 ml pack 180 ml pack JOLLY ROGER PREMIUM XXX RUM 750 ml pack 19
  25. 25. PRECAUTIONS TO THE UNIT Since an industry is involved in manufacturing of a product intended to satisfy its customers in terms of quality to stay in a healthy status as a business entity. It follows certain policies and implements them strictly at its units to safeguard its goodwill in the market. As an IMFL manufacturing unit, the responsibility to maintain safety and quality towards all its stake-holders becomes very crucial. Some of the significant precautions taken by the unit for are as follows: The entry of inflammable substances (like matchsticks, kerosene, etc.) is strictly prohibited in the unit. The entry and exit of individuals are strictly restricted without appropriate verification of their belongings. Entry to the unit (especially to the shop floor) is strictly subjected to the approval of the Department of West Bengal Excise. The entry of the electronic goods to the unit is strictly prohibited. Clean and perfect hygienic conditions are to be maintained in the production area. Safety precautions are to be taken prior to entering the Washing and Bottling Hall. Good Manufacturing Practises (GMP) needs to be exercised and its implementation to be verified during production. No kinds of fragrances are allowed within the unit, as the blend may get affected with it. Prior to dealing with the manufactured product, one should take proper precautions to avoid contamination. Use of cell phones in the Bottling Hall is strictly limited and need to be checked by the concern authorities. While working with chemicals, care should be taken so that no contamination may take place. Storage Area is to be restricted and monitored with close-circuit cameras. The demineralized outlet is to be monitored frequently. The composition of the key ingredients of the products should not be disclosed to outside to safeguard its business policies. 20
  26. 26. PRODUCT RAW MATERIALS Most of the IMFL manufacturers depend heavily on foreign imports especially, on the European countries such as Scotland, Ireland , Netherlands, Spain, etc. for the concentrates constituting the X-factor of the alcoholic beverages. ABD is not an exception to it. Besides these flavouring spirits, they possess the support of the indigenous grain spirits that arrives from various parts of the country, depending on the suitability of supply and demands and seasonal variations. The Demineralized water is a basic requirement of a plant as it cleanses the containers and bottles before filling the blend. It is also seen to be in action while, it reduce the alcoholic strength of the ENA charged to the tank. Therefore, a liquor bottling plant needs to be self- sufficient in terms of the Demineralized water supply. The lovely colour of the blend is possible due to the deliberate addition and mixing of the food additive in caramel. A brown to dark brown colour inculcates the ethnic beauty of flavoured spirits and alcohol. Extra Neutral Alcohol (ENA), a known ingredient in the IMFLs like Whisky, Vodka, Gin, Rum, etc. is of special significance. The reason being the greatest contributor and purest form of alcohol by volume. Thus, it forms the basis of blending. The identified key ingredients as the starting raw materials of the products are as follows: Extra Neutral Alcohol (ENA) Demineralized Water (DM water) Type I, Plain, Caustic Caramel Scotch and Irish Malts Flavours (confidential) 21
  27. 27. EXTRA NEUTRAL ALCOHOL Extra Neutral Alcohol or commonly, ENA is a double rectified alcoholic distillate having 68.4ºoverproof with 96% of alcohol by volume. It shall conform to the following requirements to be used for alcoholic drinks, as specified in IS 6613:2002: Characteristic Vodka General Product Relative density at 20/20°C 0.80692 0.80692 Ethanol per cent (v/v at 20°C), Min 96 96 Miscibility with water Miscible Miscible Acidity as acetic acid, g/1001, absolute alcohol, Mux 1.5 1.5 Methyl alcohol g/100 I of absolute alcohol, Max 50 50 Permanganate reaction time, in minutes, absolute alcohol, Min 30 30 Higher alcohol as iso-amyl alcohol, g/100 1, absolute alcohol, Max 30 30 ENA, derived mostly from the selected variety of high quality is procured from the nearby distilleries such as distilleries of IFB Agro (Nurpur). The procurement entirely depends on the significant factors like cost, quality, distance from the unit, etc. ENA, free from impurities (checked using GC chromatography) reaches the unit through long-distance tankers having five compartments. The sampling of ENA from each of the five compartments is followed before acceptance by the unit, which are analysed in various phases . The sequential phases involved from procurement to acceptance are as follows: GC chromatography: done in manufacturing distilleries using GC/MS. Sensory analysis: doneinthereceivingunitasBouquetandPallettestsbytrainedpanellists. Strength determination: done in the unit for payment to suppliers. PRT test: done to check the purity of ENA, indicating using the delay in colour appearance. The quality passed bulk ENA is transferred to the ENA tanks at the receiving point of the unit and the tankers are flagged off for return. 22
