Product and brand management


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  • The primary objective of media scheduling is to time advertising efforts so that they will coincide with the highest potential buying periods. This slide shows the three scheduling methods available to the media planner: Continuity – continuous pattern of advertising; every day, every week, or every month Flighting – intermittent periods of advertising and no advertising Pulsing – combination of the first two; continuity is maintained but at certain periods advertising is increased. A continuity schedule can be appropriate with food products, household products and products consumed on an ongoing basis. A flighting schedule is well suited to seasonal or other products that are consumed mostly during certain time periods. A pulsing schedule may be used for products that have little sales variation from period to period, but might see some increase in certain times such as cold beverages in the hot summer months.
  • Product and brand management

    1. 1. Product and Brand Management
    2. 2.  Product  A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that might satisfy a need or want including physical goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information and ideas” Brand  A name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors
    3. 3. Product Levels (The Customer ValueHierarchy )
    4. 4. Consumer Products and Industrial Products Consumer Products- These are products and services bought by final consumers for personal consumption  Convenience Products- are consumer products and services that customers usually buy frequently, as soon as they feel the need for them and with a minimum of comparison and buying effort  staples, impulse goods, emergency goods  Shopping Products- are less frequently purchased consumer products and services that consumers compare carefully on suitability, quality, price and style. Here consumers spend much time and effort in gathering information and making comparisons
    5. 5.  Specialty Products- are consumer products and services with unique features and brand identification for which a significant group of buyers are willing to make a special purchase effort. They are more expensive than convenience products and are not purchased so frequently  Unsought Products- are consumer products that the consumer either does not know or knows but does not normally think of buying Industrial Products- A product bought by individuals and organizations for further processing or for use in conducting a business like Materials and parts, Capital items, supplies etc
    6. 6. Product Mix (Product assortment/Product portfolio) Home & personal care FoodsPersonal wash Laundry Hair care Deodorants Color Tea Coffee Foods Ice-Cream cosmetics lux Surf excel Sunsilk Axe Lakme Brook Bru Kissan Kwality- bond Annapurna walls lifebuoy Rin Clinic Rexona Lipton liril Wheel Dove Pears Rexona
    7. 7.  Product Mix (Product assortment)-is the set of all products and items a particular seller offers for sale. It consists of various product lines. Product line- A group of products within the product class that are closely related because they perform a similar function ,are sold to the same customer groups, are marketed through the same outlets or channels, or fall within given price ranges. It may be composed of different brands or individual brand that has been line extended Product class (product category)- A group of products having a certain functional coherence. Eg Financial Instruments Product-mix Width- It refers to how many different product lines the company carries. Product-mix length- It refers total number of items in its product lines Product-mix depth- It refers how many variants are offered of each product in the line.
    8. 8.  Line stretching-It occurs when a company lengthens its product line beyond its current range
    9. 9. New Product Adoption ProcessAwarenessAwareness Interest Interest Evaluation Evaluation Trial Trial Adoption Adoption Loyalty
    10. 10. Diffusion of Innovation The process by which the use of an innovation whether a product or service spreads through out a market group, over time and over various categories of adopters is known as diffusion of innovation. It helps marketers to understand The rate at which consumers are likely to adopt a new product or service It also helps the marketers to identify the potential customers for their new products and services and also predict their potential sales
    11. 11. Diffusion of Innovation Curve
    12. 12.  Innovators  These are those buyers who want to be the first to have the new product or service. These buyers enjoy taking risks and are regarded as highly knowledgeable Early Adopters  These are those buyers who generally do not like to take as much risk as innovators but instead wait and purchase the product after careful review and sometimes are also regarded as opinion leaders Early Majority  This group differs from buyers in the first two categories. Its members do not like to take as much risk and hence tend to wait. When early majority customers enter the market the number of competitors in the market usually also has reached its peak, so these buyers have many different price and quality choices Late Majority  It is a group of buyers who adopt a product or service when it has reached its full market potential. By the time the late majority enters the market, sales tend to level off or may be in decline Laggards  These consumers like to avoid change and rely on traditional products until they are no longer available and even sometimes they may never adopt a certain product or service
    13. 13.  Brand Architecture How an organization structures and names the brands within its portfolio.  Monolithic Brand - Here the corporate name is used on all products and services offered by the company. e.g. Mercedes, BMW, Sony, TATA, Apple  Endorsed Brand - where all sub-brands are linked to the corporate brand by means of either a verbal or visual endorsement. It generally a product or service brand name that is supported by a Masterbrand - either dominantly e.g. Tesco Metro, Nestle Kit-Kat, Virgin, General Electric  Freestanding Brand - the corporate brand operates merely as a holding company, and each product or service is individually branded for its target market. A brand name and identity used for a single product or service in a portfolio, which is unrelated to the names and identities of other products in the companys portfolio
    14. 14.  Co-branding- The use of two or more brand names in support of a new product, service or venture Masterbrand- A brand name that dominates all products or services in a range or across a business. Sometimes used with sub- brands, sometimes used with alpha or numeric signifiers. Audi, Nescafe and Lego, for example, are all used as master brands Power Branding- A strategy in which every product in a companys range has its own brand name which functions independently, unsupported by either the companys corporate brand or its other product brands. Power branding is a resource-intensive strategy, since each brand must be commercially promoted and legally protected. This strategy is used mainly by manufacturers of consumer goods. Levers and Procter & Gambles detergents are good examples of power brands Sub-brand- A product or service brand that had its own name and visual identity to differentiate it from the parent brand.
