Command Line (Linux             1)ls                                                      dir     DOS)list              ls...
Home Directory       User1passwd                                     User                Unix,Linux                   pass...
copy             cp source target                     #cp test.txt /home/user1cal                                 Unix,Lin...
Change Directory                Unix,Linux (                 CD   DOS)                     cd [directory]           cd /et...
1.2.                2             1          User Group Other = ugo           go-r-w+x                                    ...
clear               Unix,Linux (cls     dos)                      clear            clear [Enter]cal                       ...
dmesg          dmesg | more [Enter]                                                     Linux           Driver CD-Romecho ...
exit          exitfinger       finger               Unix,Linux (         User     LoginWho                     finger [use...
grep       grep            Unix,Linux (                     grep (option)         grep -i ftp /etc/test                   ...
halt [-n] [-w] [-d] [-f] [-I] [-p]           #halt                         Shutdown ; init0 , reboothistory       history ...
#sleep 20 & jobskill        kill            Unix,Linux (                           Process)                       kill [op...
mkdir -p -m755 ~/home/user1mv                                       Directory                                       dos)  ...
q;      Spacebar]                       ;mount        mount               Unix,Linux (                      mount (-t type...
option                   echo-c                       backup)-t                                     backup-v-f            ...
writeEOF                CTRL+C       interrupt                                 writeEnter              write m2kwho am i  ...
free                 free [-b|-k|-m]       option               free-b                          byte-k                    ...
LINUX          UNIX (Linux               2)1.1          ls :                                        home directory--------...
CGI                                     CGI              server                                    Perl                   ...
chmod 777 index.php ::                                                             3chmod 755 * -Rf ::                    ...
directory (Change directory)mkdir hello ::            directory        hellormdir hello.htm ::                       hello...
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.6              emacs :           editor ...
viescenteriaAddx                   1cw:w:q!:wq                                               vi---------------------------...
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------cat /etc/passwd ::                        ...
1.11          netstat :--------------------------------------------------------------------------------                   ...
sendmail (pid 1700 1690) is running...sshd (pid 2970 358) is running...xinetd (pid 3923 369) is running...----------------...
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.14          whereis :                   ...
ping 202.29.78.100 -c 5 ::                                        5ping 202.29.78.2 ::                                    ...
SHLVL=2LOGNAME=burinLESSOPEN=|/usr/bin/lesspipe.sh %sG_BROKEN_FILENAMES=1_=/bin/env---------------------------------------...
Authoritative answers can be found from:18.28.202.in-addr.arpa nameserver = mars.uni.net.th.18.28.202.in-addr.arpa nameser...
telnet www.school.net.th 21 ::                           port 21            FTP porttelnet mail.loxinfo.co.th 25 ::       ...
du ::                         directorydu -all ::                                                                directory...
kill -9              process ::                process                                 ps -efkill -9 1255 ::       process...
tar xvf x.tar ::                                      tardirectorytar xvfz squid-2.3-200103110000-src.tar.gz ::           ...
date +%d ::                                           27date 04271340 ::                                           27     ...
2.12          ntsysv        setup :--------------------------------------------------------------------------------setup :...
shutdown -h now                halt ::                                                1reboot         shutdown -r now ::  ...
#chgrp users y ::                              x           users----------------------------------------------------------...
#/sbin/chkconfig --level 5 sendmail on ::                            sendmaillevel 5 (X Windows)--------------------------...
