Discourse analysis by A. sosal A.

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Discourse analysis by A. sosal A.

  1. 1. Discourse Analysis<br />Standards of Texuality<br />Cohesion<br />By: Ahmed Sosal A.<br />21 May 2011<br />
  2. 2. The idea<br />Cohesion= a textuality standard <br />The various kinds of cohesion had been out lined by MAK Halliday in his writings on stylistics and the concept was developed by RuqaiyaHasan in her University of Edinburgh doctoral thesis. <br />MAKH and RH (1976) argued that the concept of cohesion is semantic one. For them it refers to relation of meaning that:<br />exists within text <br />gives the text texture <br /> defines the text as text<br />
  3. 3. Definitions<br />Cohesive relations are relations between two or more elements in a text that are independent of the structure: for example between a personal pronoun and an antecedent proper name, such as John ….he.<br />semantic relation of this kind may be set up either within a sentence with the consequence that when it crosses a sentence boundary it has the effect of making the two sentences cohere with one another.<br />Cohesion is a type of relationship within a text when (the interpretation of) one element of discourse depends on another, i.e.<br />the ways in which the components of the surface text (the actual words we hear or see) are mutually connected within a sequence <br />
  4. 4. The function<br />The major function of cohesion is text formation<br />Distinguishes a text from something, which is not a text.<br />Two ways to establish cohesion in a text:<br />1-Grammatical cohesion. <br />2-Lexical cohesion: the cohesive effect, achieved by the selection of vocabulary (repetition, synonymy, hyponymy (SUPERODINATE-SUBORDINATE), metonymy (PART-WHOLE), antonymy.<br /><ul><li>Lexical cohesion COMPLEMENTS grammatical cohesion </li></li></ul><li>Cohesive (Devices)resources<br />(co-)reference <br />Ellipsis<br />Substitution <br />Conjunction <br />lexical cohesion <br />
  5. 5. Cohesion- problems<br />It is easy to make up a text full of cohesive devices which does not make any sense.<br />Texts that do not have any cohesive devices but make perfect sense are also quite common: Example <br />A: It does not look like 140 students.<br />B: It’s Friday. <br />
  6. 6. Conclusion<br />Cohesion is a part of text forming component in the linguistics system. It links together the elements that are structurally unrelated through the dependence of one on the other for its interpretation. Without cohesion the semantic system cannot be effectively activated at all. <br />
  7. 7. Example of Cohesive Devices<br />“Mr. Bean ascended the stairs to bed. In hisroom he first tested the steel shutters, thenthe lock of the door. Thenhe went across to the bed where his wife was already asleep and examined the mosquito curtains. Hesquirted a little Flit round the windows and door, sprayed his throat with antiseptic.<br />
  8. 8. He, on hispajamas, examined the magazine of his revolver and laid iton the chair athisbedside, next to it he placed his watch, electric torch and a bottle of Vittle. He slipped another revolver under his pillow. Hetiptoed to the window and called down softly: “Sergeant”, Therewas a click of heels in the darkness. “Excellence”.“Is it all well?”“All well. Excellence”.<br />
  9. 9. Mr. Bean moved softly across to the electric switches, and before extinguishing the main lamp switched on a small electric night-light which shed a faint blue radiancethroughout the room. Then, he cautiously lifted the mosquito curtain, flashed his torch round to make sure that there were no insects there, and finally lay down to sleep.<br />
  10. 10. Before losing consciousness, his hand felt, found and grasped a small curved nut which he kept in the belief thatit would bring him good luck.<br />Reference:<br />Black Mischief, Evelyn Waugh (1932)<br />

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