    15. 15. The Product Management Process ‘The product management process consists of generating, analyzing, organizing, planning, implementing and control of the firm’s existing and new products so as to satisfy the needs and wants of chosen customer segments while fulfilling organizational objectives’ The Major elements include:  Generation, analysis, organization, planning, implementation and control of products  Products include both current and new products  Customer satisfaction and customer delight  Fulfillment of firm own objectives
    16. 16. The Product Planning System and Strategies Process of Product Planning 1. Determination of Corporate objectives, resources and constraints 2. Monitoring the current and anticipated environment 3. Situation analysis 4. Product/Market portfolio analysis and decision 5. Analysis and implementation of changes in the current product portfolio 6. Development of product and marketing programmes 7. Evaluation of alternative programmes 8. Organization for marketing action, implementation and control
    17. 17.  Situation analysis  Product Performance Matrix- It consists of four parameters like Industry sales, company sales, Market share and profitability of a product. This matrix also helps to identify and analyze which products should be continued and nurtured and which product should be dropped Product/Market portfolio analysis and decision  Ansoff matrix (Product/Market Matrix)-  Penetration of existing products in existing market  Entry into new markets with the current product  Development of new products for entry into the current market  Development of new product for entry into new market
    18. 18.  Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Approach  The Boston Consulting Group is a consulting company which developed this growth-share matrix to evaluate the position of business units on the basis of market growth rate and relative market share General Electric Approach  General Electric developed this model with the assistance of McKinsey & Company. This is an improvement over BCG Growth-share matrix. It focuses on two dimensions  Industry Attractiveness  Business strength
    19. 19. BCG Matrix
    20. 20. General Electric Approach Analyzing Current SBU’s: GE’s Strategic Business-Planning Grid Business St rengt h St rong Average Weak C I ndust ry At t ract iveness High A Medium B D Low
    22. 22. The Product Development Process Concept testing Concept testing Idea generation Idea generation (Testing the new (Testing the new Product development Product development (Development of (Development of product idea among product idea among (Development of prototypes (Development of prototypes new product ideas) new product ideas) aaset of potential set of potential and/or the product) and/or the product) customers) customers) Evaluation of results Evaluation of results Market testing Market testing Product launch Product launch (Analysis of the (Analysis of the (Testing the actual (Testing the actual (Full scale (Full scaleperformance of the new performance of the new products in aafew test products in few test commercialization of commercialization of product and making product and making markets) markets) the product) the product)appropriate modifications appropriate modifications
    23. 23.  Concept testing  Ideas with potential are developed further into concepts, which in this context refer to brief written descriptions of the product; its technology, working principles and forms ; and what customer needs it would satisfy. A concept might also include visual images of what the product would look like Product development  A prototype is sometimes also developed, which is the first physical form or service description of a new product, still in a rough form, that has the same properties as a new product. The product prototypes are tested through,  alpha testing- here the firm attempts to determine whether it satisfies the need for which it was intended. Rather than using potential customers, alpha tests occur in the firm’s R&D department  beta testing- here it uses the potential consumers to examine the product prototype
    24. 24.  Market testing  Premarket test- Here the firms conduct pre-tests before they actually bring a product or service to market to determine how many customers will try and then continue to use the product or service according to a small group of potential customers  Test marketing- A method of determining the success potential of a new product, test marketing introduces the offering to a limited geographical area prior to national launch. It also uses all the elements of marketing mix
    25. 25. Commercialization or Launch Methods of Launching  Immediate national Launch  Rolling Launch- This is an alternate to national launch. In this method, the initial launch begins with two or three cities and increases its reach to other places