  28. 28. DEMINERALIZED WATER Demineralization or deionisation is the process of removing mineral salts from water by using the ion exchange process. As the report suggests that the source water contains high degree of cationic and anionic impurities, rendering it unsuitable for alcohol reductions as it may possibly catalyse the oxidation- reduction reactions to give rise to fractions of aldehydes, ketones and other higher alcohols like amyl alcohol (by the virtue of its mineral content) besides imparting hardness to water. Moreover, it may lead to high mineral acidity. This calls for the effective demineralization operation in a liquor manufacturing unit. Demineralization involves two ion exchange reactions. Initially, the cations such as calcium magnesium & sodium are removed by hydrogen ion (H+). The salts thus converted into their respective acids by this exchange. The acidic water is then passed through an anion exchange where the anions such as sulphates chlorides etc. are removed by HYROXYL (OH-) ions. The basic Scheme of reactions that takes place during a demineralization reaction is: RH + Na+ ------- R-Na + H+ (For cation) R-OH + Cl- ------- R-Cl + OH- (For anion) H+ + OH- -------- H2o Characteristics Value Turbidity 0.2 NTU TSS 23 ppm pH at 25ºC 7.5 Conductivity 1142.85 µmhos/cm Total Dissolved Solids 800 ppm Total Hardness (as CaCo3) 400 ppm Iron (as Fe) 1.5 ppm R A W W A T E R A N A L Y S I S R E P O R T 23
  29. 29. WATER DEMINERALIZATION SECTION The unit has state-of-the-art water demineralization section to impart soft water of higher purity where it regulates or rather minimises the mineral content to an acceptable limit. The significant processes that make the water demineralization realized: Oxidation Chamber: The purpose of the chamber is to oxidize the reactive metals in traces and minerals in the incoming water source using manganese dioxide (MnO2) present in the bed in the form of manganese boulders. Iron Removal Filter: The Filter accounts for removal of the ferrous salts dissolved in water using a proper media. It removes suspended Iron through a sequential series of steps namely, Rinse, Service, Backwash Rinse and Fast Rinse. Dual Media Filter: The filter with a special anthracite media above the conventional sand media has special surface properties due to which the small colloidal particles get attached to its surface removing particulates greater than 30µ. Due to this property, the DMF filter is widely used in pre-treatment of RO systems releasing water with turbidity less than 5 NTU. Activated Carbon Filter: The Activated Carbon Filter is employed for removal of residual chlorine, removal of organics and removal of odours. The removal of contaminants by employing activated carbon is both by a physical and chemical adsorption. Removal of chlorine by activated carbon is basically a chemical phenomenon. C + HOCl = CO+ H+ + Cl- Reverse Osmosis System: The system utilizes high pressure-driven high rejection–high flow membrane process that is capable of separating dissolved solutes from a solvent (water) through a semi-permeable membrane. It requires the dosing of ‘Antiscalant’ to inhibit scale formation by concentrated salt on the membrane. 24
  30. 30. Watersupply To DAY Tank Mixed Bed Filter: The filter-cum-polisher consisting of specially designed vessels in which SAC and SBA resins are embedded functions to remove the residual traces of silica and sodium ions (in ppb). Strong Acid Cation (SAC): It caters to remove hardness only when SAC resin in Na+ form whereas, in H+ form, the cations including sodium ions are exchanged for H+ ions leading to the release of free Co2 by decationization of alkaline salts in the raw water. Strong Base Anion (SBA): These are the resins, usually of two types developing their functionality from quaternary ammonium salts. Type I, being more stable is more suitable for total anion removal and dissolved Co2 in water. Degasser Tower: The Degassifier unit facilitates the escape of the dissolved volatile gaseous pollutants like free Co2 dissolved in water by the application of blower and then passing it through a series of filters before emission to the surrounding. 25 P R O C E S S F L O W O F W A T E R D E M I N E R A L I Z A T I O N Raw water Storage Oxidation Chamber Sand Filter Dual Media Filter Activated Carbon Filter Sand Filter RO water Storage RO Degasser Cationic Bed Filter Anionic Bed Filter Mixed Bed Filter DM Storage Tank HPP
  31. 31. BLENDING SECTION Even today, blending remains more of an art than a science, as leading players of the game are unwilling to reveal the secrets of blend formulation. Blending, pioneered by Andrew Usher, in Edinburgh, in the early 1860s provides the distiller with an opportunity to create a product with unique and recognizable flavour attributes to attain product consistency and establish a brand. Thus, Blending is reclaimed as the heart of the IMFL, owing to the influences of a wide range of processing and maturation parameters. This operation focuses mainly on four on areas:  The flavour specialist  Strategy  Practicalities of blending  Innovation. These four areas are supervised by a Master Blender, leading the blending team. A blender, with his loads and loads of experience utilizes his most-sensitive instrument ‗the nose‘ to judge the overall flavour profile of the blend. Allied Blenders & Distillers believes in quality Blending and so, the unit holds a well established blending section with a good team of self- efficient blenders. The blending hall comprises of:  14 Blending Tanks (capacities ranging from 25,800 ltrs to 15,700 ltrs)  4 Strong Spirit Tanks (capacities ranging from 46,000 ltrs to 10,100 ltrs)  4 ENA Tanks (capacity around 45,000 ltrs) The estimation of the blend preparation is done by using the „Blend Formulae’ which is as follows: Volume of Blend = (Volume of ENA (in BL)*ºProof (ENA))/Required ºProof The Formula reveals that, it is the volume of ENA that dictates the volume of blend. Thereby, the ENA is important in blending operation. 26
