Birth Control Methods


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Birth Control Methods

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Birth Control Methods

  1. 1. Birth Control Methods Ms. Drew Health
  2. 2. Partner Communication <ul><li>It takes two to have sex, and two to decide and talk about: </li></ul><ul><li>Whether or not to have sex </li></ul><ul><li>And if YES then, </li></ul><ul><li>Birth Control </li></ul><ul><li>Getting Tested for STIs </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual History </li></ul>
  3. 3. Perfect vs. Typical Perfect User: A person who uses the method correctly and consistently Typical User: A person who uses the method incorrectly or does not use it every time
  4. 4. The only 100% method for preventing pregnancy and STIs is abstinence Benefits of Playing it Safe…
  5. 5. Four Types of BC <ul><li>Information-based </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term </li></ul>
  6. 6. Abstinence
  7. 7. Abstinence <ul><li>What does abstinence mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has a different definition on abstinence </li></ul><ul><li>People can choose to be abstinent at different times in </li></ul><ul><li>their lives </li></ul><ul><li>I define abstinence as no: </li></ul><ul><li>- oral sex, </li></ul><ul><li>- vaginal sex, </li></ul><ul><li>- anal sex, or </li></ul><ul><li>- genital-to-genital rubbing with another person </li></ul>Effectiveness: 100%
  8. 8. Abstinence <ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><li>No risk or worry about STI or pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Allows relationship to develop without the pressure of sex </li></ul><ul><li>No side effects or health risks </li></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><li>Can be hard to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Many people fail to use protection when abstinence ends </li></ul>
  9. 9. Withdrawal <ul><li>How To Use: </li></ul><ul><li>The man pulls out of his partner before he ejaculates </li></ul><ul><li>He needs to ejaculate outside of his partner </li></ul><ul><li>The man needs to know his body well in order to use </li></ul><ul><li>this method </li></ul>Effectiveness: Perfect User: 96% Typical User: 73%
  10. 10. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>No health problems or side effects </li></ul><ul><li>No supplies needed </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Couple may feel it interrupts sex, the reason for its Latin name </li></ul><ul><li>coitus interruptus </li></ul><ul><li>The man must take responsibility for this method </li></ul>No STI Protection Withdrawal
  11. 11. Barrier Methods A barrier method is used during intercourse to keep sperm from traveling through the cervix and into the uterus
  12. 12. Male Condom Available everywhere!
  13. 13. <ul><li>How To Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Store at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>No exposure to heat or direct sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Only use water-based lubricants </li></ul><ul><li>Allergy test can be done </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative to latex condom is polyurethane </li></ul>Effectiveness: Perfect User: 98% Typical User: 85% Made of latex, plastic, and sheepskin. Sheepskin condoms do not provide STI protection Male Condom
  14. 14. <ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><li>It protects against both pregnancy and STIs </li></ul><ul><li>Available in most drug stores and is affordable </li></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><li>May reduce sensitivity and spontaneity during intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>May cause skin irritation </li></ul>Male Condom
  15. 15. Female Condom <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Offers extra STI protection </li></ul><ul><li>Can be inserted up to 8 hours before intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Some women do not feel comfortable with this method </li></ul><ul><li>They can be expensive </li></ul>
  16. 16. Diaphragm <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>It can be put in up to 6 hours before sex, so it doesn’t affect </li></ul><ul><li>spontaneity </li></ul><ul><li>When taken care of, diaphragms last for a long time </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult for women to insert and remove </li></ul><ul><li>Some couples are allergic to the contraceptive cream </li></ul>No STI Protection
  17. 17. Spermicides Available in foams, jellies, vaginal films, and suppositories Effectiveness: Perfect User: 85%* Typical User: 71%* <ul><li>How To Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Spermicides work by creating a chemical and physical </li></ul><ul><li>barrier inside the vagina by doing two things: </li></ul><ul><li>- contains Nonoxyl-9 which kills sperm or makes them immobile </li></ul><ul><li>- forming a temporary plug around the cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Foams and gels can be used immediately. Vaginal films and </li></ul><ul><li>suppositories requires a 15 minute wait </li></ul>* Effectiveness rate increases when combined with a barrier method
  18. 18. <ul><li>Each application is effective up to 1 hour, and </li></ul><ul><li>needs to be reapplied for each act of sex </li></ul><ul><li>Need to remain in cervix for the next 6 hours </li></ul>Spermicides
  19. 19. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>They are affordable and available at most drug stores </li></ul><ul><li>They provide lubrication during sex </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>May cause skin irritation which can increase risk of STIs </li></ul><ul><li>They can be messy </li></ul>No STI Protection Spermicides