    26. 26. The Launch Cycle Pre- Launch preparation  It consists of the activities before the point at which the product is officially offered for sale. These activities typically include marketing pre-announcements, building marketing capability, establishing service capability, promoting the new product via public relations and filling the distribution channel etc Announcement  It is the second phase when the product is officially offered to the market with the announcement Beachhead  In this third phase, efforts focus on achieving market awareness and generating an initial flow of sales
    27. 27. The Launch Cycle Early Growth  This is the fourth stage of launch when usually sales grow as customer interest in the new product grows. If sales are not growing than few strategies are applied to create demand for the product
    28. 28. Launch Control Protocol It is a tool that is useful during pre-launch preparation. The launch protocol is used to monitor and control activities during the launch  Identifying the problems that might occur during the product launch  Develop plans to monitor and control these problems
    29. 29. Innovation Continuous Innovation  It is built on an already established idea or product. The user will typically use the product in a similar fashion as he used it before, although it has been changed in some respects Dynamically Continuous Innovation  This type of innovation revolves around either the creation of a new product or a radical change to an existing one Discontinuous/Disruptive Innovation  This is a totally new product in the market, the product is new and unique and has not been seen by consumers before
    30. 30. Augmented Reality (AR) used for the launch MahindraXUV500 at Auto Expo in New Delhi
    31. 31. Key Elements of Brand Equity Brand loyalty Brand awareness Brand Equity Perceived quality Brand associations Other proprietary brand assets
    32. 32. Few Brand Strategy Decisions Line Extension Brand Extension Multi-branding New Brands Co-brands
    33. 33. Brand Extension Types of Brand Extensions  Product form extension- It is a line extension like Amul Condensed Milk is a product for extension of Amul Milk  Companion product- For example a toothpaste brand offering a toothbrush under the same brand name  Extension in unrelated areas  Umbrella branding  Line Branding HUL Denim shaving Denim Denim Soap Denim Talc cream After shave
    34. 34. Co-Branding /Dual Branding Here two or more well known brands are combined in an offer. It is a form of cooperation between two or more brands  Ingredient co-branding- Here one of the combining brands advertises that it uses the other brand(s) as its ingredient like IBM or Compaq advertising that it uses the Intel Chip displaying ‘Intel Inside’  Value and endorsement co-branding- It is the shared value creation and the strength of relationship like P&G’s tie up with National Association for Blind  Multiple Sponsor co-branding- Where more than two brands combine for a specific cause like Citibank combining with IOCL and MTNL to be used to pay bills and in petrol pumps
    35. 35. Brand Identity‘a unique set of brand associations that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain. These associations represent what the brand stands for and imply a promise to customers’
    36. 36. Brand Identity Perspectives Brand as a Product Brand as an Organization Brand as a Person Brand as a Symbol
    37. 37. Message Design-Appeal Rational Appeals Emotional Appeals  Positive Emotional Appeals- Love, affection, joy, pride, humour, prestige, status etc  Negative Emotional Appeals- Fear (slice of death) ads, shame, guilt, embarrassment, rejection etc Morale Appeals
    38. 38. A camera captures a muddy and way... if you let it." At the tip of the axe a tiny shoot is growing.dry tree root and moves on... an old and rusted axe lying there. VO: "Life will always find a ‘Issued in public interest by vivid motions pictures’
    39. 39. Max New York Life Insurance The film opens with On her way she asks the After entering the house, a woman hurriedly security guard, “sahab she quickly starts her climbing up the aaye?” to which he replies kitchen chores and calls stairs to her house “haan memsahab” out for Sanju, her husbandOn getting no response, she calls on Adding to her suspicion, the call is nothis mobile and starts looking for him answered as she finds his phoneall over the house carelessly lying under a pillow
    40. 40. Finally she manages to find her husband at the terrace, but is startled to see him lying still on a rocking chair.SSoouurrcc Very nervously she moves him and shouts with mixedee:: emotions of relief and fear to find him alrightTTVVAAddIInnddxx//ww w w Cut to a shot of an equally scared Sanju hugging his “Musibatein bata ke nahin aati, isliye Max New Yorkom o m Life ke life insurance plans. Life mein rahein hamesha taiyaar.”
