ROOT w w w. r o o t - l a n d . o r g                                                                                     ...
contents                        INTRODUCTION                        Michael Leccese   theory & practice    THE INFRASTRUCT...
Michael Leccese has written many newspaper and magazine articles on design, planning and real estate and contributed to nu...
his early career, Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr., thundered         If people and practitioners influence, so do              ...
No work can be                                conceived independently of the                                   human and n...
PREVIOUS Venice, Italy. Gradual workings of water on traditional infrastructural elements illustrate how time and natural ...
Time                                                           slowly eroded. Now, our connections to water happen        ...
RIGHT The 1888 Silver Lake ditch of Boulder, CO was the area’s final ditch                                                ...
BELOW An exposed pipe in the Asian Tropics renovation at the Denver Zoo. Photo by Jeramy Boik 2010.            lands where...
BELOW Pervious vs. impervious surfaces: Parking lot L, Auraria campus, University of Colorado Denver. Despite higher maint...
C O N V E N T I O N A L D E V E LO P M E N T SYST E M S               Conventional stormwater systems treat precipitation ...
OPPOSITE Low Impact Development Case Study | Parking Lot K, The University of Colorado Denver, the Urban Drainage and Floo...
RIGHT Conventional rooftop drainage directs runoff directly to the storm sewer.                                           ...
the parking lot. Palmer Elementary School and Marrama         a rain garden travels a long distance and picks up excessEle...
and be treated while preventing them from clogging            commonly seen adjacent to parking lots and streets.         ...
BELOW The Wal-Mart SuperCenter in Aurora, CO incorporates a variety of advanced efficiency technologies which includes a f...
administering Colorado’s stormwater management            plan. Colorado has an immense amount of stormwater            re...
OPPOSITE Green roofs like this one have become a resident-initiated practice in Sandy, Oregon in response to a municipal S...
BELOW Conventional parking lot drains allow parking lot pollutants to travel directly into rivers. Parking lot L, Auraria ...
BELOW Experimental fog collectors at Alto Patache: These are double the size of a Standard Fog Collector (SFC) but use the...
BELOW Specifications for a Standard Fog Collector. Robert S. Shemenauer 1994.                         these collectors are...
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management
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Root 2: Landscaping for Water Resouces Management

  1. 1. ROOT w w w. r o o t - l a n d . o r g From the Editors: staff Faculty Advisors Ann Komara and Michael Leccese The idea for R O O T began as a conversation among classmates in the fall of 2007, driving back from a studio site visit to the marble ruins near the Crystal River in Editors Bryan Ganno and Amanda Jeter western Colorado. Inspired by landscape writing in publications like Pages Paysages, R O O T made its debut in the summer of 2009 with the inaugural Unexpected E d i t o r i a l Te a m Anthony Marshall , Patsy Shaffer and Brian Stuhr Landscapes issue. Resourceful Obstacles marks my last turn as editor while introducing Bryan Ganno as the continuing editor. This issue takes inspiration from a Production Advisor Doug Ekstrand visit by former ASLA president Angela Dye who encouraged students and practitioners to advocate for change in Colorado’s restrictive “first in time-first in right” water Production Managers Kourtnie Rae Harris and Sera Sibley law. Dye’s call to action sparked an investigation into the obstacles that landscape architects face in theory and practice. Magazine Layout Patsy Shaffer and Sera Sibley Amanda Jeter, R O O T Founder and Editor 2009-2010 Conceptual Design Sergio Villanueva Preston Bryan Ganno, R O O T Editor 2010-2011 Photo Editor Erin Devine Cover Design Peter Chivers and Sergio Villanueva Preston Cover Art Peter Chivers Please share, recycle or up-cycle this publication. W e b s i t e Te a m Peter Chivers and Kent Martin Copyright © 2010 R O O T. Nothing shown may be reproduced in any form PR Managers Katie McKain and Jenna Perstlinger without obtaining the permission of R O O T and its contributors. thank you to the American Society of Landscape Architects Student Chapter of University of Colorado Denver for their financial contribution; Clarke Fine of American Web for time, support and paper; Don Gustafson of Print Matters for his hard work and excellent laughter; Mudo Printing for quality printing and the faculty of UCD for their continued advice, support and financial backing. A special thank you to Doug Ekstrand for time and energy beyond what we could reasonably request. To all the voices and eyes that went into the process of creating ROOT2 - it is only with a group of focused contributors that the magazine finds itself in print. To all who continue to challenge and inspire new discourse within the field of landscape architecture. To all who imagine and design with the goal of creating places that promote adaptability and quality of life. To all with the ingenuity to find resources within obstacles. And finally, to all of you who have picked up our magazine and who will engage the words that follow.ROOT v 2 |
  2. 2. contents INTRODUCTION Michael Leccese theory & practice THE INFRASTRUCTURAL ERA Garden in the Machine Kathleen Kambic LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT IN DENVER Controlling S t o r m wa t e r a t t h e S o u r c e t o N a t u ra l l y R e d u c e D e s t r u c t i ve R u n o f f Katie McKain innovative design CAPTURING THE CAMANCHA Designing Fog Collection Te c h n o l o g y i n t h e A t a c a m a D e s e r t Ben Bookout THE BLUEHOUSE A Conceptual Design to Cleanse Poll u t e d Wa t e r a n d Pr o d u c e Fo o d i n R e s o u r c e - R a va g e d L o c a l e s Anthony Marshallvoices from the field BROADENING THE DEFINITION OF DESIGN An Interview w i t h Pa u l L a n d e r Deryn Goodwin ANNE WHISTON SPIRN Reflections on the Social Cons c i e n c e o f L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t u r e Patsy Shaffer place over time RIVERSIDE CEMETERY The Death (& Revival) of Histo r i c P l a c e Bryan Ganno THE POWER OF PLANT AESTHETICS Self-Sown Garde n s , N a t u ra l i s t i c P l a n t i n g a n d t h e H i g h L i n e Amanda Jeter LISTENING TO THE PEOPLE Reconnecting the Bayou t o t h e L owe r N i n t h Wa r d , N ew O r l e a n s Sera Sibley | contents
  3. 3. Michael Leccese has written many newspaper and magazine articles on design, planning and real estate and contributed to numerous books and planning reports as well. He served stints as editor of Historic Preservation News and Landscape Architecture magazine. In 1995 he founded Fountainhead Communications to work with architects, developers and landscape architects, and in 2005 he became executive director of the 1,000-member Urban Land Institute (ULI) Colorado. With Ann Komara, he taught Design Communications at UCD this year. [Many educated persons] simply Landscape architects Amanda Jeter, Ann Komara (department chair), Katie ignore explanations and opinions McKain, Anthony Marshall, Patsy Shaffer, Sera Sibley that are not phrased in terms of the and designers in and Bonnie Vogt. They devoted themselves to an unsung privileged discourse of academia or cause among writers on design and planning: clarity. professionalism… At best they treat general notoriously Design Communications posed, if not an attack, at translation as a … dumbing down to least an alternative to the excesses of academic writing. please a client or to entertain a popular fear writing. Many The class’s professor (me) often wondered what he audience—rather than as a creative or was doing in the front of the room. Why trust a guy who demanding opportunity. seem convinced they spent half his career in common journalism (and much of -Gwendolyn Wright, professor, the Graduate the rest in marketing) to teach students how to produce S chool of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, are right-brained Serious Academic Prose? Columbia University. I offer a few possible answers. creative people who Good writing is clear thinking inked, whether you Graduate school implants in many are explaining the Fibonacci sequence, posting on people the belief that there are terrible should leave that left- Facebook, drafting an owner’s manual or essaying for penalties to be paid for writing clearly, The New York Review of Books. Here’s a test: If you especially writing clearly in ways that brained rational stuff can’t explain it clearly, you probably lack a good or fully challenge established thinking in the field. formed idea or do not yet understand the concept you -Patricia Nelson Limerick, University of to, well, their CPA. seek to illuminate. Colorado history professor and faculty director, When they do write they often cloak thought in jargon, Good writing persuades, educates, engages and Center of the American West, the lingua franca of academia and design, and target of entertains. In the design fields, this is personified by from Dancing with Professors the critiques from professors Limerick and Wright. Pattern Language author and architect Christopher In spring 2010 a seminar of seven graduate Alexander. In this biblical work, he etched words so landscape architecture students and one department clearly you could design a house just by reading and not chair braved their fears through a new class called even glancing at the illustrations. And, by the way, he Design Communications. They are Bryan Ganno, changed the course of architectural thought and practice. Many key figures in our profession have pennedRO OT a n d t h e A r t of Influence notable works. A wandering journalist and author inMichael LecceseROOT v2 | p2