  32. 32. The roles of essential components of a blend of the company are identified as under: Extra Neutral Alcohol: The base of all the IMFLs having 96% ABV and 168ºProof. Demineralized Water: The second constituent of the blending process, involving reduction of ENA with water and the initial addition is preferred on the basis of relative density of ENA and DM. The reduction time is approximately about one and a half hours. Type I, Plain-Caustic Caramel: The proportion of the DM water, added sensibly in the previous step may help in mixing the caramel concentrate (0.052%) in a knife mixer. The mixture is then, filtered and through sparkler filters (cartridge filters) and transferred to the ENA mixture for colour fixation in the blend. Spirits X and Y: These malts add characteristic flavours and aroma. After attaining a desired strength, and confirmed by the department of Excise, stationed at the unit, the spirit (0.64%) is added and circulated for about an hour. Flavour Spirits (confidential): Here lies the true uniqueness of the company‘s portfolio of brands providing an identity to it. After its addition, the blend is left undisturbed for one to two days for maturation. The product Officer‘s Choice Blue is claimed to be manufactured from the pure grain spirit by the company as a business strategy. Therefore, the blend is bottled without the addition of the flavour spirits, as used in the blend of other products. In this context, it is realized that the vodka does not contain added caramel and thus, appears to be crystal and clear. 27
  33. 33. Conc. Caramel Circulation Filling Point Bypass P R O C E S S F L O W O F B L E N D I N G 28 Blending Tank Day Tank ENA Tank Strong Spirit Tank Knife Mixer Spirit Circulation
  34. 34. WASHING SECTION Washing refers to the process or technique to clean any surface usually with stream of water. In this particular context, it can be technically termed as the Rinsing operation taking place because the stream of fluid is directed towards both the inner and outer surfaces of the targeted material with a purpose to homogenize the material with a specific fluid. The liquor industry depends generally on glass bottles because of its decorative and royal appeal to the customers. The market return glass bottles are also utilized (if unbroken) again for bottling of new blend. This practice not only saves money of the company but also reduces the load of environmental pollution and saves energy too. But on the other hand, those market return bottles obviously would contain dirt, mud, and various foreign particles, forcing rinsing operation mandatory. The unit, being well equipped with the processing of DM water finds enough use of it in this section. The process is designed in such a way that the demineralized water is supplied continuously to the machines indirectly from the Day Tank, through 10µ cartridge filters, maintaining a pressure all through. There are two kinds of rinsers installed in the plant namely:  Automatic rotary rinsers: The machine named ‗GRIPMATIC‘ having 50 (for Lines 1 & 2) or 40 rotating heads (for Line 3) with an optimum operational speed ranging from 300 (for Lines 1 & 2) to 180 BPM (for Line 3) efficiently rinses bottles with jet spray of demineralized water, one from below through the neck opening and the other from the top to ensure complete homogenization with DM and remove any particles adhering to the body surface with pressurized jet flow.  Semi-automatic rotary rinsers: This machine (for Lines 4 & 5) operates in the same way as the automatic one except the differences in design, making it a low operating machine. Although, the designs of the machines are completely different to each other, both work on the same technology. The demineralized water is pumped through a booster pump to the machines from Day Tanks via an intermediate reservoir having a float valve maintaining a constant 29
  35. 35. water level. The machine receives water supply from two separate reservoirs for two jet flows. The technology that the machines follow is to divide one of the channel flows radially (under centrifugal force) to help obtain the jet at required positions (usually two). The other channel is left as it is and used to rinse the outer surface of the bottles by a jet flow from the top through minute pores or openings. In this way, the bottles come three times in contact with demineralized jet spray in a cycle of rotation. In Line 1, the rinsing operation is incorporated along with the filling and cap sealing operations in a single machine thus, helping to minimise the man power requirement, loss of money and time and increasing productivity. 30