  20. 20. HORMONAL METHODS <ul><li>Only for women </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a doctor’s prescription </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hormonal Methods 1 3 2 Prevents ovulation Thins uterine lining to prevent implantation Thickens cervical mucus Contains hormones similar to estrogen and progesterone and work in combination to do the following:
  22. 22. Possible Side Effects <ul><li>Side effects vary from woman to woman. Most side effects disappear after 3 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible side effects include: </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in menstrual cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Breast tenderness </li></ul><ul><li>Mood Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Drug interaction with certain medications </li></ul>If any of these bother you, talk to your clinician. You can switch to another brand with a lower dosage of hormones, or try a different type of birth control
  23. 23. Birth Control Pill <ul><li>How To Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Start as directed by your clinician </li></ul><ul><li>Use back-up method when starting </li></ul><ul><li>Pill must be taken orally, every day, at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>If miss taking 1 pill, follow instructions on package </li></ul>Contains estrogen and progesterone Effectiveness: Perfect User: 99.7% Typical User: 92% Missed pills may not only increase the risk of pregnancy but may also increase your chance of experiencing some side effects, such as bleeding between periods
  24. 24. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>The pill regulates a woman’s period </li></ul><ul><li>Periods are lighter with less cramps </li></ul><ul><li>It does not interrupt sex </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Some women have a hard time remembering to take the pill </li></ul><ul><li>Some women experience side effects </li></ul>No STI Protection Birth Control Pill
  25. 25. Effectiveness: Perfect User: 99.7% Typical User: 92% <ul><li>How To Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Wear on body (see next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>Use back-up method when starting </li></ul><ul><li>Change patch each week for 3 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>No patch the fourth week and woman gets period </li></ul><ul><li>Do not wear in same spot twice </li></ul>Also called Ortho-Patch Contains estrogen and progestin Birth Control Patch
  26. 26. Only wear the Patch in the following areas of the body Birth Control Patch
  27. 27. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Only have to remember birth control once a week </li></ul><ul><li>Periods are lighter with less cramps </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Can be noticed on body </li></ul><ul><li>Some women experience side effects, including skin irritation </li></ul>No STI Protection Birth Control Patch
  28. 28. Effectiveness: Perfect User: 99.7% Typical User: 92% <ul><li>How To Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Worn inside the vagina for 3 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth week the ring is removed and woman gets her period </li></ul><ul><li>Use back-up method when starting </li></ul><ul><li>Stays inside vagina, even during sex </li></ul>Also called Nuva-Ring Contains estrogen and progestin Birth Control Ring
  29. 29. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Only have to remember birth control once a month </li></ul><ul><li>Periods are lighter with less cramps </li></ul><ul><li>Private </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Some women do not feel comfortable inserting this method </li></ul><ul><li>Some women experience side effects </li></ul>No STI Protection Birth Control Ring
  30. 30. Effectiveness: Perfect: 99.7% Typical: 97% <ul><li>How To Use: </li></ul><ul><li>The injection is given in the arm or buttocks by a clinician </li></ul><ul><li>Use back-up method when starting </li></ul><ul><li>Each injection lasts 3 months (11-13 weeks). Must return </li></ul><ul><li>to medical center for next injection </li></ul>Also called Depo-Provera Contains progestin only Birth Control Shot
  31. 31. <ul><li>Important Guidelines: </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility may be delayed for up to 18 months </li></ul><ul><li>Users may experience irregular bleeding and spotting </li></ul><ul><li>After one year, 50% of users stop menstrual bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>This method is not recommended for more than </li></ul><ul><li>2 continuous years </li></ul>Birth Control Shot
  32. 32. No STI Protection <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Only have to remember birth control 4 times a year </li></ul><ul><li>Good method for smokers and women over 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Very Private </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Some women do not like change in menstrual cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Some women experience side effects, including increased appetite </li></ul>Birth Control Shot
  33. 33. Progestin-Only Methods <ul><li>Contains the hormone progestin and are safe for </li></ul><ul><li>women who have an increased risk for blood clots </li></ul><ul><li>and heart problems </li></ul><ul><li>For women who: </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Over the age of 35 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Breastfeeding women </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone only methods include: </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-Pill/ progesterone-only pills (POPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Depo-Provera </li></ul><ul><li>Mirena IUD </li></ul>