  4. 4. his early career, Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr., thundered If people and practitioners influence, so do Thank you Ann Komara and the Department ofagainst slavery, and then practically invented both the magazines and journals. In 1904 McClure’s magazine Landscape Architecture for inviting me to help teachcity park and national park systems. took on John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil in a this course and to the students for starting R O O T . Ian McHarg’s Design With Nature sold 200,000 muckraking series. This immeasurably helped Teddy We also thank our wonderful guest lecturers Andycopies and swayed national environmental legislation. Roosevelt shatter the corporate monopoly system. Boian (writing and delivering speeches), Mary VoelzMeanwhile McHarg altered the face of landscape The Barcelona magazine Pel & Ploma produced only 15 Chandler (criticism), Doug Ekstrand (graphic design),architecture and advised four presidents. issues. But one contained an article that launched the Clarke Fine (publishing), Patrick Doyle (final paper jury), Lawrence Halprin’s elegant book, Cities, catalogued career of 20-year-old Pablo Picasso. David Hill (final paper jury), Patricia Nelson Limericktheir virtues at a time when “urban” was considered an In the 1960s New York magazine and Rolling Stone (academic writing), Kathleen McCormick (editing), Kenepithet unless paired with renewal. A showman of a forged new literary styles—the New Journalism of Tom Schroeppel (web sites and blogging), Stuart Steersspeaker, he would inaugurate his own parks by leading Wolfe and Hunter Thompson’s Gonzo, an outlaw cousin (grant writing) and Bart Taylor (publishing).hippie brigades of waders into his celebrated fountains. from just outside Aspen.(This is a free park, man!) Magazines may prove to be the print survivors of When a firm wins a proposal or sees a project the digital tidal wave - especially specialized annualapproved because audiences (clients, the public) journals like R O O T . Their tactile appeal cannot easilyactually understood and were persuaded by its be replaced by bytes or replicated on an iPad.message—that too is good writing. R O O T benefits from its engagement with pressing Good writing is excellent research compressed into issues that interest many outside the profession.sedimentary layers by long, hard thought. Almost no These include drought, water pollution, social equity,one, not even a fiction writer, sits down and produces population pressures, natural disaster and, in Bryanfrom some secret well of creativity. That is the formula Ganno’s exploration of Riverside Cemetery, a taste offor crippling writer’s block. If you are blocked, perhaps the afterlife.you have nothing to say because you have not done R O O T took a brave - that word again - start in 2009enough research or employed your senses to experience and expands its scope dramatically in 2010. UCD facultywhat is in front of you. and students foresee national distribution. Why else write? Words can outlast even landscapes. My hope: Someday students will be lured to UCD’sIn Denver, Skyline Park has been maimed, and the 16th Department of Landscape Architecture to write, a skillStreet Mall may be compromised. But thousands that will be seen as indispensible as drawing.continue to read Halprin’s Cities and Laurie Olin’ssketchbook journals. | introduction
  5. 5. No work can be conceived independently of the human and natural processes that form its context. -William Shermani Infrastructure is traditionally considered purposefully designed systems that enable some type of exchange, whether it be ideas, goods or money. Subways, water pipes, power lines and sidewalks are examples of traditional infrastructure that promote city growth. But landscape systems are a part of theTH E I N F R AST R U CTURALER A Garden in the MachineKathleen KambicROOT v2 | p4
  6. 6. PREVIOUS Venice, Italy. Gradual workings of water on traditional infrastructural elements illustrate how time and natural processes alter the urban realm. Photo by Alissa Ujie-Diamond 2006.urban matrix as well, and as such, they constitute The original relationship humans constructed with crevices, permeates surfaces, collects at low points,infrastructure. Landscape systems contribute to nature, first framed by religion, politics and science, evaporates - all notable actions modern city planningthe success of cities by fostering human health and can now be framed by sensory experience. This takes labors to control. Water moves through the city ashappiness; sunlight, fresh air and clean water all the privileged position that humans maintain “outside” a part of the water cycle, from tops of buildings tocontribute to the physical and mental well-being of of nature and deconstructs it. The landscape stops subsurface transportation tunnels regardless ofpeople. Urban landscape is often considered the being a backdrop and becomes active in the process what we design to prevent it. The landscape matrix“in-between” or the of the city is permeated by rain, pipes and humidity,“leftover” spaces Water shapes the earth around us. It literally forms the landscape through all conveying and transferring water from place toof cities, where presence and absence... place. This metaphor of landscape as threshold islandscape systems already exploited by people - traveling in elevatorsare broken down or work in isolation. Urban landscape of city building - as landscape infrastructure. Instead to skyscraper tops, descending to the subway. Waterdoesn’t present itself as a cohesive system until one of consuming landscape visually and literally, sensory literally mediates the urban surface as humans dorealizes that each vacant lot, pocket park or public and temporal experience reconnects us to nature in urban structures.square is connected by the movement of water, wind leftover places of the city, i.e. alleys, vertical surfaces, Alternatively, water can be a threshold, as a volumepatterns, animal migrations, etc. These often invisible roofs. Landscape as infrastructure becomes a means or edge. As the mythic River Styx or the Blue Lake,infrastructural systems frame our occupation of, and for knowing the city and world through multi-sensory water is seen as the threshold between life and death.work within, the urban realm. and spatial tactics, where we can use systems of The River Styx of ancient Greece flows and is moved Landscapes have not been traditionally defined drainage or plant regimes as partners in a design across, like a thickened barrier, while the Blue Lake ofas infrastructure, but as places indicative of a set dialogue about occupation, place, time and making the Tewa operates as a door through which people cameof relationships (Jackson 1984, 3-8). Landscape to enrich the urban experience. Spatial and material to live in this world, like a limit. Some recent projectsrepresented what humans were not - wild, untamed, characteristics of threshold, time and scale are key have similarly exploited the barrier/edge/threshold ideauncultured. It was something to be consumed, factors for reinventing the urban landscape, especially but have been unfortunately considered one-offs. Dillerconquered and controlled. Landscapes are commonly in the design of water infrastructure. and Scofidio’s Blur building is a volumetric threshold,manipulated by us to suit us; modern agriculture and the where it is difficult to determine where exactly thebotanic garden are two of many examples of this. Such Threshold building begins or ends while the middle is evident.iiprojects are often large scale and strictly determine The material landscape infrastructure can Tadao Ando’s Church on the Water frames a pond behindthe function of landscape infrastructure within their best utilize to foster new conceptions of the city the altar as if to imply an infinity between the worshiperboundaries. Humans change soil profiles, modify is water. Water, which literally undermines and and the worshipped.iii Whether as the actor crossing thetopography and manipulate drainage patterns to make underlies our works of city building, has been threshold or acting as the threshold itself, water bothlandscapes more efficient for human uses, suppressing dismissed from considerations of sustenance and mythically and physically defines realms of occupation.landscape functions. survival as a species within the urban realm. It fills | theory & practice