    41. 41. The film opens on a father The boy tells his father Surprised at his ambition theand son in their car waiting that he will open a cycle father asks him why he would dofor the signal to turn green repair show when he so grows up This leads to our man“Jis tarah aap sab petrol waste thinking who in turn puts off ...Please. Kam se kam signalkar rahe hain, future mein toh the engine .“Khud hi sarapetrol bachega hi nahin.Tab toh pe toh engine off keejiye.” petrol khatam karegein ya (Save fuel yaani save money)sab cycle hi chalayegein na?” kuch apne bachchon ke liyereplies the son. bhi chhodegein?
    42. 42. Emotional Appeals Fair and Lovely- Beauty that empowers a woman to change her destiny Tanishq- Jewellery that wants to make you marry HDFC- Sar uthake jiyo Tata Tea- Har subah sirf utha mat. Jaago Re Haywards Soda- Haywards hai to honsla buland hai Tata Salt- Desh Ka Namak Mountain Dew- Kyonki darr ke aage jeet hai Raymond- The Complete Man
    43. 43. Brand Identity Levels Central Identity (Inner Central Identity (Inner Core) Core) Brand Identity Brand Identity Levels Levels Outer Core Outer Core
    44. 44. Brand Identity- Horlicks Inner Core  Nutrition and Health Outer Core  User- Anybody who needs nutrition and health by targeting various customer groups with varied product mix  Extensions- Horlicks Junior, Mother’s Horlicks, Horlicks Biscuits etc  Personality- Protecting, caring, supportive and concerned  Heritage- The Company has been in the business of providing nourishment for decades  Value Proposition- Helps you perform your role better in life. Good health and living
    45. 45. Brand Identity- Dettol Inner Core  Protection against germs Outer Core  User- children, young adults hygiene conscious etc  Extensions- Dettol soap, Dettol handwash, Dettol shaving cream, Dettol hand sanitizer etc  Personality- Reliable. Trustworthy and strong  Heritage- The Company has been in the business of protecting against germs to keep healthy  Value Proposition- Provides protection against possible harmful effects of germs and bacteria. Feeling of security and protection
    46. 46. The Six Stages of Brand Evolution Unbranded Goods Brand as Reference  Here the brand moves on to create differentiation on unique functional benefits and it is given a name Brand as Personality  Amidst the clutter of functional promise brands make emotional appeal Brand as Icon Brand as Company Brand as Policy  At this stage brand evolves beyond the business concerns to identify with social, political and ethical issues
    47. 47. Brand Identity Prism Physical Facet/ Brand Physique Personality Culture Relationship Reflection/ Reflected Consumer Self Image/ Consumer Metalisation
    48. 48. STP
    49. 49. Segmenting The Art of Dividing a market into distinct groups of Buyers who might require separate Products and/or Marketing Mixes
    50. 50. Segmenting Procedure Survey Stage Analysis Stage Profiling Stage
    51. 51. Bases for segmentation Geographic  Mc Donalds- McAloo Tikki Burger, Mc curry Pan, Times of India, Nilgiri Tea etc Demographic  Age  Gender  Income  Occupation  Family size, Family life cycle  Education  Religion, Nationality  Marital status
    52. 52.  Hero Honda Pleasure Set wet hair gel
    53. 53. Happy Holi
    54. 54.  Psychographic  Values & Lifestyle  Social Class, Health oriented, culture oriented, busy professional, active outdoor enthusiast, believers, strivers etc  Personality  Ambitious, introvert, extrovert etc
    55. 55.  Primary Motivation: Ideals, Achievement, and Self-Expression  The concept of primary motivation explains consumer attitudes and anticipates behavior. VALS includes three primary motivations that matter for understanding consumer behavior: ideals, achievement, and self-expression. Consumers who are primarily motivated by ideals are guided by knowledge and principles. Consumers who are primarily motivated by achievement look for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers. Consumers who are primarily motivated by self-expression desire social or physical activity, variety, and risk Resources  A persons tendency to consume goods and services extends beyond age, income, and education. Energy, self-confidence, intellectualism, novelty seeking, innovativeness, impulsiveness, leadership etc play a critical role. These psychological traits in conjunction with key demographics determine an individuals resources. Various levels of resources enhance or constrain a persons expression of his or her primary motivation