  34. 34. LONG – TERM METHODS There are three types: 1.) Implanon for women only 2.) IUD for women only 3.) Sterilization for men and women Long-term methods are recommended for men and women who want to wait at least 3 years before having children or do not want any children in the future
  35. 35. Implanon <ul><li>A thin match-stick size rod made of soft plastic. </li></ul><ul><li>It is inserted beneath the skin of the arm, and a </li></ul><ul><li>very small amount of the hormone progestin goes </li></ul><ul><li>into the bloodstream all the time. </li></ul>Effectiveness: 99.2% <ul><li>How To Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with a clinician and have inserted at the medical center </li></ul><ul><li>Lasts up to 3 years. Must be removed by a clinician </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Good long term method </li></ul><ul><li>Very Private </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>May cause pain and/or a scar in the area of insertion </li></ul><ul><li>It may cause irregular vaginal bleeding </li></ul>Implanon No STI Protection
  37. 37. IUD: Copper-T Small, flexible device that is covered with copper. The IUD is inserted into the uterus with the strings outside the cervix <ul><li>How To Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with a clinician and have inserted at the medical center </li></ul><ul><li>Must check strings regularly to make sure the IUD is in place </li></ul><ul><li>Lasts up to 12 years. Must be removed by a clinician </li></ul>Effectiveness: 99.2%
  38. 38. Hormonal IUD Mirena releases progesterone and lasts up to 5 years Also called Mirena IUD. Similar to Copper-T, but is coated with the hormone, progestin Effectiveness: 99.9%
  39. 39. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Good long term method </li></ul><ul><li>Very Private </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Can increase a woman’s risk of STIs </li></ul><ul><li>Some women experience side effects, including vaginal bleeding </li></ul>The IUD No STI Protection
  40. 40. Tubal Ligation <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Out-patient surgery performed in a medical center </li></ul><ul><li>Requires general anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Fallopian tubes are blocked, preventing the egg </li></ul><ul><li>from entering the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery time ranges from 2 days to a week </li></ul><ul><li>Effective immediately </li></ul>Effectiveness: 99.5%
  41. 41. Tubal Ligation – Types of Procedures There are many types of procedures and each type carries different risks and benefits. Fallopian tubes are either cut, burned, or blocked with rings, bands, or clips
  42. 42. Tubal Ligation <ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent method of birth control </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective in the long-run </li></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><li>May not be reversible </li></ul><ul><li>Some health risks, including abnormal bleeding and </li></ul><ul><li>ectopic pregnancy </li></ul>No STI Protection
  43. 43. Vasectomy <ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><li>Out-patient surgery performed in a medical center </li></ul><ul><li>Local anesthesia is used to numb the area </li></ul><ul><li>Vas deferens tubes are blocked, preventing the sperm </li></ul><ul><li>from traveling out of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery time ranges from 1 day to less than a week </li></ul><ul><li>Effective after 10-20 post-vasectomy ejaculations </li></ul><ul><li>and semen analysis </li></ul>Available at Planned Parenthood Effectiveness: 99.9%
  44. 44. Vasectomy – Types of Procedure In most procedures, the surgeon will make small incisions in the skin of the scrotum, cut the vas deferens and a small part may be removed. They are either sealed or left open-ended. No-scalpel vasectomy is also available, with little bleeding and no stitches needed.
  45. 45. <ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent method of birth control </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler and less expensive than woman sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Fast recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><li>May not be reversible </li></ul><ul><li>Some health risks, including swelling and early failure </li></ul>Vasectomy No STI Protection
  46. 46. Emergency Contraception <ul><li>Not a form of everyday contraception </li></ul><ul><li>Taken only in cases of birth control failure, rape, incest </li></ul><ul><li>Take up to five days after sexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>High dose of hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Ella, Next Choice or Plan B </li></ul>For more information go to 1-888-NOT-2-LATE
  47. 47. Emergency Contraception <ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><li>Can be purchased ahead of time </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid abortion or pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Available at pharmacies and health clinics to 17 and older </li></ul><ul><li>Under 17 need a prescription , no parental notification required </li></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><li>$40 </li></ul><ul><li>Some side effects – nausea and cramping </li></ul>
  48. 48. local health clinics Valley Community Clinic 888-763-4070 or 818-763-4070 or Planned Parenthood Los Angeles Canoga Park and Van Nuys 1-800-576-5544 Los Angeles Department of Health Services