  36. 36. BOTTLING SECTION Bottling deals mainly with the packaging of the blend of the liquor prepared in an isolated section with a purpose to prepare as a saleable product. Due to the ever increasing quality awareness amongst the customers, most of the companies have pulled their shocks up to meet the stringent specifications as prescribed by the regulatory bodies. Thus, this section helps to connect with its consumers in a true sen se. Allied Blenders & Distillers (ABD) nurtures its bottling hall to not only retain its existing customers but also to attract the new ones. The hall at the Kalyani unit is equipped with five (5) lines to cater the exponential demands of the customers. Out of which, three (3) lines are automatic while the other two are semi-automatic, and these are operated according to the requirements and suitability. The hall also posses a state-of-the-art ‗Aseptic compartment‘ with two aseptic packaging machines aligned serially that aseptically fill 90ml and 180ml OC whisky. The rinsed bottles queue themselves and head towards the bottling hall after making appearance from the rinser machines (except for line 1). On the other hand, the blend is released from the Day Tanks through fabric cloth filters (CCP1) to reach the filling machine. Most of the lines are almost similar in terms of their operation, having the following processes incorporated into the systems: Empty Bottle Inspection: The bottles (both PET and glass) are inspected to promote quality control and this point acts as Control Point (CP). Filling: A little ahead on the line, the bottles encounter filling machines, responsible for bottling the in-line blend. The unit posses two kinds of fillers, depending on its:  Mode of action: gravity filling (for lines 1, 2 and 4) and vacuum filling (for lines 3 and 5). Gravity fillers work by the free flowing ability of the blend under gravity. On the other hand, Vacuum fillers work by creating voids through negative air pressure application. 31
  37. 37. Cap feeding and Capp sealing: Cap feeding may be done either manually automatically depending on the type of machine employed. Capping a bottle though seems to be an easy job for these machines. But, the varieties of caps make it complicated. Basically, they are of two types namely Roll-On-Pilfer- Proof (ROPP) and plastic closures, which dictates the type of capping machine used. The former gets sealed completely when both the skurt and thread rollers are in action. But, the sealing of the latter is achieved by tapping down the closure through the neck making a constant 5º angle with the closure. On-line Inspection: This phase also acts as a CP, where the quality control is achieved through visual inspection of the bottles along with the blend moving in a line and examined for minute (quickly noticeable at arms length when inverted) particles suspended in the blend mainly along with leakage due to improper sealing. The defective items are isolated for rework. Hologram and Label placing: While, the hologram signifies the government‘s approval of the product, the label acts as a silent salesman for the company. Both these operations are performed using the same technology, helped by a series of rollers. Line 3 is somewhat different and dictated by the type of the label i.e. gum label (gum added externally). Mandatory printing: Print Mandatory consists of Batch number, line number, costs (MRP) and the date of manufacturing and achieved using Domino. The printing of the mandatory takes place at three stages i.e. on the labels, monocases and bulk cases sequentially. Final End of-line Inspection (EOL): This phase also acts as a CP where the defects related to labels and hologram, bottles, closures and on-line blend quality status are examined. Packaging and Palletizing: The palletizing refers to the placing of the cases (packaged) to mobile vehicles in bulk to transport them to the bond space (storage area). 32
  38. 38. ASEPTING PACKEGING Aseptic packaging can be defined as the filling of a commercially sterile product into a sterile container under aseptic conditions and hermetically sealing the containers so that reinfection is prevented, making the product shelf-stable at ambient conditions. The unit is capable to produce aseptic whisky packs of 90ml and 180ml sizes through its two premier machines Tetra Brik Aseptic. Principle:  Inert atmosphere and hermetic sealing (for preservation)  Volumetric approach (for filling)  Electrical impulse (for sealing)  Conductive heating (for strip applicating) Operating pre-requisites:  Air Pressure: 7-7.5 kg/cm2  Water Pressure: 5 kg/cm2  Nitrogen Pressure: 4 kg/cm2  Air knife Temperature: 129.3ºc Procedure: The six-layered film reaches the strip applicator through a series of rollers where the plastic strip gets attached to the film into molten state that passes through an air knife for attaining stability. Gradually, the shape of the package is formed mainly with the help of crease roller along its flow. When the film is longitudinally sealed, the blend is released along with liquid nitrogen (in 9:1 ratio) and then transversal sealing occurs using conductive heating and each package is isolated by the knife attached. Problems related to its operation:  Huge wastages during a LONG SHORT STOP  Less flexibility in operation  Any fluctuation(s) in the conditions leads to SHORT STOP 33