  7. 7. Time slowly eroded. Now, our connections to water happen If instead of choosing to build massive and Water shapes the earth around us. It literally forms in backyard pools, oversized bathtubs and local spas, expensive infrastructural pipe systems above and the landscape through presence and absence - as a completely divorced from the natural cycle of water. below ground, we started creating infrastructure at the gorge, a river delta, a massive waterfall. The primordial scale of a person, the efficacy of the water cycle could function of finding its level dominates; as icebergs, rain Scale increase. Decentralizing and deconstructing water or fog, it moves with gravity. It marks all that it touches, Water operates across all scales. Water follows rules infrastructure into human scale projects can specifically through erosion or deposition. These actions are which are not affected by the system it operates within. address recreational, drinking, cleaning, agricultural, violent, whether you live in a floodplain or on a mountain. Drainage systems repeat riffle and pool structures industry and other needs in situ. Infrastructural Gravity acting on water is never about a gentle touch. from backyard gardens to the Mississippi River. Water costs would decrease as each incremental water The constant tearing away or aggregation of material overflows a child’s pool similarly to breaching a levee. system disconnected itself from the urban whole and through the movement of water changes boundaries, It floods a bathroom the same as a city. Water is by no addressed only the urban proximity. Operating massive earth forms and plant communities. Water movement means restricted to the large scale for its additive and infrastructural systems is not economically or physically over time leaves traces of past occupation, a history of subtractive processes to be evident. feasible any longer in many places, is foolhardy in others the natural. In the last 100 years, the United States has built and impossible in yet others. If we can take any lessons Over time, the way we see water shaping the earth and then systematically ignored thousands of miles of from New Orleans, Nashville and Fargo, one would be shifts. Its sound, smell and taste uncovers memories stormwater and sewer piping. On average a water pipe that massive infrastructure tends to cause problems as and forms perceptions. The feel of water on our skin breaks every two minutes somewhere in the contiguous big as the solutions supposedly provided. can be both life affirming and terror filled, depending 48 states, a daily problem in larger U.S. cities (Powell on if one wants to be in that water. Flooding was once 2010, 43). Presently, water issues are tackled from A New Age of Infrastructure a gift from the gods in ancient Egypt where geometry an engineering perspective where what we build must Water is the defining and regulating element in the was first developed to re-mark agricultural plots after “withstand” natural and man-made problems.iv landscape with which we manipulate the ground to the annual Nile flood. The fertile waters left the fields The engineering perspective wants to garner more suit our needs. It is also the element with which we can and the people rejuvenated. In modern Cairo, divorced federal dollars to create “defensible” water control, in reestablish our relationship with nature, shifting from from the land, the construction of the Aswan Dam effect separating water further from the landscape. If one of open hostility to one of mutual benefit. Small precipitated the end of this vast natural cycle. Water instead we allow for change, modification and response water interventions inserted into the city to negotiate has defined realms of occupation through its presence according to the needs of the place as well as primary shifting realities of season and need is one solution or absence elsewhere too: at the Alhambra, the step human needs, major water disasters may be better to problems of pollution and availability. Incremental wells of Rajasthan, Shanghai and Venice (Duhigg 2010). prevented. For instance, Fargo, North Dakota might not deconstruction of traditional infrastructure reengages But with changing cultural standards, the simultaneous flood if the massive system of downstream levees on landscape architecture in the historic manipulation of occupation of people and water in these places has the Mississippi River were designed to allow for flexible site construction and disengages the engineering fields diminished. Our temporal connection to water has water control. from predetermined outcomes. The city becomes moreROOT v2 | p6
  8. 8. RIGHT The 1888 Silver Lake ditch of Boulder, CO was the area’s final ditch to be built. It was constructed high above Boulder Creek in order to divert water across the rugged foothills to new residential developments in North Boulder. In 1955 the failing wooden flumes built into the canyon cliffs were replaced with steel pipe and rock-anchored bolts. Today the 835 ft irrigation ditch continues to source water primarily from just below therandom and yet more site specific.v Site Arapahoe Glacier in the Indian Peaks Wilderness, providing shareholders such as the City of Boulder Foothills Community Park and historic Long’sconsiderations move to the forefront of Gardens with the water to sustain their landscapes for most of the year.design decisions. Experience of the city is Photo by Patsy Shaffer 2010.more meaningful. Two recent classes at the University of Colorado water and its place in urban situations. Often, theBoulder have pursued understanding of particular places chosen by the students were “sites out ofcultural systems dealing with water and the physical mind,” commonly ignored places one might pass byimplementation of accretive solutions for water daily. Two examples of this are 1. a green roof businfiltration, detoxification and control. The first class, stop and 2. a bioswale garden at a major pedestrian“HydroLogic,” explored the far reaching effects of water intersection.upon the development of human settlement, industry Each project endeavored to reveal the processand cultural production. “Water Measure” taught in of water moving through the site to engagethe spring semester of 2010, looked at reasons we people but were clearly interstitial sites that weremanipulate water systems and methods to insert water not treated as valuable landscape components.infrastructure into cities in experiential and effective Mapping studies and watershed calculationsways. Establishing some ground rules first about framed the specific conditions the urbanizednature, landscape and design, the classes endeavored landscape struggled to address. Then, criticalto produce work which valued site context as a complex designs tested whether the observed problemsframework within which water operates.vi could be retrofitted to improve watershed functionIt was posited that all surfaces, all things can be and human use. These insertions into existingregarded as a part of landscape systems, to the point places allow the passing of time to be noted, peoplethat places are palimpsests of human and natural to interact with a natural system and re-enabledactions in the past. The interventions proposed did not the functions of the water cycle. Continuing workattempt to erase these traces but instead embraced on material possibilities and spatial characteristicsthose marks and revealed the latent possibilities of the of small-scale urban retrofits are part of on-goingexisting places. research efforts (Berger 2006, 44-45). Interventions ranged from interactive water human activity. Large-scale water infrastructure doescollection and filtration systems to complex Conclusion incredible damage to places both near to and far fromrealignment of water movement to promote infiltration Urban reinvestment and densification starts (in place and time) the dam, reservoir or flood controland conservation. Placing these interventions on the with water design. All moments in the city become project at which it is aimed, as well as creating no-man’sBoulder campus engaged the university community in opportunities to reinvest and reinforce natural systemsways that tested preconceived notions of the value of that support ecological function, which in turn supports | theory & practice