    56. 56. VALS Segmentation The four groups with higher resources  Innovators  Successful, sophisticated, active people with high self-esteem and often prefer niche oriented products and services  Thinkers  Mature, satisfied and reflective people who are motivated by ideals and who value knowledge and responsibility. They seek durability, functionality and value in products  Achievers  Successful, goal-oriented people who focus on career and family. They favor premium products that demonstrate success to their peers  Experiencers  Young, enthusiastic, impulsive people who seek variety and excitement. They spend a comparatively high proportion of income on fashion, entertainment and socialising
    57. 57.  Four groups with lower resources  Believers  Conservative, conventional and traditional people. They prefer familiar products and are loyal to establish brands  Strivers  Trendy and fun loving people who are resource constrained. They favor stylish products that emulate the purchases of those with greater material wealth  Makers  Practical, down-to-earth and self-sufficient people who like to work and seek products with a practical or functionality purpose  Survivors  Elderly, passive people who are concerned about change. They are normally loyal to their favorite brands
    58. 58.  Behavioral  Purchase, use occasions  Benefits  User Status  Non-user, ex-user, potential user, first time user, regular user  Usage status  light, medium and heavy user  Product knowledge  Loyalty status  Hard Core Loyal- consumers who are loyal to only one brand all the time  Soft Core Loyal/Split loyal- consumers who are loyal to two or three brands  Shifting Loyal- consumers who shift loyalty from one brand to another  Switchers- consumers who show no loyalty to any brand  Attitude towards the product and Extent of involvement
    59. 59. Market Targeting“The Act of Developing measures of Segment attractiveness and selecting one or more market segments to enter” “Process of evaluating each market segment’s attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter”
    60. 60. Evaluating/Analyzing the Market Segments Segment Size and Growth Segment Structural Attractiveness  (Porter’s Five Forces Segment structural Attractiveness)
    61. 61. Five patterns of Target Market Selection Single Segment concentration Selective Specialization Market Specialization  Here the firm concentrates on serving many needs of a particular customer group Product Specialization  The firm makes a certain product that it sells to several different market segments Full Coverage  Undifferentiated marketing  Differentiated marketing
    62. 62. Determining how many segments to enter Undifferentiated marketing  This involves ignoring any differences among consumers and suggests offering just one product or service to the entire market. This mass-marketing strategy focuses on what is common in the needs of consumers rather than what is different Differentiated marketing  The marketer decides to enter several market segments, or niches and develop separate offers for each. For instance Maruti Udyog is producing cars for various segments. Coca-Cola and Pepsi are offering different versions of their soft drinks Concentrated marketing Here the company targets a segment and goes for a large market share. For example Recycled paper producers like Wizard India focuses on the market for Greeting cards or wedding cards etc
    63. 63.  Niche Marketing  A Niche is a more narrowly defined customer group seeking a distinctive mix of benefits. Marketers usually identify niches by dividing a segment into subsegments  The customers in the niche have a distinct set of needs  They will pay a premium to a firm that best satisfies their needs  Niches are fairly small and normally attract only few  Ezee (liquid detergent for woolen clothes)  Crack Cream (primarily targeted at women for prevention and treatment of cracked heels that develop due to inadequate protection and care)  Himalaya Herbal Health care in ayurvedic products  D’cold NATURAL (cough syrup for kids)  Aastha (in India that targets on the basis of religion and spirituality)  STAR Sports- (STAR Cricket for cricket lovers)  Kelloggs Special K- (for women who are fitness conscious)  Women’s Horlicks - ( New generation women balancing between family and career)
    64. 64. Himalaya Herbal Health care in ayurvedic products
    65. 65. A little girl is racked by a bout of coughing as Just then her sympathising aunt asks, "Ghar mein Dcold Syrup nahin hai kya? Is mein haiher parents get ready to summon the doctor doctor vaala tatv." The girl is fully recovered and she celebrates"Dcold Syrup mein hai doctor vaala tatv jispe her birthday in style as she chimes with hersabhi bharosa karte hain. Yaani chain kisaans." aunt, "Is mein hai Doctor vaala tatv."