  39. 39. Blend Bottles Carton Supply Closures Bottle Inspection Fabric Filter Plates Supply Partition Supply V A C U U M F I L L E R I N A C T I O N O V E R A L L P R O C E S S F L O W O F B O T T L I N G 34 Filling Capping Cap Sealing On-line Inspection Day Tank HologramLabelling Second Inspection Printing Mandatory Carton Forming Packaging Batch Printing Palletizing EOL Inspection Rework
  40. 40. STORAGE AND DESPATCH The unit has specific storage facilities for packaging materials as well as for the finished goods (FG) and are identified using stock keeping units (SKUs) recorded during their arrival at store. The quality-passed palletized finished goods arrive at the bond store where they are stacked on the basis of Batch number and variety of the product. The height of each stack depends on the quantity and the variety of the product. The content of whisky bottles in a case varies according to the volume of bottles, is tabulated as follows: Volume of bottles (ml) Size of bottles 1000 (LITRE) 12 750 (QUART) 20 500 24 375 (PINT) 42 180 (NIP) 48 90 48 The storage area has maximum holding capacity of around 80,000 cases. But, the actual storage is limited to 55,000 due to certain obligations. The despatch of the stocks involves several steps: Stock Check  Bond (Excise controlled)  Trade (Licensee controlled) Transfer of Bond to Trade: requires duty clearance by the distributor, preparation of requisition by the licensee and conversion of FG from bond trade to Company trade. Transfer of FG from company Trade to distributor Trade: requires issue of various documents to the distributor. Preparation of documents like invoices and passes. Only after transfer of goods to distributor trade, the distributor has permission to access the product from the storage area. The finished goods are transported from the unit to the distributor through long- distance transport. 35
  41. 41. EFFLUENT TREATMENT SECTION The processing unit utilizes huge quantities of water resources in a regular basis during its manufacturing operations like rinsing, blending, etc. However, the former operation also involves the discharge or drainage of the resource to a high level. However, the quality of the water deteriorates during drainage due to various levels of contaminations during operation, which when let untreated can lead to a havoc damage to the surrounding environment. This signifies the set - up of an effective Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). The main identified industrial effluents observed in the processing waste water of the unit are as under:  Packaging materials: include broken glass bottles, cc box parts, etc.  Dissolved chemicals: include acids, bases and salts.  Dissolved organics: include odoriferous and quaternary compounds.  Suspended particles: include fibre particles discharged with blend.  Dissolved gasses: include free Co2 emission. The treatment of the discharged effluents can be by the help of the following process flow diagram: P R O C E S S F L O W O F E F F L U E N T T R E A T M E N T Drain water Storage Tank 1 Tank 2 Polychloride Lime Aluminium sulphate Tank 3 Hypochloride Compressor ACF Aeration Aeration Aeration Treated Water 36
  42. 42. QUALITY CONTROL @ RQCL The plant has a federal support of Regional Quality Control Lab (RQCL) stationed at the unit. It has wide range of responsibilities starting from the sampling of incoming raw materials and packaging materials to the quality control of the final products. Its operational functions are even more diversified by cross-unit checks and sensory analysis of other tie-up units. In this context, it is significant that RQCL has provision to validate with reference to its internal standards and award silver certificate within its internal system of network and is also ranked 2nd (only after CQCL) as far as internal certificate issuing authority. The quality control team works for RQCL to detect quality related issues in the plant and has the following duties to carry out without compromising with the quality. Inspections of the packaging materials are carried out at RQCL, categorizing defects and following a simple strategy for acceptance accordingly. Materials Sampling volume Acceptance Limit Glass bottles 4% (SKU) <0.05% (critical defects) PET bottles 4% (SKU) <0.05% (critical defects) ROPP closures 4% (SKU) 0.00% (critical defects) Labels 4% (SKU) 0.00% (critical defects) Monocartons 4% (SKU) 0.00% (critical defects) CC Boxes 4% (SKU) 0.00% (critical defects) Similarly, raw material are sampled and inspected with sensory analysis mainly. The analysis of the raw materials like demineralized water and caramel involve chemical analysis. RQCL is partitioned into three respected sections to facilitate free, competitive and professional work environment. The sections are: Dry Laboratory: deals with analysis the packaging materials. Sensory Laboratory: an isolated room for judging sensory attributes. Wet Laboratory: deals mainly with blend and other raw material analysis. 37