คำสั่งยูนิกส์ Command line
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คำสั่งยูนิกส์ Command line

  1. 1. Command Line (Linux 1)ls dir DOS)list ls [option] [file]option ls-l Long Format Permission-a-F Directory execute ls –l ls -al ls -Fadduser User Unix,Linux adduser -g (group) -d (Directory) (User) adduser -g root -d /home/user1 user User Loginuser1 rootuseradd User Unix,Linux ( adduser) useradd -g (group) -d (Directory) (User) useradd -g root -d /home/user1 user User Loginuser1 rootuserdel User Unix,Linux userdel [option] (Username) userdel -r root user1 User Login User1 -r
  2. 2. Home Directory User1passwd User Unix,Linux passwd [Username] passwd user1 ( User1 User Unix Loginalias Unix,Linux (SET DOS RUN alias [ alias copy=cp copy cpbash Bourne again shell Unix,Linux bash bash [Enter] ( Bourne again shell)bc Unix,Linux bc [-lwsqv] [option] [file] bc [Enter] 1+2 [Enter] 1^2 [Enter] a=3 [Enter] b=4 [Enter] a*b[Enter] x=2;y=5;x+y[Enter] [Ctrl-d] Install Packetcp copy DOS)
  3. 3. copy cp source target #cp test.txt /home/user1cal Unix,Linux cal cal [Enter](cal -y [Enter](cat File Unix,Linux( Type DOS) cat cat /home/user1 | more home/user1C Compiler Compile C Unix,Linux ( Type DOS) cc [filename] cc /home/user1/industry.c Compile Cindustry.c Directory /home/user1cd
  4. 4. Change Directory Unix,Linux ( CD DOS) cd [directory] cd /etc [Enter] Directory etccd ..[Enter] Directory 1chfin Change your finger information Unix,Linux( User chfn [username] chfn User1 User1chgrp Change Group Unix,Linux ( chgrp [-chfRv] (Group) (File) chgrp root /root/* Grouproot Group rootchmod Change Mode Unix,Linux( chmod [ File) test chmod 754 test chmod go+r-w test chmod o-r * Mode rwx = 7 ; rw - =6 ; r-x =5 ; r- - = 4 ; - wx = 3 ; - w - = 2 ; - - x=1;--=0 2
  5. 5. 1.2. 2 1 User Group Other = ugo go-r-w+x Run -rwxrwxrwx = Read Write Execute 111 101 100 = 754 Group Executechown Change Owner Unix,Linux ( chown [ File) chown user1 filename filename User1chown -R user1.rootdirname Subdirname.chsh chsh Unix,Linux ( Shell User) chsh [Username] chsh user1 [Enter] /bin/bash [Enter]clear
  6. 6. clear Unix,Linux (cls dos) clear clear [Enter]cal Unix,Linux cal cal [Enter](cal -y [Enter](mesgmesg status terminalmesg y terminalmesg n terminaldate date 17 May 2004df df Unix,Linux ( df [option] [file] df [Enter]dmesg dmesg Unix,Linux ( Boot)
  7. 7. dmesg dmesg | more [Enter] Linux Driver CD-Romecho echo Unix,Linux (ECHO DOS) echo ( echo my name is user1echo Hello > /dev/tty2 Hello 2ed ed Unix,Linux ( Text file edlin DOS) ed (fileName) ed /home/user/test ( q) pico vi emacsemacs emacs Unix,Linux ( Text file ) emacs (fileName) emacs /home/user/test (help Ctrl - h ; Ctrl - x Ctrl -c)exit exit Unix,Linux (
  8. 8. exit exitfinger finger Unix,Linux ( User LoginWho finger [username] finger user1 user1fsck fsck Unix,Linux ( Linux filesystem Scandisk Dos) fsck [option] sbin/fsck -a /dev/hd1ftp ftp Unix,Linux ( ftp (IP or Name of FTP Server ) ftp 132.209.1.2 [Enter]Login:anonymous , Password: Username@YourDomain.com ls - ; pwd - dir. ;cd - dir ;lcd -local dir ;mput* - ;mget – ;bye -
  9. 9. grep grep Unix,Linux ( grep (option) grep -i ftp /etc/test ftp" etc/testgroupadd groupadd Unix,Linux ( User) groupadd (GroupName ) #groupadd staff User Staffgroupdel groupdel Unix,Linux ( User) groupadd (GroupName ) #groupdel staff User Staffgzip/gunzip gzip/gunzip Unix,Linux( gzip gunzip (-cdfhlLnNrtv19 ) [file] -- #gzip -9vr /home/samba/* Sub/home/samba gz#gunzip -dvr /home/samba/*gz Sub /home/sambahalt halt Unix,Linux (