  9. 9. BELOW An exposed pipe in the Asian Tropics renovation at the Denver Zoo. Photo by Jeramy Boik 2010. lands where occupation is difficult or impossible. “Like NOTES Technology: Water Supply (2007), 23-31; and Stan Allen, “Infrastructural a biological organism, the urbanized landscape is an i William Sherman, “Engaging the Field,” in Site Matters: Design Urbanism,” in Points + Lines: Diagrams and Projects for the City (New open system, whose planned complexity always entails Concepts, Histories, and Strategies, ed. by Carol J. Burns and Andrea York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1998). unplanned dross… The challenge for designers is thus Kahn (New York: Taylor and Francis Books, Inc., 2006), 313. For further information on these and other projects developed in the vi not to achieve a drossless urbanization, but to integrate ii Philip Jodidio, “Blur Building: Expo .02,” Architecture Now! (2002): 3, two seminars and their effects on student design perspectives, please inevitable dross into more flexible aesthetic and design 170. This building was constructed for Swiss Expo 2002 located at Lake contact the author. strategies” (Berger 2006, 44-45). By scaling down the Neuchatel in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland. infrastructural interventions in the city, we can minimize iii Francesco Dal Co, Tadao Ando: Complete Works (London: Phaidon REFERENCES wasted space and maximize user experience. Press Ltd., 1994), 282-287. The Church on the Water is located in Tomamu, Berger, Alan, “Coda: Urban Landscape is a Natural Thing to Waste,” Water is not just a resource, a right or a commodity. east of the city of Sapporo on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. in Drosscape: Wasting Land in Urban America (New York: Princeton Humans must reevaluate how we want to utilize nature, iv Kenneth Frampton, “Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architectural Press, 2006), 44-45. instead of subsuming its products, in order to capitalize Architecture of Resistance,” in The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Duhigg, Charles, “Saving U.S. Water and Sewer Systems Would Be on its processes. This design research on water and Culture=, ed. Hal Foster (Washington: Bay Press, 1983), 17-34. “Despite Costly,” The New York Times, March 14, 2010, U.S. Section, Toxic Waters landscape infrastructure is participatory in the ongoing the critical importance of topography and light, the primary principle series. narrative of landscape, available to human history but of architectural autonomy resides in the tectonic rather than the Jackson, John Brinkerhoff, Discovering the Vernacular Landscape not suppressed by it. scenographic…” p. 30. Also note the sixth section entitled “The Visual (Connecticut: Yale University, 1984), 3-8. “[T]he idea of nature contains an extraordinary Versus the Tactile” p. 31. Powell, Anne Elizabeth, “The Infrastructure Roundtables: Seeking amount of human history. What is often being argued, it v Raymond Williams, “Ideas of Nature,” in Problems in Materialism and Solutions to an American Crisis,” Civil Engineering: The Magazine of the seems to me, in the idea of nature is the idea of man; and Culture (London: Verso, 1980); Denis Cosgrove, “The Idea of Landscape,” American Society of Civil Engineers, April 2010, 43. this not only generally, or in ultimate ways, but the idea in Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape (Wisconsin: University of Williams, Raymond, “Ideas of Nature,” in Problems in Materialism and of man in society, indeed the ideas of kinds of societies” Wisconsin Press, 1984); S.M. Karterakis, “The Hydrologic Cycle: A complex Culture (London: Verso, 1980), 70-71. (Williams 1980, 70-71). Now we have better methods, History with Continuing Pedagogical Implications,” Water Science & more information and new perspectives on how water supports city building through its flexibility and simple laws, nourishes both physical and emotional needs and re-engages nature in the on-going project of humanity.ROOT v2 | p8
  10. 10. BELOW Pervious vs. impervious surfaces: Parking lot L, Auraria campus, University of Colorado Denver. Despite higher maintenance needs, permeable pavers are a low cost and more effective stormwater alternative to impervious paving. Photo by Katie McKain 2010. The United States situation as an obstacle to get around due to its many negative effects on the landscape, including reduced Environmental water quality, erosion and lack of groundwater recharge. The emergence of Low Impact Development (LID) Protection Agency (EPA) and effective stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs), the integral drivers in the LID and the Sustainable process, are changing designers’ perceptions of stormwater from a constraint into an opportunity for Cities Institute estimate designing with natural processes. LID eliminates the negative connotation of stormwater associated with stormwater runoff conventional practices because it is a new holistic development method that encourages stormwater to be is responsible for 70 incorporated into site designs using the natural process of infiltration. This reduces both the volume of runoff percent of all water and the harsh environmental effects of uncontrolled runoff. pollution in lakes, With our country trying to accommodate inevitable growth, stormwater BMPs will be important for rivers and creeks environmental, social and economic stability for ( Sustainable Cities Institute 2010). generations to come. This article: Urban runoff frequently contains litter, oil, chemicals, • Promotes the importance and need for LID toxic metals, bacteria and excess nutrients like nitrogen • Examines which BMPs are effective for and phosphorus. When developers use conventional consideration in design methods such as impervious surfaces, stormwater is • Reflects on current municipality methods often left uncontrolled. Designers treat runoff in this providing ideas for furthering the presence of stormwater BMPs at public and private levelsLO W I MPACT D E V ELOPMENT IN DE NVERControlling Stormwater at the Source to Naturally Reduce Destructive RunoffKatie McKain | theory & practice
  11. 11. C O N V E N T I O N A L D E V E LO P M E N T SYST E M S Conventional stormwater systems treat precipitation as a waste product, directing it into storm drains and pipes and pouring it into receiving waters. Conventional development systems also cause undesirable effects in the landscape, such as reducing the water table and overall water quality, as well as forcing erosion, sedimentation and flooding issues. As the impervious surfaces that characterize urban sprawl development increase (roads, parking lots, driveways and roofs replace meadows and forests) rain can no longer seep into the ground to replenish our aquifers, forcing a lack of groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge is a natural hydrologic process where surface water infiltrates downward into groundwater to maintain the water table level. The infiltration process filters runoff naturally through vegetation and soils. Not only do conventional systems prevent groundwater recharge, they also cause significant stress to waterways and affect water quality. When the natural process doesn’t happen, runoff spreads over impervious surfaces and gathers pollutants which wash into lakes, rivers and streams, contaminating the water. There is a negative financial connotation also: building impervious surfaces and evapotranspiration ground absorption (evaporation & transpiration) runoff concrete curb and gutter systems is expensive. Curbs and gutters and the associated underground storm sewers frequently cost as much natural environment 50% 40% 10% as $36 per linear foot, which is roughly twice the cost of a grass swale. urban environment 15% 30% 55% (75-100% impervious) When curbs and gutters can be eliminated, the cost savings and positive effects on the environment can be considerable. W H AT I S L O W I M PA C T D E V E L O P M E N T ? The negative effects associated with unnaturally high runoff volumes from conventional methods The ultimate destination of water after rainfall is divided into three of development have initiated the emergence of LID. The Low Impact Development Center, Inc. is a categories as displayed in the chart to the right.i There is a dramatic nonprofit organization in Beltsville, Maryland dedicated to the promotion of LID. The center defines difference between water movement on natural areas versus urban LID as “a new, comprehensive land planning and engineering design approach with a goal of maintaining impervious environments. and enhancing the pre-development hydrologic regime of urban and developing watersheds”ROOT v2 | p10
