Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Sexually Transmitted Infections

  1. 1. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Ms. Drew Nightingale Middle School
  2. 2. What are Sexually Transmitted Infections? <ul><li>Once known as Venereal Diseases (VD) </li></ul><ul><li>STIs are infections that are transmitted primarily through sexual contact with an infected person. </li></ul><ul><li>STIs are very common. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 15-16 million new cases occur each year in the U.S. alone. </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 4 adolescents will get an STI </li></ul>
  3. 5. Modes of Transmission <ul><li>STIs are spread through contact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks in skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needle Sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical transmission (Mother-to-child) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Areas of Infection
  5. 7. STI Pathogens *Not classified as an STI <ul><li>Pathogen = Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Chlamydia </li></ul><ul><li>Gonorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial Vaginosis* </li></ul><ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogen= Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Herpes </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B </li></ul><ul><li>Genital Warts (HPV) </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogen= Parasite </li></ul><ul><li>Pubic Lice </li></ul><ul><li>Scabies </li></ul><ul><li>Trichomoniasis </li></ul>
  6. 8. Common Symptoms <ul><li>Pain during urination </li></ul><ul><li>Bump/sores </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding between periods </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Pain during intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>Rash </li></ul>Many people can have no symptoms (asymptomatic) and still pass on a STI.
  7. 9. Partners Need to Be Treated <ul><li>All partners should be examined and treated </li></ul><ul><li>Why!?!?! </li></ul>
  8. 10. Bacterial Infections Infections caused by bacteria, this agent represents about half of the STIs identified. Bacterial infections are curable. Medication does not protect against future exposure.
  9. 11. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Direct mucous membrane contact with the germ during sexual contact. Using condoms and </li></ul><ul><li>dental dams lowers chance of transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Culture sample (can be done during pap smear) </li></ul><ul><li>Urine sample </li></ul>
  10. 12. Symptoms in Males With Chlamydia: 50% of men will not get symptoms <ul><li>Gonorrhea & Chlamydia </li></ul><ul><li>Pain during urination </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent urination </li></ul><ul><li>Watery discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge from penis </li></ul>
  11. 13. Symptoms in Females With Chlamydia: 75% of women will not get symptoms <ul><li>Gonorrhea & Chlamydia </li></ul><ul><li>Pain during urination or sex </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding between periods </li></ul><ul><li>Dull pelvic pain </li></ul><ul><li>Thick discharge with foul odor </li></ul>
  12. 14. If gone untreated… <ul><li>Transmission to sex partners and newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (can cause infertility) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher rate of miscarriage </li></ul><ul><li>Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) </li></ul>
  13. 15. Treatment Available <ul><li>Treated and cured with antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Because many people with Gonorrhea also have Chlamydia, treatment for both infections are usually given together </li></ul>
  14. 16. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Direct sexual contact with the bacteria (especially with new or multiple partners) </li></ul><ul><li>Wiping the incorrect way </li></ul><ul><li>Douching </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Test </li></ul>
  15. 17. Symptoms <ul><li>Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy and milky discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Fishy-smelling odor </li></ul><ul><li>Itching in or around the vagina </li></ul>
  16. 18. If gone untreated… <ul><li>Bacteria may spread and infect the uterus and fallopian tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission to sex partners and newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Increased risk for premature birth </li></ul>
  17. 19. Treatment Available <ul><li>Can be cured with either oral antibiotics or suppositories. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no need to douche unless your doctor or clinician prescribes it as treatment. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Syphilis <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Skin to skin contact </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with mucous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-to-child through placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Sample </li></ul>
  19. 21. First Stage Syphilis Chancres (shangker) (painless open sore) appear on the body. They disappear in about 14 days.
  20. 22. Second Stage Syphilis Flu-like symptoms and rash. Rash is brownish red and can appear on any part of the body.
  21. 23. If gone untreated… Third Stage Syphilis <ul><li>Transmission to sex </li></ul><ul><li>partners and newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve and brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>Blindness </li></ul><ul><li>Physical damage </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul>Degenerative lesions called gummas appear as a result of hypersensitivity
  22. 24. Treatment Available <ul><li>A single intramuscular injection of medication will cure a person. </li></ul><ul><li>Other treatments are also available. </li></ul><ul><li>Syphilis is curable, but the damage to the body and/or internal organs is not reversible. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Viral Infections Viral infections are not curable . They can be treated and managed with medication to reduce symptoms and outbreaks caused by the virus.