  10. 10. halt [-n] [-w] [-d] [-f] [-I] [-p] #halt Shutdown ; init0 , reboothistory history Unix,Linux( Command line F7 DOS Dos key) history [n] [-r wan [filename] ] #history 20 20ifconfig history Unix,Linux( Network Lan Card) ifconfig [option] #ifconfigipchains ipchains Unix,Linux ( Firewall) ipchains [parameter] command [option] #ipchains -L Set IPchainsjobs jobs Unix,Linux ( Firewall) jobs
  11. 11. #sleep 20 & jobskill kill Unix,Linux ( Process) kill [option] (process ID) ps -A PID ProcessKill -9login login nnn nnn PID -9Unix,Linux ( User Login) login [fp] (UserName) #login:rootmkdir directory ( dos)make directory mkdirmkdir [option] [file] option mkdir-m Permissioin ( chmod-p Parent Directory directory relative absolute pathmkdir /home
  12. 12. mkdir -p -m755 ~/home/user1mv Directory dos) move mv source target mv *.tar /backupmv test.txt old.txtmv bin oldbinmore cat more more file more=qh help more test.txtman man Unix,Linux ( man (Command) #man ls
  13. 13. q; Spacebar] ;mount mount Unix,Linux ( mount (-t type) DeviceDriverMountPoint # Mount 1 CdRom mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom/mnt/cdrom# Mount CdRom 2 mount /dev/cdrom ( mount CDmnt/CdRom Unmount)rmdir directory ( dos)remove directoryrmdir [option] [file] option mkdir -p Child ParentDirectorydirectory relative absolute path rmdir/hometar backup restore file tardirectory file permission( UNIX) tape archive tar [option]... [file]...
  14. 14. option echo-c backup)-t backup-v-f file-x restore tar -xvf data.tartalk 2 Talk talk user[@host] [tty] hostytalk 2 tty Log in 1 talk m2k@nanastreet.comwrite write user [tty] write
  15. 15. writeEOF CTRL+C interrupt writeEnter write m2kwho am i login login whoami who am i ( SUN OS UNIXfile file DOS/Windows UNIX Context file Content file [option]... file file /bin/sh file report1.doc
  16. 16. free free [-b|-k|-m] option free-b byte-k kilobyte-m megabyte free free –b free -kpwd Directory cd DOS) print work directory pwduname OS cpu uname -ahostname hostnametty terminal ttyid id
  17. 17. LINUX UNIX (Linux 2)1.1 ls : home directory-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- account linux home directorylinux ls parameter -al --sortls -alt :: altls -alt | more :: 1ls -al --sort=time | more ::ls -R | more :: directoryls ls -l D Column ls -aldirectory--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.2 chmod : Owner), Group), Other)-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ls RWXRWXRWX webmaster
  18. 18. CGI CGI server Perl x) chmod 755 hello.pl chmod 775 fileforyou.pl chmod +x test.pl 3 R Read W Write X Execute--- : 0)--X : 1)R-- : 4)RW- : 6)R-X : 5)RWX : 7)RWXRWXRWX 9333RWX------ : 700)RWXRWX--- :770)RWXR-XR-X : 755)R--R--R-- : 444)
  19. 19. chmod 777 index.php :: 3chmod 755 * -Rf :: direcroty--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.3 man : Manual)-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- unix linux parameterlinux manman man :: manman ls :: lsman useradd :: useradd--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.4 mkdir, rmdir, cd : directory-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- dos directory directory 3 mkdir directory (Make directory) rm directory(Remove directory) cd
  20. 20. directory (Change directory)mkdir hello :: directory hellormdir hello.htm :: hello.htmcd / :: directory rootcd .. :: directory 1cd ~/x :: x home directory home/thaiall/x homedirectory home/thaiall--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.5 pico : editor text vi-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- pico enter ^ Ctrl pico xxxx xx xx Ctrl-X vi pico pine picopine CD rpm -i pine*