  12. 12. OPPOSITE Low Impact Development Case Study | Parking Lot K, The University of Colorado Denver, the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District and the Auraria Higher Education Center combined efforts to convert Parking Lot K on the Auraria Campus into a stormwater test site. The functioning parking lot is also a rainwater collection research station where engineering students and faculty study the effects of stormwater quality and quantity. Over the next five years students will test a variety of porous pavements, infiltration basins, vegetation beds, and detention basins to promote on-site runoff reduction. BMPs are not only being tested at this site but at many sites across the country. We now have effectiveness rates for BMPs and can compare costs to choose the most efficient BMP for a site. Investigations for discovering new creative methods and new engineering materials will be an ongoing process. Photo By Katie McKain 2010.(Low Impact Development 2010). LID promotes the lead respectively. Bioretention techniques include far from its place of origin, depleting waterways ofintegration of stormwater management into site and adsorption, absorption, volatilization, decomposition, their natural processes. The sewer system is not onlybuilding designs, controlling stormwater at the source phytoremediation and bioremediation. diminishing groundwater supplies but is also causingbefore it collects and deposits harmful pollutants. 2. Increase Ground Water Recharge significant stress to the waterways and affecting waterAnother crucial component is to minimize impervious General water infiltration is important for quality. When contaminated water runs off into riversareas and have buffer zones between them. Allowing for groundwater recharge (replenishing the water table). and water bodies, it poisons the water and aquatic life,infiltration and daylighting of runoff to the surface will Unsatisfactory groundwater recharge is becoming a and the majority of it evaporates, never making it intocontrol stormwater at the source. serious concern as cities continue to develop land with the groundwater recharge cycle. Some runoff actually Development of LID principles began with the impervious surfaces (see table below).ii leaks into sewage systems of fading infrastructure.introduction of bioretention technology in PrinceGeorge’s County, Maryland, in the mid-1980s (Urban loss of potential groundwater new development within population growthDesign Tools 2010). LID was pioneered to help Prince recharge each year 1982-1997 1980-2000George’s County address the growing economic andenvironmental limitations of conventional stormwater Seattle 10.5 to 24.5 billion gallons 141,000 acres 32%management practices, such as water quality concerns. Boston 44 to 102 billion gallons 403,000 acres 12% Atlanta 56.9 to 132.8 billion gallons 609,000 acres 46%A D VA N TA G E S T O U S I N G L O W I M PA C TD E V E LO P M E N T1. Improve Water Quality As the statistics are directly proportional, it is not When there is not ample ground water recharge, the Many BMP techniques involve bioretention, a surprising Atlanta earned a number one ranking in both water table is lowered and negatively affects all facetsprocess which uses the chemical, biological and loss of potential groundwater recharge and acres of new of nature, including the drinking water supply. BMPs aimphysical properties of plants, microbes and soils to development. These extremely high numbers should to promote infiltration to satisfy the necessary groundimprove water quality. Hyperaccumulators are unique take the population increase into account also, but water recharge.plants with natural abilities to degrade, bioaccumulate Seattle managed much lower numbers across the boardor render harmless contaminants in soil, water and despite having a relatively high population increase to 3. Reduce Erosion, Flooding, Sedimentation,air. There are many species of hyperaccumulators: correspond; perhaps this is due to their advances in Water Temperaturebarley (Hordeum vulgare), water lettuce (Pistia stormwater management. LID practices reduce rates, volumes andstratiotes) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) are When water is sent to a treatment facility instead temperatures of stormwater. By reducing volumecommon types and counter aluminum, mercury and of infiltrating to the groundwater, it is often taken | theory & practice
  13. 13. RIGHT Conventional rooftop drainage directs runoff directly to the storm sewer. Alley in Downtown Denver off 15th St between Larimer and Lawrence Streets. Photo by Katie McKain 2010. and rates of runoff, phenomenon occurrences such as 1. Bioretention Swales erosion, flooding and sedimentation will also decrease. Bioretention swales, also known as bioswales and Pollutants increase the faster and farther runoff travels vegetated swales, are long, narrow landscaped channels on impervious surfaces, and the increase in speed which cleanse runoff using bioretention techniques causes runoff to warm up before depositing them into as well as infiltrate water and act as a conveyance lakes and streams and adversely affecting aquatic system. Vegetation in the swale must be flood tolerant, life. Interupting impervious surfaces with permeable erosion resistant, close growing and have good pollution alternatives is the best way to decrease flow rate and removal efficiencies, much as hyperaccumulators do. volume of runoff. Aesthetically, providing green space A gentle slope is used within a swale to move water and visual attractions in a usually less appealing area, through it slowly enough for the plants to respond. such as a parking lot, is always a benefit to consider. Swales can be wet, riparian areas or they can be dry areas only to be wet during large storms. Dry swales TYPES OF BEST MANAGEMENT are most common in Colorado. Irrigating a swale isn’t PRACTICES a good practice except for during the establishment Designing with LID principles and incorporating period of two to three years. Grassy swales, similar BMPs into site designs are responsible and affordable to vegetated swales in their design and activity, are ways of incorporating the land and its natural processes landscaped solely with a mixture of grasses. The into development. The EPA defines a BMP as a major difference is maintenance and form: the grasses “technique, measure or structural control that is used can be mowed regularly as a buffer strip, be mowed for a given set of conditions to manage the quantity occasionally depending on aesthetic and stormwater and improve the quality of stormwater runoff in the filtering requirements or be left to grow tall. Swales most cost-effective manner” (Stormwater Authority: are inexpensive compared to traditional curb and gutter Best Management Practices 2010). There are many techniques, and although maintenance is an increased types of stormwater BMPs to consider for a design. A concern, a swale is still less costly and provides more site analysis should be performed to note the size of benefits. Studies have estimated the initial cost for a the area and the amount of water the system needs swale ranges between $5 and $10 per square foot. The to accommodate. Each BMP has its own pros and maintenance cost for a 900 square foot vegetated cons and is site dependent. In many cases, BMPs are swale is estimated at $200 per year. cheaper alternatives to curb and gutter systems. The The Wal-Mart SuperCenter in Aurora, Colorado following are some basic types of effective and efficient incorporates a variety of advanced efficiency stormwater BMPs. technologies which includes a functioning bioswale inROOT v2 | p12