    66. 66. Shot of a girl touching up She is applying eye liner ...hypnotize her, swinging in a when suddenly a dude tries chain. whispers, "Look into myher make up in the campus to eyes."In a little while, the girl Product window. Elle 18, the She snatches the chain from cooling eye liner with afinds him hypnotized our spellbound fellow and steady grip brush. Ellie 18,instead . moves ahead as , "Look Look into my eyes for eyes that hypnotize
    67. 67. Market Positioning“Positioning is the act of designing the Company’s offer so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the target customer’s mind”
    68. 68. Positioning by Corporate Identity
    69. 69. Positioning by Product benefit
    70. 70. Positioning by Product benefit
    71. 71. A lady admires an expensive pair of sandals. Thesalesman takes...... a closer look at her cracked heels as they settledown to try itThe salesman shows a cheaper shoe but she insists onthe red pair. "Woh wala aapke budget mein nahi... aygamadam", replies the man. MVO: "Afsoos, pairon kidararon se koi bhi aapke zindagi mein jaank sakta hai ."
    72. 72. Pesh hai Vaseline ka aviskariek do crack relief. Pehle liquidsaakht chamri nikale phir...... cream dararon ko boar daale. Now, even at the jewelersthey dont refuse her
    73. 73. Positioning by Price Quality
    74. 74. Positioning by Life Style or Use Occasion
    75. 75. User-based Positioning
    76. 76. Competitive Positioning
    77. 77. Competitive Positioning
    78. 78. Competitive Positioning
    79. 79. Marketing Communications“Marketing communications are the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade & remind consumers directly or indirectly about the products and brands they sell”
    80. 80. Marketing Communications Mix (Promotions Mix) 4P’SProduct Place Promotion Price Personal Sales Direct Advertising Selling Promotion Marketing Personal PR / Publicity Selling
    81. 81. INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS “ A management concept that is designed to make all aspects of marketing communication work together as a unified force, rather than permitting each to work in isolation”
    82. 82. Budget Allocation Top-down approach  The affordable method (all you can afford method)  Arbitrary allocation  Percentage of sales method  Competitive parity method Build-up approach (bottom-up approach)  Objective and task method  The experimental approach
    83. 83. Advertising “ Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods & services by an identified sponsor” The definition highlights the following features of advertising “ a paid form’ of presentation emphasises that advertising space or time must be purchased Its ‘non-personal’ nature emphasises the fact that it is not a direct presentation to one individual but to the masses ‘ Identified sponsor’ refers to the identification of the brand or the advertiser that is communicating
    84. 84. Advertising Objectives Informative advertising Persuasive advertising Reminder advertising Reinforcement advertising
    85. 85. The Five M’s of Advertising Mission Money Message Media Setting Setting Set the Set the Determine Determine Deciding Deciding Advertising Advertising Advertising Advertising the Key the Key which which Objectives Objectives Budget Budget Advertising Advertising Advertising Advertising Messages Messages Media to Use Media to Use Evaluating Evaluating the Results the Results Measurement of of Advertising Advertising Campaign Campaign
    86. 86. Media Planning and Strategy To whom do we advertise? (Target Audience) Where do we advertise? (Geographic Area) When do we advertise? (Scheduling) In which media should we advertise? Media Class- It is the generally category of message delivery system for carrying the ad message to a selected audience such as print media, broadcast media or outdoor media etc Media Vehicle- It is the specific message carrier within a medium such as Times of India, Zee etc Media Reach- It is a measure of the number of different audience members or households exposed at least once to a media schedule within given period of time. Here reach is also called OTC (opportunity to see) Media frequency- It is the average number of times that an individual or household is exposed to a message carrying media vehicle within the specified time period Media Scheduling- It is concerned with timing the insertion of ads in the selected media vehicles Media Impact
    87. 87. Media Scheduling Continuity Flighting Pulsing Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    88. 88. Pop-Outs ; Ads which popped on the screen occupying a quarterof the screen
    89. 89. Action Replay ; Logos that come on when replay of the lastscore or the last wicket
    90. 90. On Screen Logo ; Brand Logos that pops on thescreen while a match is on
    91. 91. Push Backs ; Brand Logo popping out during the match
    92. 92. Scroller ; It is normal scroll of the Ad
    93. 93. Paste-Up ; Brand logos that appears along with the score cardor graphs