  24. 26. Herpes <ul><li>HSV-1: Oral Herpes </li></ul><ul><li>HSV-2: Genital Herpes </li></ul><ul><li>Can be passed back and forth </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with herpes sore </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-to-child </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Visual exam </li></ul><ul><li>Blood test </li></ul>
  25. 27. Herpes can be transmitted anywhere there is a break in the skin, and mucous membrane. Herpes
  26. 28. If gone untreated… <ul><li>Higher miscarriage rate </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission to sex partners and newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Eye problems with herpes infection </li></ul><ul><li>Proctitis (inflammation of rectum) </li></ul>
  27. 29. Treatment Available <ul><li>Antiviral medications can shorten and prevent outbreaks. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, daily suppressive therapy for chronic herpes can reduce frequency of outbreaks and transmission to partners. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Hepatitis B (HBV-2) <ul><li>Hepatitis B can cause liver damage and is considered the most general and severe liver disease worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual contact * </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing needles </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-to-child </li></ul><ul><li>Oral utensils </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Blood test </li></ul>
  29. 31. Symptoms <ul><li>Jaundice (yellowing of skin </li></ul><ul><li>and whites of the eyes) </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal and joint pain </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul>About 30% of persons have no signs or symptoms
  30. 32. If left untreated … <ul><li>Transmission to sex partners and newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Liver failure </li></ul><ul><li>Cirrhosis (scarring) </li></ul><ul><li>Liver cancer can develop </li></ul>
  31. 33. Types of Hepatitis B Acute: Virus “clears out” of person’s system after initial exposure. This must be confirmed by a negative blood test after 6 months. Chronic: Virus stays in the person’s system, and person tests positive after 6 months. Chronic Hepatitis may stay with a person for a lifetime. About 10% of adults who contract Hepatitis B will develop the chronic type.
  32. 34. Treatment Available Hepatitis B vaccine is the best protection. Three injections given over 5-6 months. Remember to be tested before getting vaccinated Medications will slow down the virus and reduce liver damage. In some cases, they may even rid of the virus completely.
  33. 35. Genital Warts/HPV (Human Papillomavirus) <ul><li>The fastest growing STI in U.S. among young </li></ul><ul><li>adults. There are about 100 different strands of </li></ul><ul><li>HPV. Only 30 strands affect the genital region. </li></ul><ul><li>HPV is classified as high risk or low risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>More likely transmitted through direct contact </li></ul><ul><li>With infected skin (i.e. wart is present) </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Males – Only visual exam* </li></ul><ul><li>Females – Visual exam and detection through </li></ul><ul><li>Pap smears </li></ul>
  34. 36. Symptoms – Genital Warts <ul><li>Lesion on the </li></ul><ul><li>perianal area </li></ul><ul><li>Raised warts on </li></ul><ul><li>the vulva </li></ul><ul><li>Raised warts on </li></ul><ul><li>the penis </li></ul>Low risk HPV causes warts in the genital area <ul><li>Common Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Small bumps, can feel hard or soft </li></ul><ul><li>Can take on cauliflower-like appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Most people have no symptoms </li></ul>
  35. 37. HPV and Cervical Cancer High risk HPV does not cause genital warts but can turn into cervical cancer in women. Dysplasia found in a biopsy cell sample
  36. 38. If gone untreated… <ul><li>Transmission to sex partners and newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Warts may grow and spread if left untreated </li></ul><ul><li>May cause cervical cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Block openings from anus, vagina and urethra </li></ul>
  37. 39. Treatment Available <ul><li>HPV is treated through treatment of the genital wart. </li></ul><ul><li>Application of topical medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Removal by cryotherapy or laser </li></ul><ul><li>If the wart recurs, an injection of a type of interferon. </li></ul>
  38. 40. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virus that attacks the immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV is the virus that causes AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the body is at below 200 T-cells per </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ML (drop) of blood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body is vulnerable to opportunistic infections. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva Test </li></ul><ul><li>Testing Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Test are most accurate 6 months after possible </li></ul><ul><li>exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Results are available in 1-2 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid HIV Test - Some test sites offer immediate </li></ul><ul><li>results through finger prick. This test can be </li></ul><ul><li>expensive. </li></ul>