  14. 14. the parking lot. Palmer Elementary School and Marrama a rain garden travels a long distance and picks up excessElementary School, both in Denver, were designed in pollutants and sediments, infiltration may not cleanse2009 with bioswales. Although these specific swales it enough. This will result in contaminated ground waterneed to be under drained for the safety of the children, or clogged systems. In addition, the type of soil neededthe majority of the site’s stormwater drains into to accommodate proper infiltration of half an inch tothem, and they are not only functioning as an effective three inches per hour is an extremely important designBMP but are an asset to the education of students. pretreatment. The soil should have no greater than 20The schools were designed as part of the Learning percent clay content, and less than 40 percent silt/clayLandscapes program at the University of Colorado content. Although vegetation within infiltration basinsDenver, which encourages outdoor learning, social is encouraged for optimal filtering, basins can also haveinteraction and community stewardship in the students. layers of sand and rocks in a type of soakage trench, without vegetation.2. Rain Gardens / Infiltration Basins Infiltration basins are cost-effective practices Collectors of runoff water, rain gardens are meant because little infrastructure is needed whento be a short-term dry detention area. Infiltration constructing them. One study done by the Southwestpractices are highly recommended in Colorado and Region Planning Commission estimated the totalother arid climates to recharge the ground water. construction cost at about $2 per cubic foot of storageTypically small areas, rain gardens usually only collect for a quarter-acre basin. An infiltration basin filtersabout two to three percent of total site drainage. Rain water at a minimal level, therefore water quality is agardens (usually grasses) should be planted to minimize concern for the area, considering a BMP with moreerosion and provide some plant and soil filtering filtering purposes would help prevent ground waterfunctions, but the main function of a rain garden is to contamination.allow the stormwater to infiltrate into the ground andrecharge the stormwater reserve. These gardens are 3. Detention Pondssited close to the source of the runoff, and different Detention Ponds are larger, less particular versionsfrom swales, rain gardens do not convey the water to of infiltration basins, designed to temporarily holda specific place; they promote infiltration in a smaller large amounts of storm runoff. This BMP is commoncontained area. It is important to position a rain garden in Colorado’s arid climate because they handle theclose to the runoff source. The water table should be at short but strong storms efficiently. These ponds haveleast five feet below the basin at its peak. If runoff into a forebay to allow particles and pollutants to settle | theory & practice
  15. 15. and be treated while preventing them from clogging commonly seen adjacent to parking lots and streets. has a 20,000 square foot green roof. There is also a the entire pond. Generally, detention basins can be Sand filters that use sand layering to remove pollutants successful green roof on the parking garage of REI’s used with almost all soils, but the outlet where runoff are also options available for planter boxes, but are flagship store in Denver at 1416 Platte Street. enters the detention area needs to be large, or it can generally unvegetated. clog with sediment. With that in mind, the pond should 6. Buffer Strips be a minimum of ten acres, making it a difficult BMP to 5. Green Roofs A buffer strip located adjacent to waterways implement in urban settings. Unlike retention ponds, A green roof, also called an eco-roof, is a vegetated provides a physical barrier for protection from which are always wet, detention ponds by definition dry roof system consisting of lightweight soil and plants development. An adjacent strip of vegetation will help up and infiltrate relatively fast. Some pollutant filtering adapted to survive the area’s climate. A very efficient filter out pollutants before they can enter the waterway. is accomplished with this system; in addition, dry ponds BMP, green roofs intercept rainwater directly at the A buffer will also reduce the flow rate and volume of can help to meet flood control and sometimes channel source preventing most of the water from becoming runoff to mitigate flooding, erosion and sedimentation protection objectives in a watershed. On the basis of runoff. Since the rainwater is used by the vegetation, of the channel. The temperature of runoff increases as cost per area, detention ponds are the least expensive a major advantage to a green roof is its ability to it picks up speed traveling over impervious surfaces. If and most common stormwater management practice. decrease the volume of runoff, thus mitigating flow abnormally heated water moves directly into a body of There are numerous detention ponds in the Denver area, rates, flooding, erosion and sedimentation. Green roofs water it negatively affects aquatic life, reiterating the such as the Grant Ranch Residential Development in promote infiltration for the advantage of the vegetation importance to slow the flow rate with an intercepting Littleton, which protects Bow Mar Lake under the Grant on the roof but not the water table. Additionally, green buffer strip. Buffer zones adjacent to waterways will Ranch Stormwater-Quality Management Program. roofs provide wildlife habitat and attract birds. A not have infiltration features since the water table will green roof also provides energy-saving benefits to the be so close to the surface. Strips can be any variety of 4. Planter Boxes building, including increased roof insulation, mitigating vegetation, from a simple grassy strip to a forest area. Planter boxes are structural landscaped reservoirs building and roof temperatures and possibly doubling Buffer strips can be an aesthetically pleasing way to designed to catch water, filter it and then promote the roof’s lifespan. define the floodplain or to use adjacent to impervious infiltration to ground water. Different from a bioswale, There are two types of green roofs, intensive and surfaces such as parking lots while providing wildlife a planter box doesn’t convey water, and is situated in a extensive. Intensive green roofs promote human habitat and a location for snow storage. The flexibility significantly smaller, more structured environment. Due interaction where people are encouraged to connect of the strips keeps the costs minimal. A grassed buffer to the configuration, a planter box will usually require an with plant life through paths and gathering areas, strip adjacent to a parking lot can be seen at Wendy’s at overflow valve and is most effective when a filter fabric whereas extensive green roofs contain only vegetation. Ridgeview Commercial Center in Colorado Springs. is used within the base. Planters may be used to help A green roof is a relatively high cost BMP up front but fulfill site specific landscaping requirements in addition has energy-saving returns that are worthwhile down the to handling stormwater constructively and are most road. In Denver, the EPA’s newly built Region 8 officeROOT v2 | p14
  16. 16. BELOW The Wal-Mart SuperCenter in Aurora, CO incorporates a variety of advanced efficiency technologies which includes a functioning bioswale in the parking lot. Vegetation in bioretention swales must be flood tolerant, erosion resistant, close growing and have good pollution removal efficiencies. Photo by Katie McKain 2010.7. Tree Plantings 8. Permeable Paving more natural alternative to impervious paving. One of the most underutilized BMPs, tree plantings Although permeable paving doesn’t have all the Around Denver there are many sites whereare effective at mitigating stormwater in urban settings benefits of most other systems, it is the alternative to installed porous pavements are being monitored fordue to their ability to absorb large amounts of water impervious paving, where runoff hits its peak damage effectiveness. Pervious asphalt and concrete are fairlywhile occupying minimal surface area. Trees provide point. Permeable paving allows for water to percolate new technologies (designed to infiltrate stormwatershade and habitat, which helps reduce the heat island through cracks in pavers and infiltrate directly to the runoff instead of shedding it off the surface) that tryeffect. Trees are also an important factor in cleansing soil, preventing runoff from occurring. Permeable to maintain the smooth and durable features thatand filtering the air. The branches and leaves of trees paving is one of the easiest ways to reduce runoff. asphalt and concrete provide. The Urban Drainage andhelp to soften rainfall speed, reducing stormwater flow Examples of permeable paving include paving blocks Flood Control District (UDFCD) is currently monitoringrates and decreasing erosion. Trees also help aid the of numerous shapes and sizes, plastic grids which allow pervious concrete at a test site in Lakewood (Lakewoodview shed, break up the impervious landscape, provide grass growth between the plastic, pervious concrete City Shops maintenance building at 850 Parfet Street).small but essential green spaces, linking walkways and and pervious asphalt. The numerous different types Many other pervious concrete examples exist buttrails and reduce the visual dominance of cars. Property of permeable paving materials provide flexibility in are not being monitored, such as Safeway at 14thowners in Denver are responsible for the care and choosing the most appropriate system for the usage. In and Krameria Streets in Denver and the Wal-Mart atmaintenance of their street trees (Denver Tree Laws arid climates like Colorado, permeable paving systems I-70 and Tower Road in Aurora (Urban Drainage andand Regulations 2010). work better than mortared paving systems due to the Flood Control District 2008). Both porous asphalt and intermittent freeze-thaw cycles. Although needing permeable concrete paving blocks are being monitored more maintenance, permeable pavers are a low cost and and tested at the Denver Wastewater Management Building located at 2000 West 3rd Avenue. S T O R M W AT E R A U T H O R I T Y P R O C E S S The EPA furnishes federal regulations on stormwater management. States can then choose to personalize their own stormwater policies, which are to be mirrored after the federal program or follow the EPA regulations and keep the EPA responsible for administering the state’s stormwater management plan. The Stormwater Authority gathers state stormwater information into one place. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment is responsible for | theory & practice