  43. 43. DRY LABORATORY OPERATIONS The dry laboratory is concerned with sampling and analysis of packaging materials like bottles (glass and PET), closures, monocases, cc boxes, etc. The quality team categorizes defects of a packaging material into three limits namely: Critical defects: The defects that cannot be tolerated since it may cause a potential threat to the customers on use and in turn affect the reputation of the company and its brands. Examples - broken bridge, missing mandatory, glass imperfections, etc. Major defects: Those defects that can be tolerated to a minimum permissible limit that maintains stringent quality standards. Examples – damaged cap, fill height variation, fibre particle, etc. Minor defects: Those defects that do not harm its consumers at all, but their control is necessary to protect the goodwill of the company. Examples – cut graphics, brush marks, shade variations of labels, etc. The work process of the laboratory is described serially on the basis of packaging materials: Bottles (glass and PET): Visual Inspection: refers to the detection of physical appearance change and categorizing according to the types of defects (critical/major/minor). Dimensional Analysis: refers to the conformation of the dimensions with the internal specifications and standards as follows- Parameters (1000ml) Instrument used Range (for glass) Weight (gm.) Weighing machine 589-591 Brim Full Capacity (ml.) Graduated Flask 1022-1024 Vacuity (ml.) Vernier Callipers 44-46 Major Axis (mm) Vernier Callipers 92.60-93.05 Minor Axis (mm) Vernier Callipers 89.12-89.77 Total Height (mm) Erected Vernier 306-308 38
  44. 44. GO NO-GO Test: quick test for conformance for exact dimensions of the closures to neck of the bottle. There are two opposite faces that tests for GO (should conform) and NO-GO (should not conform). Apparatus/Models (for NIP) Function Cap ID Checks cap fitting Thread OD Checks uniformity in threads Bottom OD Checks cap locking Anchorage OD Checks for uniform anchors Lugs OD Checks for smooth rotation Closures ((ROPP-28 & 30mm and plastic): Visual Inspection: refers to the detection of physical appearance change and categorizing according to the types of defects (critical/major/minor). Examples – improper liner, knurl defects, broken bridges, etc. Dimensional Analysis: refers to the conformation of the dimensions with the internal specifications and standards as follows- Parameters (30mm) Instrument used Range (for ROPP) Outer diameter (mm) Vernier Callipers 29.48-29.59 Inner diameter (mm) Vernier Callipers 28.67-28.75 Ring Height (mm) Vernier Callipers 5.96-6.04 Width Bridge (mm) Graticule Magnifier 0.9-1.0 EPE Liner (mm) Screw Gauge 1.399-1.420 Metal Thickness (mm) Screw Gauge 0.205-0.209 Closures Pull-Out Test (plastic): SOP-  Take a bottle mould of weight 8kg approx.  Insert the Closure on its neck tightly (seal it).  Wear protective gloves on the right hands.  Supporting the right arm on the right leg, hold the mould in air through its closure at least for 20 seconds.  If the Closure do not pulls out, the test turns negative, indicating that the closure is good enough to be sealed. Light Test: tests the uniformity of the perforation height by passing light through it in dark condition. 39
  45. 45. Labels and Monocartons: Visual Inspection: refers to the detection of physical appearance change and categorizing according to the types of defects (critical/major/minor). Examples – excessive ink, colour variations, incorrect texts, etc. Dimensional Analysis: deals with measuring the dimensions (length*width) and conform the same to the internal specifications or standards. Scuff Resistance:  Purpose: test the degree of resistance to aberration.  Instrument: Scuff Resistance Tester  SOP:  Cut the labels as a replica of two samples attached to the instrument (bigger and smaller).  Switch on the instrument.  Place the labels in position and lock the positions.  Place a weight of 2 kg on the top of the instrument.  Set the number of rotations.  Press the ‗START‘ button. At the end of rotations, if the labels are found to be in undisrupted state, then the test is negative. Alcohol Resistance Test (also applicable for monocases):  Purpose: test the reaction or effect of the blend on the label.  Chemicals: Alcohol (42.8% ABV)  SOP:  Take the blend in a beaker.  Take cotton and dip it in the blend.  Rub the labels two to three times only in unidirectional way with the cotton. At the end of rubbings, if the labels are found to be in undistorted state, then the test is negative. Grain Direction Test (for labels):  Purpose: test for any possibilities for forming arrow heads.  Material: Flowing water 40