  40. 42. How can someone get HIV? <ul><li>Exchange of Bodily Fluids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual fluids – Semen, pre-ejaculate, vaginal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood contact – Needle sharing, areas with break </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother-to-child – Transmitted when giving birth or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>breast milk </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. How can someone not get HIV? <ul><li>Holding hands </li></ul><ul><li>Hugging </li></ul><ul><li>Toilet seats </li></ul><ul><li>Kissing </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing utensils </li></ul>
  42. 44. If gone untreated… <ul><li>Health Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission to sex partners and newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Weakening of immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to other infections </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul>
  43. 45. Treatment Available <ul><li>HIV treatment is a combination of Anti- </li></ul><ul><li>Retro Viral (ARV) medications, referred to </li></ul><ul><li>as a “cocktail” that will keep the viral count </li></ul><ul><li>low. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV drug treatment is complicated and </li></ul><ul><li>different people have different results. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment can help people at all stages of </li></ul><ul><li>HIV infection stay healthy. </li></ul>
  44. 46. Parasitic Infections <ul><li>Infections caused by parasite can be transmitted sexually and non-sexually. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment does not protect </li></ul><ul><li>against future infection. </li></ul>
  45. 47. Parasitic <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged contact (household members) </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing towels and sheets (parasites live up to 3 days without human host) </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Examination of suspicious area </li></ul><ul><li>Further diagnosis done with skin biopsy, and topical solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture testing (for trichomoniasis) </li></ul>Pubic lice attach to hair
  46. 48. Pubic Lice Pubic lice at the hair follicle <ul><li>Pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>organism called Pthirus pubis </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>pubic hair and other areas with hair </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><li>Spread through sexual contact or bedding </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent itching around Becomes worse at night </li></ul>
  47. 49. Scabies <ul><li>Pathogen </li></ul><ul><li>Mite </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>Found around genital, groin, and areas with folds of skin </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual contact or bedding </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Pimple-like irritations, mite burrows in zigzag pattern </li></ul>Scabies on webbing between fingers
  48. 50. Treatment Available <ul><li>Over the counter treatment can be purchased at </li></ul><ul><li>pharmacies. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash all clothing and bedding to avoid being re-infected </li></ul><ul><li>Continued itching is common 1-3 weeks after treatment. More treatment is required if new burrows or rash appear. </li></ul>
  49. 51. Trichomoniasis <ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Greenish-yellow discharge with foul odor </li></ul><ul><li>Frothy in texture </li></ul><ul><li>Itching </li></ul>
  50. 52. Treatment Available <ul><li>Trichomoniasis can be cured with the prescription drug, given by mouth in a single dose. </li></ul>
  51. 53. Fungal <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>Yeast Infection: Also caused by tight clothing and hygiene products </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Culture sample </li></ul>
  52. 54. Symptoms <ul><li>Yeast Infection </li></ul><ul><li>Cottage cheese-like discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Foul odor </li></ul><ul><li>Itchiness </li></ul>
  53. 55. Treatment Available <ul><li>Yeast Infections can be cured by anti-fungal medication. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no need to douche unless your doctor or clinician prescribes it as treatment. </li></ul>
  54. 56. Breaking the Cycle of Infection Healthy behaviors that you can practice to lower the risk and prevalence of STIs.
  55. 57. Prevention <ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking help </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting the number of sex partners </li></ul>
  56. 58. Points to Remember <ul><li>Every person’s body is different </li></ul><ul><li>Never be embarrassed to consult with your </li></ul><ul><li>clinician about STIs </li></ul><ul><li>STIs do not discriminate </li></ul>
  57. 59. <ul><li>For Appointments </li></ul><ul><li>1-800-230-PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>1-800-230-7526 </li></ul><ul><li>Got Questions? Hotline </li></ul><ul><li>1-877- 4ME-2ASK </li></ul><ul><li>1-877- 463-2275 </li></ul>

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