  17. 17. administering Colorado’s stormwater management plan. Colorado has an immense amount of stormwater resources including published documents, forums and a knowledgeable taskforce. There are many affiliated companies and public agencies, some nonprofit, that dedicate time to the promotion of LID in Denver. These include but are not limited to the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, the Colorado Association for Stormwater and Floodplain Managers, the Colorado Stormwater Council and the Cherry Creek Stewardship Partners. The Clean Water Act of 1972 aims to reduce pollutant discharges into waterways, finance wastewater treatment facilities and manage polluted runoff. The Clean Water Act authorized the EPA extent practical, the standard for a SWMP is not set adopted a similar concept while also using a variety of to implement the National Pollutant Discharge high to encourage the largest participation possible. In other techniques to calculate the charge. Today, even Elimination System (NPDES) program in 1972, which addition, infrastructure built before the law was set was more progressive ways of thinking are emerging. later included a permit program in 1990. The NPDES grandfathered in, and many existing storm drains are not program requires Municipal Separate Storm Sewer compliant with SWMP standards, meaning many drains ADDITIONAL INCENTIVES FOR Systems (MS4s) to apply for permits with regulations lead runoff directly into a waterway. In Colorado, there INCORPORATING LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT based on their population size. MS4s are publicly are no numeric requirements for stormwater pollutant In addition to credit opportunities to offset owned or operated stormwater infrastructure (which removal established at this time. monthly or yearly stormwater fees and decrease MS4 is not part of wastewater treatment), such as curbs, To help fund the SWMP, Denver implemented an infrastructure requirements, there are other ways to culverts and pipes. Common owners and operators of annual storm drainage service charge in January 1981. promote LID. Incorporating stormwater treatment MS4s include cities, towns and public institutions. The An earlier attempt in 1974 failed due to an apparent lack into parking areas and landscaped zones will reduce permits hold the MS4s responsible for establishing of public knowledge regarding the need for the charge. required detention volume on the site. This allows for a Stormwater Management Program (SWMP), which Denver currently uses a rate table with multipliers an increase in building area and the potential for further meets six minimum measures to educate residents ranging from $0.37 to $1.17 per 100 square feet of profitability for an LID educated developer. There is and control discharges.iii Although the NPDES program impervious area, and the rate is determined by the ratio liability associated with altering original hydrology requires stormwater to be treated to the maximum of impervious area to total area (American Public Works patterns, and since LID techniques are meant to Association 1981). Many other cities across the country, mimic predevelopment hydrology there is a reduced such as Billings, Montana and Tacoma, Washington haveROOT v2 | p16
  18. 18. OPPOSITE Green roofs like this one have become a resident-initiated practice in Sandy, Oregon in response to a municipal Stormwater Management Incentive Program. A small community of 5,800 people located 21 miles southeast of Portland, Sandy set the bar high not only with the launch of a monthly stormwater management fee, but they also have initiated a stormwater management incentive credit program to encourage the use of BMPs. Property owners are awarded credits based on the BMPs implemented, and the end result is a discounted monthly charge in addition to all the benefits of controlling runoff at the source. The town believes if the amount of runoff that enters their stormwater system infrastructure could be reduced so would their overall costs. This concept of attacking stormwater at the source not only mitigates infrastructure costs but also is the best way to prevent nonpoint source pollution. According to the EPA, many states report nonpoint source pollution as the leading cause of water quality problems. The town of Sandy encourages property owners to reduce runoff by decreasing impervious surfaces. While the city acknowledges it may be impractical to eliminate all impervious surfaces, it offers credits for the re-directing of runoff into vegetated areas on site, therefore reducing the effect of impervious surfaces. Locally, at Denver International Airport flow diversion techniques intercept 80 percent of the glycol used in airplane de-icing and prevent it from entering Barr Lake, the local receiving water body. MS4 administrators do control public stormwater pollution, but the responsibility of water quality should not solely be left to public officials. In addition, it is also up to private citizens to change their methods of handling stormwater. Incorporating public and private sectors into stormwater management systems, as Sandy does effectively, allows for optimum impacts throughout the entire MS4. Photo by Patsy Shaffer 2010.potential liability for the developer. Properly designed such affirmative outcomes emerging from creative lowlandscaped zones which are fed with stormwater reduce cost design ideas, LID has transformed conventionalrequirements for irrigation and lower building operation perceptions of stormwater as an obstacle, and it cancosts. Perhaps in the future, agencies can promote LID now be viewed as an opportunity to give back to thein the private sector by offering density bonuses to land. Rather than designing around stormwater we candevelopers who incorporate LID principles. This idea now embrace it by utilizing LID.is similar to the density bonus offered to developers indowntown Denver if they incorporate public spaces intheir designs. To “frost the cake,” many of the BMPs thatcan be incorporated into LID are already available and TA B L E S O U R C E S A N D N O T E S 6. Pollution Prevention/Good Housekeeping for Municipal Operations.can be built at a lower cost than conventional systems. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Water Quality Facts,” http:// i www.epa.gov/owow/waterqualityfacts.html (accessed May19, 2010). REFERENCESCONCLUSION ii Smart Growth America, “Paving Our Way to Water Shortages: American Public Works Association. “Urban Stormwater The harsh effects of uncontrolled runoff have How Sprawl Aggravates the Effects of Drought,” http://www. Management Special Report No. 49.” Chicago, Illinois, 1981.made it necessary to change the conventional building smartgrowthamerica.org/DroughtSprawlReport09.pdf (accessed May19, Denver Tree Laws and Regulations. Parks and Recreation (2010)methods we are so accustomed to in order to protect 2010). http://www.denvergov.org/ForestryandTrees/ForestryRegulations/the natural processes that ultimately govern the land. iii U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, “National Pollutant Discharge tabid/432237/Default.aspx (accessed May 1, 2010).LID stormwater management methods, with focus on Elimination System: April 2003” http://www.epa.gov/region8/water/ City and County of Denver. “Water Quality Management Plan.” http://handling stormwater at the source, will be important to stormwater/pdf/R8%20Small%20MS4%20Permit%20Fact% www.denvergov.org/tabid/396037/Default.aspx (accessed May 1, 2010).incorporate for the environmental, social and economic 20Sheet.pdf (accessed May 1, 2010). The six minimum measures are: City of Sandy. “Stormwater Management Incentive Program.” http://stability of the world’s future. Research is showing 1. Public Education and Outreach on Storm Water Impacts; 2. Public www.ci.sandy.or.us/index.asp?Type=B_BASIC&SEC={A9D3CDDE-3BA0-positive results using LID to design for stormwater Involvement/Participation; 3. Illicit discharge detection and elimination; 42DE-BE30-4E321A155AA8} (accessed May 1, 2010).management at the source rather than ignoring it. With 4. Construction Site Storm Water Runoff Control; 5. Post-Construction Colorado Association of Stormwater and Floodplain Managers. “Low Storm Water Management in New Development and Redevelopment; and Impact Development Photo Base.” http://www.casfm.org/stormwater_ | theory & practice