  21. 21. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.6 emacs : editor text vi-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- picopico emacs ctrl-h ctrl-x+ ctrl-c pico editor emacs picoemacsWelcome to GNU Emacs, one component of a Linux-basedGNU system.Get help C-h (Hold down CTRL and press h)Undo changes C-x u Exit Emacs C-x C-cGet a tutorial C-h t Use Info to read docs C-h iOrdering manuals C-h RETActivate menubar F10 or ESC ` or M-`(`C- means use the CTRL key. `M- means use the Meta (or Alt) key.If you have no Meta key, you may instead type ESC followed by thecharacter.)--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.7 vi : editor text--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Text editor linuxpico mail pine vi linux man
  22. 22. viescenteriaAddx 1cw:w:q!:wq vi--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.8 id, finger, who, w :--------------------------------------------------------------------------------id uname :: account unamefinger uname :: account uname last login emailfinger @www.isinthai.com :: loginwho |grepthai :: thaiw ::--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.9 cat : type DOS
  23. 23. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------cat /etc/passwd :: etc/passwdcat /etc/passwd | more :: etc/passwd passwd suwit:x:500:500:Suwit:/home/suwit:/bin/bashprasert:x:501:501::/home/prasert:/bin/bash bcom101:x:502:502::/home/bcom302:/bin/bash--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.10 ifconfig : Network interface ip server-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ifconfigeth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:20:18:C0:06:C4inet addr:202.29.78.12 Bcast:202.29.78.255 Mask:255.255.255.0UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1RX packets:673054 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0TX packets:666268 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0collisions:0 txqueuelen:100RX bytes:74892865 (71.4 Mb) TX bytes:680121131 (648.6 Mb)Interrupt:9 Base address:0xcf00eth0:1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:20:18:C0:06:C4inet addr:202.29.78.1 Bcast:202.29.78.255 Mask:255.255.255.0UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1Interrupt:9 Base address:0xcf00 ip 1 ip #/sbin/ifconfig eth0:1 202.29.78.1 IP 9.10 etc/rc.d/rc.local--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  24. 24. 1.11 netstat :-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- netstat -aActive Internet connections (servers and established)Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address Statetcp 0 0 *:mysql *:* LISTENtcp 0 0 *:http *:* LISTENtcp 0 0 *:ftp *:* LISTENtcp 0 0 *:ssh *:* LISTENtcp 0 0 *:smtp *:* LISTENtcp 0 0 *:https *:* LISTENtcp 0 0 www.isinthai.com:ssh 202.29.78.200:1225 ESTABLISHEDActive UNIX domain sockets (servers and established)Proto RefCnt Flags Type State I-Node Pathunix 2 [ ACC] STREAM LISTENING 855 /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sockunix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 119 /dev/logunix 2 [] STREAM CONNECTED 3007unix 2 [] STREAM CONNECTED 859--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.12 service : running-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- service --status-allhttpd (pid 2160 2159 2158 2155 2114 583 579 578 577 576 575 573) isrunning...mysqld (pid 446 429 427 414) is running...
