More Related Content


Microbial Technologies For Biowaste.pptx

  1. Presented By: Soumya Sephalika Swain Microbial Perspectives of Biowaste Degradation and Management
  2. • Waste can be simply defined as a material that is no longer useful and is unwanted by its producer. As an example, a newspaper that has been read, a package that has been emptied, or an apple that has been eaten, have all lost their original value. • So, waste generation not only negatively impacts human health but also the environment as well and which leads to climatic catastrophe, harms wildlife, and impacts our own health. • According to the World Bank’s 2018 report, rise in population growth and urbanization, annual waste generation in the world is expected to increase by 73% from 2020 levels to 3.88 billion tonnes in 2050, resulting in a daily footprint of 0.79 kilograms per person. What is Waste?
  3. Mining Waste Bio Waste Industrial Waste Household & Commercial Waste Construction Demolition Waste Waste Wate Bodies Types of Wastes
  4. Untreated waste is defined as waste that has not been immobilized, disinfected, or sterilized and contains high levels of phosphorus and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, pathogenic microbes, heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, and organic matter in the natural ecosystem. The disposal of waste without treatment creates landfills, pollutes the soil causes soil infertility, and threatens the green life in that area, as well as its impact on all life on earth. What is Untreated Waste? Why do we need to treat waste?
  5. Composition of Biowaste • Biowaste or biodegradable waste is a type of feedstock defined as waste from organic origin. It includes any organic matter in waste which can be broken down into carbon dioxide, water, methane, or simple organic molecules by microorganisms and other living things by composting, aerobic digestion, and anaerobic digestion or similar processes. • As discussed above, the major portion of biowaste is organic in nature, the main proportion is plant materials, and agricultural wastes which contain a high proportion of cellulosic, hemicellulosic, and lignin, collectively known as lignocellulosic matter (Sachez, 2009)
  6. What is Microbial Degradation? • Microorganisms are ubiquitous in the environment, where they play a variety of critical roles in the natural recycling of organic materials. In fact, it is the process by which active microflora break down organic materials into smaller molecules. • So, the basic procedures for the microbiological conversion of organic wastes are included, along with a characterization of an enzyme that metabolizes biological materials. • It is based on two processes: growth and cometabolism. In growth, an organic pollutant is used as the sole source of carbon and energy, which leads to the complete degradation of the pollutants. In cometabolism, the contaminant is luckily degraded by an enzyme or cofactor produced during microbial metabolism of another compound.
  7. Steps of Microbial Degradation: There are many steps in the microbial degradation of pollutants and have certain terminologies by which they can be identified. a) Bio-deterioration- It defines the action of certain organisms that are responsible for the physical as well chemical decomposition of the waste. This results in surface degradation that alters the properties of the material including mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. b) Bio-fragmentation- It refers to the certain catalytic actions that break down the polymeric chains and converts them into respective oligomers, dimers, or monomers by x free radicals or ectoenzymes that the microorganisms release. c) Assimilation- It is the getting together or union of the constituent molecules transported in the cytoplasm in the metabolic pathways or strategies of microbes. d) Mineralisation- In this process, the molecules degenerate in a way that results in their total deterioration and excretion of fully oxidized metabolites like CO2, N2, CH4 and H2O.
  8. Biowaste Plant Waste Food Waste Animal Waste Produces Enzymes Enzymes liquify Organic waste Degradation of complex compounds through hydrolases, dioxygenase, peroxidase, etc. Microbes digest the liquid waste Multiply & Cell division Nutrient acquisition by active and passive transport Secreting carrier proteins to the environment Bring the need nutrient back into the cell By-products Inoculation of Microorganism CO2 Ethanol Methanol Process of Microbial Degradation:
  9. Role of Microbes in Biodegradation • The most significant effect of the microbes on earth is their ability to recycle the primary elements that make up all living systems, especially carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen (N). So, the microorganisms involved in this process produce different lytic enzymes which break down organic matter to form humus along with the production of CO2, water, and heat. • They recycle nutrients in the environment, by decomposing organic materials, such as animal carcasses, leafy litter, and tree trunks. • Decomposition is where dead animal or plant matter is broken down into more basic molecules. This process only happens because of the microorganisms that find their way into the dead matter. • Although many microbes are able to metabolize organic pollutants, a single microbe does not possess the enzymatic capability to degrade all or even most of the organic compounds in polluted soil. As a result, mixed microbial communities can degrade a complex mixture of organic compounds more rapidly than single-microbial communities.
  10. Biofuel Biopoly -mers Bioferti -lizers Enzym es Organi c acids Single cell protein Animal feed Bioelec t-ricity Biogas BIOWASTE Management of waste in various Bio-based products:
  11. Name of the Microorganisms Reported Waste Digestion By-products from the digested waste Authors Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GenBank accession number: KX 583567.1) Potato peel waste Bioethanol Production Chauhan et al., 2022 Streptomyces rochei Domestic Agro waste Composting and Treatment of Pulp-Paper Mill Effluent Limaye et al., 2017 Eisenia fetida and Pseudomonas sp. Agricultural waste Biofertilizer Rajkhowa et al., 2019 Brevibacillus borstelensis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Food Waste Bioenzymes (ɑ-amylase & cellulase) Awasthi et al., 2017 Bacillus subtilis B1U/1, B. subtilis D3L/1 and Pseudomonas sp Common organic wastes Compost Pan et al., 2011 Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum Sugarcane waste Compost Kumar et al., 2010 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starch based waste Bioethanol Production Kumar et al., 2016 Some reported studies related to Biowaste digestion:
  12. Thank You