  19. 19. BELOW Conventional parking lot drains allow parking lot pollutants to travel directly into rivers. Parking lot L, Auraria Campus, University of Colorado Denver. Photo by Katie McKain 2010.committee/LID-Summary.htm (accessed May 1, 2010). Nonpoint Source Colorado. “Reducing Stormwater DeLaria, Michelle. “Low Impact Development as a Costs through Low Impact Development (LID)Stormwater Management Technique.” http://www.npscolorado. Strategies and Practices.” http://www.npscolorado.com/com/LowImpactDevelopment.pdf (accessed May 1, 2010). reducingstormwatercosts.pdf (accessed May 1, 2010). Denver International Airport. “Aircraft Deicing Fluid Stormwater Authority: Best Management Practices. http://Collection and Treatment.” http://business.flydenver.com/ www.stormwaterauthority.org/bmp/ (accessed May 1, 2010).community/enviro/systemGuide.asp (accessed May 1, 2010). Sustainable Cities Institute. Stormwater Management. Denver Tree Laws and Regulations. “Parks and Recreation.” http//:www.sustainablecitiesinstitute.org (accessed May 1,City and County of Denver. http://www.denvergov.org/ 2010).ForestryandTrees/ForestryRegulations/tabid/432237/Default. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Costs and Benefitsaspx (accessed May 1, 2010). of Stormwater BMPS.” http://epa.gov/guide/stormwater/files/ Geosyntec Consultants and Wright Water Engineers, Inc., usw_d.pdf (accessed May 1, 2010).“Analysis of Treatment System Performance: International U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Denver, Colorado:Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database,” Region 8 Office.” http://www.epa.gov/greeningepa/facilities/http://www.bmpdatabase.org/Docs/Performance%20 denver-hq.htm (accessed May 1, 2010).Summary%20June%202008.pdf (accessed May 1, 2010). U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Storm Water Technology Fact Sheet: Bioretention.” http://www.epa.gov/ Jojola, Katie. “Engineering Faculty, Students Seek Solution owm/mtb/biortn.pdf (accessed May 1, 2010).to Stormwater Pollution.” University of Colorado Denver. http:// U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. “What is nonpointwww.cudenver.edu/WHO%20AM%20I/NETWORK/TELL/ source pollution?” http://www.epa.gov/nps/whatis.htmlSUMMER09/Pages/stormwater.aspx (accessed May 1, 2010). (accessed May 1, 2010). Kula, Deborah, P.E. and Piatt Kemper, Jill, P.E. Interview-City Urban Design Tools. “Introduction to LID.” http://www.lid-of Aurora, Colorado: Water Resources Division, Water Quality stormwater.net/background.htm (accessed May 1, 2010).and Environmental Programs. Urban Drainage and Flood Control District. “Urban Storm Low Impact Development Center. “Sustainable Design and Drainage Criteria Manual.” http://www.udfcd.org/downloads/Water Quality Research.” http://www.lowimpactdevelopment. pdf/critmanual/UDFCD%20Criteria%20Manual%20Vol%20org/ (accessed May 1, 2010). 1,%202%20&%203.pdf (accessed May 1, 2010). ROOT v2 | p18
  20. 20. BELOW Experimental fog collectors at Alto Patache: These are double the size of a Standard Fog Collector (SFC) but use the same principles of construction . TOP RIGHT Collection pipe: Collected water droplets are gravity-fed to the pipe as it descends to a connected storage tank. All photos by Ben Bookout 2008, unless otherwise noted. In the far north of (Ephedra breana) are just some of the plants that etch out an existence along with lichens and beetles Chile lies the Atacama in the harsh desert. They do not survive on scarce precipitation but on a continual cycle of fog called the Desert, part of the camanchaca, which blows in off the Pacific Ocean. By grouping together around the rocks and increasing greater Atacama their collective surface area these species are able to create small oases. Sechura ecoregion Because parts of the Atacama are inhospitable, this concentrates human populations to costal that covers a 1,300 areas or small river valleys that flow from the Andes Mountains. In an attempt to make life in the desert mile stretch of less difficult, humans have adapted the use of natural plant processes for their own survival through fog Peru and Chile. collection. Similar to lichens that use the rock’s The Atacama Desert receives an average of two surface area and plants that use their leaf surfaces, millimeters of precipitation annually, and during the the practice of fog collection uses relatively simple last 100 years the region’s largest city Iquique has not technology. Sheets of polymer-based fabrics received a single drop of precipitation 60 percent of the suspended between two anchors harvest the small time (Cereceda 2005). There seems to be little chance water droplets in the incoming fog. These droplets that life can survive in this moonscape environment. gravity feed to a piece of pipe cut in half so it Yet, amongst the rocks at higher elevations, life resembles a small trough. The water collects there seems to find a way to survive. Chañarcillo (Lyciunm and is again gravity fed to a holding tank nearby. At the leiostemum), Sosa (Nolana sedifolia) and Pingo Pingo Universidad Católica de Chile test site, Alto Patache,CA P T U R I N G T H E CAMANCHACADesigning Fog Collection Technology in the Atacama DesertBen Bookout | innovative design
  21. 21. BELOW Specifications for a Standard Fog Collector. Robert S. Shemenauer 1994. these collectors are placed facing the southwest impression of snow but the heat, desolation and silence where the camanchaca comes every afternoon carrying of the place made you reconsider. As Rodrigo pushed varying amounts of water depending on the season. the overloaded truck up steep slopes and around Spring and winter historically yield the most; autumn corkscrew curves, we held our breath and clenched our and summer the least (Cerecede 2002). The cost for a fists. Having taught the class for the past five years, Standard Fog Collector (SFC) is $100 U.S. The water navigating the small truck around drop-off cliffs to the collection can average from one to three hundred liters camp site seemed to be just another day at the office per square meter of polypropylene material depending for our professor. on weather conditions (Schemenauer 1994). Fog Upon arriving at Alto Patache base camp, the collectors at Alto Patache average around eight liters first thing we noticed was the sculpture park of fog per square meter per day. collector interpretations installed by Universidad The excitement surrounding fog collection in the Técnica Federico Santa María based in Iquique. The Atacama Desert is twofold. The first is the technical installation stands alone in the desert as if waiting to be challenges of harvesting water in a harsh desert discovered. It offers no protection and seems to suffer environment and the resourceful ability to take the same feelings of loneliness and exposure that typify advantage of an untapped water supply. The second is the the Atacama Desert. One feels so vulnerable in such a innovative design of the fog collection device itself and its landscape with little protection from the sun and wind, aesthetic repercussions for landscape architecture. save a few boulders. It leaves most wondering how anything can survive in such an environment. There is Tr i p t o P a t a c h e / U S M F o g C o l l e c t o r s not much difference in looking at images from Mars and Universidad Católica de Chile offers a class each those of the Atacama Desert. Along with learning about spring called Paisaje Xerofito (Xeric Landscape) with the intentions of research at Alto Patache, we learned the intent of designing new, prosperous futures at its about the fog collection process, its potentials for research facility, Alto Patache. Each class visits the plant growth and potable water. We also learned about test site and groups create master plans and design the plant communities that survive on water droplets interventions. In October 2008 our Paisaje Xerofito class from the camanchaca. Constanza Caceres, Sarah Kutz, took a trip to Alto Patache to observe, analyze, sketch and Isidora Larrain, Thibaut Villiers-Moriame and I made gather ideas for an eventual master plan and proposal. group observations of the area we would eventually use Professor Rodrigo Pérez De Arce picked us up on the for our master plan at Alto Patache. side of a highway lined with salt from the nearby mine. The crusty white salt bound to North America gave theROOT v2 | p20

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