  25. 25. sendmail (pid 1700 1690) is running...sshd (pid 2970 358) is running...xinetd (pid 3923 369) is running...--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.13 xinetd : xinetd etc/xinetd.d talk talkserver-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- xinetd -dService configuration: ftpid = ftpflags = IPv4socket_type = streamProtocol (name,number) = (tcp,6)Nice = 10Groups = noBind = All addresses.Server = /usr/sbin/vsftpdServer argv = vsftpdOnly from: All sitesNo access: No blocked sitesLogging to syslog. Facility = authpriv, level = infoLog_on_success flags = HOST PIDLog_on_failure flags = HOST
  26. 26. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.14 whereis : PATH find--------------------------------------------------------------------------------whereisusermod :: usermod runwhereisifconfig :: ifconfigsbin/ifconfig--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.15 cp, rm, mv :--------------------------------------------------------------------------------cp x y :: x y xcprm y :: y directoryrm -r directoryname :: directory sundirectory confirmrm -rfdirectoryname :: directory Redhatdirectory confirmrm -f * :: yesmv x /root :: x root--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.16 ping : ip internetping www.thaiall.com :: www.thaiall.comIP
  27. 27. ping 202.29.78.100 -c 5 :: 5ping 202.29.78.2 :: ipPING 202.29.78.2 (202.29.78.2)from 202.29.78.12 : 56(84) bytes of data. From 202.29.78.12icmp_seq=1Destination Host Unreachable From 202.29.78.12 icmp_seq=2DestinationHost Unreachable From 202.29.78.12 icmp_seq=3 Destination HostUnreachable--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.17 env : environment--------------------------------------------------------------------------------envHISTSIZE=1000SSH_CLIENT=202.29.78.100 1091 22OLDPWD=/usr/sbinQTDIR=/usr/lib/qt3-gcc3.2SSH_TTY=/dev/pts/0USER=burinLS_COLORS=no=00:fi=00:di=00;34:ln=00;36:pi=40;33:so=00;35:bd=40;.... :PATH=/usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/X11R6/binMAIL=/var/spool/mail/burinPWD=/etcINPUTRC=/etc/inputrcLANG=en_US.UTF-8HOME=/root
  28. 28. SHLVL=2LOGNAME=burinLESSOPEN=|/usr/bin/lesspipe.sh %sG_BROKEN_FILENAMES=1_=/bin/env--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.18 lynx : Text browser source download--------------------------------------------------------------------------------lynx www.thaiall.com :: www.thaiall.com text modelynx http://www.yonok.ac.th :: www.yonok.ac.th textmodelynx -dump http://www.yonok.ac.th :: interactive viewlynx -dump -width=500 http://piology.org/.procmailrc.html|grep ^||cut -c3- ::--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.19 nslookup : name server ip domainname-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Redhat dig host hostyn1.yonok.ac.th dig yn1.yonok.ac.thnslookup exit >nslookup 202.28.18.65Non-authoritative answer:65.18.28.202.in-addr.arpa name = mars.uni.net.th.
  29. 29. Authoritative answers can be found from:18.28.202.in-addr.arpa nameserver = mars.uni.net.th.18.28.202.in-addr.arpa nameserver = ns.netserv.chula.ac.th.mars.uni.net.th internet address = 202.28.18.65nslookup www.thaiall.comName: www.thaiall.comAddress: 66.150.1.141--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.20 tail : cat--------------------------------------------------------------------------------tail index.html :: index.html Current directorytail --lines=5 /var/log/messages :: var/log/messages roottail /var/log/html/access.log :: 10 defaulttail --lines=100 /var/log/html/access_log>access_bak :: backup mv--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.21 telnet : server portserver telnet SSH--------------------------------------------------------------------------------telnet 202.202.202.202 :: 202.202.202.202 port port 23
  30. 30. telnet www.school.net.th 21 :: port 21 FTP porttelnet mail.loxinfo.co.th 25 :: smtptelnet class.yonok.ac.th 110 :: pop service windows server2003 Microsoft Windows POP3 Service Version 1.0 ready.USER aa@class.yonok.ac.th +OK PASS xxxxxxx +OK User successfullylogged on--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.1 df : Harddisk-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Harddisk upload userserver cleardf ::Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on/dev/hda5 505605 82764 396737 18% //dev/hda1 101089 9180 86690 10% /boot/dev/hda3 1423096 41956 1308848 4% /homenone 30740 0 30740 0% /dev/shm/dev/hda2 3889924 1551872 2140456 43% /usr/dev/hda6 1027768 952876 22684 98% /var--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.2 du : directory-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- directory
  31. 31. du :: directorydu -all :: directorydu | sort -g :: directory sort Kbdu -b :: byte directory--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.3 ps : Process-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- run bot serverps :: processps -ef :: processps -ax :: processps -aux :: process--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.4 kill : process process kill process-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- process process kill superuser