  46. 46.  SOP:  Hold the label in flowing water in such a manner that it‘s back side gets wet.  Hold for at least 10-15 seconds.  Leave it on a clean dry surface. After a certain time, if the labels are found to be somewhat folded toward the front side, then the test is negative. Corrugated Flute Cartons and its allied material: CC boxes play an important role, providing good strength and support against external forces. The tests associated with it are: Visual Inspection: refers to the detection of physical appearance change and categorizing according to the types of defects (critical/major/minor). Examples – excessive ink, misplaced texts, incorrect texts, etc. Dimensional Analysis: deals with measuring the dimensions (length*width*height) and conform the same to the internal specifications or standards. Moisture Analysis: deals with measuring the % of water absorbed and compare the same to the internal specifications or standards. Bursting Strength:  Purpose: tests the maximum pressure withstanding capacity.  SOP:  Switch ON the instrument.  Loose the Screw to make space for the carton entry.  Hold the lower flap of the cc boxes and put it in aligned with the work area of the instrument.  Long press the ‗START‘ button until the box tend to burst. After releasing the ‘START’ button a continuous beep prevails, and the instrument shows the BS value on the display. 41
  47. 47. Grammage Tester Scuff Tester Bursting Strength Tester Tester Grammage Test:  Purpose: tests the gsm of the material  Instruments: Hot Air Oven and gsm tester.  SOP:  Cut the test material of the dimension (l*l).  Place it in Hot Air oven at 120ºC for about 2 hours.  Take the material and dip it in boiling water so that the layers present in it falls apart on its own overcoming their adhesiveness.  Again, put it in it in Hot Air oven at 120ºC for about 6 hours at a stretch.  Take the layers and test them separately in gsm tester. The mean of the calculated gsm is regarded as the gsm of the material. 42 D R Y L A B E Q U I P M E N T S
  48. 48. METHODOLOGY OF REJECTION The packaging materials when rejected due to non-conformance of the quality specifications undergo a rejection process which is outlined as: Isolation of the rejected packaging materials. Communication about the lot and quantity of rejections to the suppliers. Crushing all the packaging materials that were isolated due to quality failure. In case of closures:  ROPP closures: They are crushed and the metal portions are returned to the suppliers.  Plastic closures: They are crushed and then returned.  In case of Bottles:  Glass bottles: Broken pieces are only returned for recycling.  PET bottles: They are Crushed and returned In case of corrugated cartons The cartons are torned into pieces before they are returned. The objective or rather motive behind this process of rejection is that the supplier may not be able to serve the same material having quality defects after being rejected due to destruction of its shape. 43
  49. 49. SENSORY LABORATORY OPERATIONS The evaluation of the flavour of Indian Made Foreign Liquors (IMFL) by chemical and instrumental methods or routine quality control is not practicable. The other limitation of instrumental analysis is that it cannot integrate the flavour impression as is gathered by human senses. The analysis of quality of IMFL can, therefore, be done conveniently by sensory evaluation which gives the sum total of interaction of different flavour components. This evaluation gets more effective with the experience and routinely arranged trainings. The laboratory follows a strict routine and has several restrictions in order to avoid any type of contaminations. The following considerations are relevant in this regard. Ideal Laboratory set-up:  The testing room must be kept as free from odours and sound as possible. This can be achieved by air conditioning with activated carbon filters installed in the system.  The lighting system should provide an adequate comfortable level of illumination. Special light effects, using coloured filters or bulbs may be desired to hide irrelevant differences in colour and other aspects of appearance.  Individual panel booths are essential to avoid mutual distraction among panel members.  There should be an atmosphere of comfort and relaxation in the testing room.  The temperature and humidity of the room should be controlled.  Suitable seats should be provided to give a comfortable posture while carrying out the tests. Time of Analysis: The test should be carried out by the Panelists between 10.30 to 12.30 h. The test should not be carried out when the panelists are really thirsty. Rules for sample preparation:  Arrange a set of watch glass (cover) and testing glass (tulips) for a sample.  Rinse the testing glass (tulips) and watch glass with the particular blend. 44
  50. 50.  First prepare of demineralized water sample along with plain water sample.  Prepare a liquor sample by adding 20ml of each blend followed by demineralized water (in 1:1 ratio). Rules for sensory analysis:  Arrange filled testing glass covered with watch glass for a sample in front of each sample.  Always start from left-to-right.  Always start from demineralized water sample (neutral flavours and no off-odours) as it makes our senses fresh and active.  Before sensory evaluation of a sample, hold the glass covered with watch glass and swirl it to homogenize the flavour and odour.  Always adhere to the grading scale (employed 5 point scale) while recording the scores against samples. In this context, it is learned that sensory analysis is performed to detect any off-flavours due to the presence of impurities in the blend and the blend must be completely free from any characteristic tastes like sweet, sour, bitter, tangy, etc. R I G H T W A Y O F S E N S O R Y A N A L Y S I S 45