    94. 94. Newspaper Advertising Display advertising- This is a form of advertising that, more often than not, contains graphic information, text, logos, images, illustrations etc. It is available in many different sizes and is spread throughout the newspaper Classified advertising- It is grouped under subheads classifying the product being marketed. (e.g. headings such as employment, automobiles, real estate etc) Special ads and inserts- These are usually ads by government or political parties sharing their achievements, giving notices, advocating an issue, promoting a candidate etc. Sometimes financial reports, initial public offering announcements etc are also published by organisations as special advertisements
    95. 95.  Paid circulation- The number of sold copies Pass-along readership Total audience or readership=readers per copy (total primary+ pass along readers) circulation Audit Bureau of circulation of India (ABC) Registrar of newspapers for India (RNI) The Indian newspaper society (INS) National Readership survey (NRS) & Indian Readership survey (IRS) by Media Research Users Council (MRUC)
    96. 96. Buying Newspaper space Rate units- column inches or column centimeters Standard Advertising Unit (SAU)- Square centimeter (sq cm) Rate card- Newspapers print their rates in a document called rate card that contains prices and descriptions for the various ad placement options Flat rates- standard advertising rates with no discounts Open rate- various types and levels of discounts based on frequency, volume, desire to sell last minute unused space etc Contract rates- these are lower than open rates and are offered to advertisers who plan to run a series of advertisements in a particular period usually one year and within a specific space purchase
    97. 97. Magazine Advertorial-(combination of advertisement and editorial) admazines – These magazines are published by the advertiser with the main objective of exclusively or selectively promoting their products. They may also carry editorial content. Airline inflight magazines featuring articles on destinations that the airline flies to, carrier’s ads and related editorial articles etc
    98. 98.  Magazine advertising units  few columns  half page (vertical half page, horizontal half page)  full page  quarter page  spread (two full pages opposite each other)  column inches or sq cm  island position- surrounded by editorial matter  bleed ads- where in advertisements can be extended beyond the normal margin of the page to the edge of the page
    99. 99. Out of Home Advertising Panels
    100. 100. Bus shelter Display
    101. 101. Display Vans
    102. 102. Taxi top & trunk display
    103. 103. FlagsMotion display
    104. 104. Pillar sites in Airport
    105. 105. Pole KiosksPublic utility Wall painting
    106. 106. Neon signGlow signs /Signage boards
    107. 107. Minute Maid Pulpy Orange Inflatable Bicycle kiosks Human kiosks
    108. 108. Eco-friendlyoutdoor advertisingMediumAccuRide AdBikes
    109. 109. Mobitisements
    110. 110. Revolving Window
    111. 111. Balloon with built in Television
    112. 112. Lugcart
    113. 113. CashurDrive
    114. 114. Packaging and Labeling Package- as all the activities of designing and producing the container for a product. A package is the physical container or wrapping for a product  Primary package  Secondary package  Shipping package
    115. 115. Functions of Packaging Promoting and selling the product Defining product identity Providing information Expressing benefits and features Ensuring safe use
    116. 116.  Mixed Bundling  Sometimes multiple complementary items are bundled together in one package. Mixed bundling is the practice of packaging different products and services together Price bundling  It occurs when two or more products are placed on sale for one package
    117. 117.  Blisterpack/bubble pack  These are packages with preformed plastic molds surrounding individual items arranged on a backing Aseptic packaging  It involves separately sterilizing the package and the food product, and filling and sealing the package in a sterile environment. Canning and bottling are examples of this method, which keeps food fresh for a particular time duration Cause packaging  involves using packages to promote social and political causes. The issues on the packages may be totally unrelated to the products inside
    118. 118. labelA label is an information tag, wrapper, seal, orimprinted message that is attached to a product orits package. Its main function is to informcustomers about the product’s contents and givedirections for its use. It might contain a brandname or information. So it is the written, printedand graphic material on the package Statutory component Optional component
    119. 119. Branding through Advergaming Types of Advergaming  Above the Line or custom Advergaming  In this form of advergaming companies provide an interactive game in their website to attract customers and hope that they spend extra time on the website. The games developed by companies feature its products so as to increase awareness about the product among the potential customers  Below the Line Advergaming  In this type of promotion companies generally develop games related to their products and services and distribute these to their prospective clients For example KID (Kindle Imagine Develop) created a video game known as Pepsiman  Through the Line Advergaming  In this form of advergaming, URL hyperlinks are provided in the games in order to prompt the players to visit the website which contains advertisements