  32. 32. kill -9 process :: process ps -efkill -9 1255 :: process 1255--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.5 find : directory--------------------------------------------------------------------------------find / -name hello.pl :: hello.pl directoryfind / -name hello* :: hellofind /bin -size 626188c :: 626188 RH8 bash--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.6 gzip : gz z tar tar.gz--------------------------------------------------------------------------------gzip -d x.tar.gz :: gzman gzip :: gzipgzip -d radius-1.16.1.tar.Z :: ftp.livingston.com/pub/le/radius/gzip -dc x.tar.Z|tarxvf - :: 2 gzip tar x.tar.z--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.7 tar : tar--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  33. 33. tar xvf x.tar :: tardirectorytar xvfz squid-2.3-200103110000-src.tar.gz :: gztar gzip tarman tar :: tartar zcvf abc.tar.gz /etc :: copy /etc abc.tar.gztar zxvf abc.tar.gz :: abc.tar.gz directory/etc--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.8 last : login--------------------------------------------------------------------------------last |grep reboot :: rebootlast |more :: login--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.9 grep :--------------------------------------------------------------------------------more /etc/passwd|grepthaiall ::etc/passwd thaiallrpm -qa|grep ftp :: ftplast |grep reboot :: reboot--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.10 date : date [OPTION][MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]]--------------------------------------------------------------------------------date +%x :: 04/27/01
  34. 34. date +%d :: 27date 04271340 :: 27 4 13.40mmddhhmmccyy)hwclock --systohc :: date restart hardwareclock hardware--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.11 top :--------------------------------------------------------------------------------top :: processRedhat 8.0CPU states: 0.5% user, 1.3% system, 0.0% nice, 98.0% idleMem: 31328K av, 28872K used, 2456K free, 0K shrd, 1032KbuffSwap: 1718912K av, 2608K used, 1716304K free 16528Kcached PID USER PRI NI SIZE RSS SHARE STAT LIB %CPU%MEM TIME COMMAND18306 root 14 0 852 852 672 R 0 1.5 2.7 0:00 top18229 root 1 0 1684 1536 1240 S 0 0.3 4.9 0:00 sshd1 root 0 0 160 116 92 S 0 0.0 0.3 0:08 init2 root 0 0 0 0 0 SW 0 0.0 0.0 0:01 kflushd--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  35. 35. 2.12 ntsysv setup :--------------------------------------------------------------------------------setup :: system services server httpd, imap, ipop3, iptables,named, network, sendmail, servers, services, vsftpd, xinetdweb, mail, ftp dnsntsysv :: setup, services( RH--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.13 route :--------------------------------------------------------------------------------# routeKernel IP routing tableDestination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface202.29.78.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0127.0.0.0 * 255.0.0.0 U 0 0 0 lodefault 202.29.78.254 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.14 shutdown, reboot :--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  36. 36. shutdown -h now halt :: 1reboot shutdown -r now :: clear--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.15 runlevel : etc/inittab level level chkconfig 2.18--------------------------------------------------------------------------------#/sbin/runlevel :: level#cat /etc/inittab :: level--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.16 fsck : linux--------------------------------------------------------------------------------#fsck / :: harddiskharddisk#fsck /dev/hdc :: harddisk dev/hdc harddisk--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.17 chown, chgrp :-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.2 chmod 3#chownburin:users x :: x burin users
  37. 37. #chgrp users y :: x users--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.18 chkconfig : level-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- level etc/inittab level level start linux level# /etc/inittab# Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are:# 0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this)# 1 - Single user mode# 2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not havenetworking)# 3 - Full multiuser mode# 4 - unused# 5 - X11# 6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this)#id:5:initdefault:id:3:initdefault:#/sbin/chkconfig --add mysql :: mysql systemservices#/sbin/chkconfig --list :: level#/sbin/chkconfig --level 3 sendmail on :: sendmaillevel 3 (Text mode)
  38. 38. #/sbin/chkconfig --level 5 sendmail on :: sendmaillevel 5 (X Windows)--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.19 mount, umount : partition Diskette Handy drive-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- mount harddisk server 1harddisk hdc fdisk -l partition 1 hdc x #mkdir /x #mount /dev/hdc1 /x x h

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