  51. 51. WET LABORATORY OPERATIONS Wet laboratory or the Chemical Analysis Lab mainly deals with the analysis of the raw materials which are: Raw water: Hardness Test: employing Complexametric method (EDTA)  Principle: EDTA forms a chelated soluble complex when added to a solution of certain metal ions.  Reagents: - Ammonia buffer of pH 10. 0.02(N) solution of disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid. Erichrome black T indicator solution.  SOP:  Take 50 ml of sample in an Erlenmeyer flask;  Add 4 to 6 drops of Eriochrome black T indicator solution.  Add 1 ml of buffer solution and mix.  Titrate immediately with EDTA solution till the colour changes from red to blue.  Calculations: Total hardness (as CaCO3) =(Titre value)*20=__ppm Free Chlorine Test: (Free chlorine should be less than 0.2 ppm)  Reagents: - Test CHLOR.  SOP:  Take 50 ml of sample in an Erlenmeyer flask.  Take 5 ml of the reagent in a measuring cylinder.  Add it to the flask along the wall and wait for 1 minute for colour stabilization.  Match the colour with the corresponding ppm level marked on the reagent label.  Record the value in ppm. Demineralized water: Sulphate Test:  Reagents: - 10% BaCl2 solution.  SOP:  Rinse the test tube with DM water. 46
  52. 52.  Add 10ml of DM water in the test tube.  Add 2 drops of 10% BaCl2 solution to the test tube and shake well.  Observe the colour change (milkish white haze develops). Chloride Test:  Reagents: - 1% AgNO3 solution  SOP:  Rinse the test tube with DM water.  Add 10ml of DM water in the test tube.  Add 2 drops of freshly prepared 1% AgNO3 solution to the test tube and shake well.  Observe the colour change after vigorous shaking (milkfish- white haze develops). Alkalinity Test:  Reagents: - indicator solution  SOP:  Rinse the test tube with DM water.  Add 10ml of DM water in the test tube.  Add 2 drops of indicator solution to the test tube and shake well.  Observe the colour change and compare against the standard.  Record the pH level. ENA and Blend: Material/Tests Colour (Abs) pH Turbidity (NTU) Alcohol % (ABV) ENA --- 5.7-5.9 ---- 96.5 OC W 0.858-0.867 4.58-4.62 0.58-0.82 42.8 OC Blue 0.780-0.785 4.52-4.62 0.49-0.58 42.8 OC Black 0.778-0.780 4.52-4.62 0.49-0.58 42.8 *Subject to verification with the internal standards. 47
  53. 53. Type-I Plain, Caustic Caramel: S.N. Tests Characteristics 1. Colour Bright golden yellow with reddish tinge 2. Appearance Thick homogeneous mixture 3. Odour Characteristic smell of burnt sugar 4. Taste Pleasant bitter odour 5. Sp. Gravity(10%sol) 1.023 6. pH (1% solution) 3.4-3.7 Aseptic Package quality Tests: S.N. Tests Procedure 1. Crease line Visual Inspection2. Vertical alignment 3. Horizonal alignment 4. Taste Pleasant bitter odour 5. LS Overlap Measuring Inspection 6. Volume (weight) Weight Measurement 7. Flap Sealing Visual Inspection 8. Rough Check Handling Test 9. Accurate Check Punch Instrument 10. Conductivity Test C-Meter 11. Longitudinal Seal Test Visual Strip Inspection 12. Nitrogen Dissolve Sensory 13. Visual Check Batch Printing 14. Leakage Test Dye Injection L A Y E R S O F A S E P T I C P A C K A G I N G 48
  54. 54. CONCLUSION Allied Blenders & Distillers Private Limited, one of the giants in the field of IMFL manufacturing is appreciated for its vision of continuous improvement and quest for excellence along its journey towards becoming the most admired spirits company of the world. Their true strengths have been their innovative approaches towards product as well as the system, led by a tremendous team that challenges inflation, maintains product quality and establish new brands. The report tries to analyse the operation of the plant that caters delivery of good quality IMFL brands with quality intact from the process line to the hands of the consumers in a professional approach. It also tries to relate manufacturing technologies giving empha sis to quality assurance with effective management in response to certain special situations. The report may be seen as a survey of the overall operations starting from procuring, testing, manufacturing and quality control and assurance. The experience at Allied Blenders & Distillers is very precious and enriching. The training has inculcated knowledge regarding alcoholic beverages, the necessary skills associated with IMFL manufacturing and above all, to be a competitive and target-oriented professional, woking in a team. 49
  55. 55. REFERENCES  http//www.abdindia.com/  http//tetrapak.com/  http//fssai.gov.in/  Draft_Regulation_on_Food_additives_WTO_23_07_2015  23 SPIRIT DRINKS REGULATIONS 2005 (NAFDAC)  IS 6613 (2002): Neutral Spirit for Alcoholic Drinks  IS 11583 (1986): Method for sensory evaluation of Indian made foreign liquors (IMFL)  http//www.tetrapak.com/  IS 3752 (2005): Alcoholic drinks - Methods of test  Packaging and Lable020811.pmd by RamKrishan  Neutral Alcohol Technology by Vogelbusch  IWSR Reports 2014  happy-hours-28sep  Happy_Hours_11th_Issue  CSC Specifications Manual.doc  Directorate of Excise, Government of West Bengal 50
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