We’ll start by looking at the key data security requirements in the proposed EU Data Protection regulation, and the potential penalties in the event of a breach.
We’ll then have a look at where the EU stands at the moment, sharing the results of a recent Sophos survey into data protection.
Next we’ll look at what you need to do to comply with the data security regulation, and also steps to take to minimize fines in the event that a breach does occur.
As well as securing data in the event of a breach, it’s also important to prevent the breach in the first place, so we will look at some technologies that can help prevent data loss.
And then we’ll go on to how Sophos can help you comply with the data security requirements and minimize the likelihood of you being fined if a breach does occur.
Currently there are a number of different data security regulations across the 28 countries of the EU. This legislation is designed to provide a single, consistent law that applies to all EU countries – so one market, one rule.
The law is split into two formats:
Regulation - this covers the bulk of personal data processing in the European Union Directive - on processing data to prevent, investigate, detect or prosecute criminal offences, or enforce criminal penalties. The goal here is to protect both domestic and cross-border transfers of data
Let’s start by looking at the benefits for businesses of having this new law.
One EU market, one law – businesses just need to deal with one law not 28. Savings as a result are estimated at €2.3 billion per year.
One-stop-shop – companies will only have to deal with one single supervisory authority, not 28, making it simpler and cheaper to do business in the EU.
Same rules for all companies – Everyone who holds data on EU citizens, whether they are based in the EU or not, will need to comply with the regulation. European regulators will be able to fine companies who do not comply with EU rules based on their global annual turnover. This puts everyone on the same footing.
It’s not just businesses that benefit. EU citizens also benefit, here are some of the key ways in which the Regulation helps them.
Better data security. Data protection becomes a priority rather than an afterthought.
Putting people in control. Individuals will actively need to give their consent when their data is processed. Also businesses and other organizations will need to inform people without undue delay about data breaches that could adversely affect them.
The legislation is very broad and covers many aspects of personal data.
In terms of personal data security, there are three key Articles that you need to be aware of.
Article 30 is all about securing personal data , which could include payment details, customer records, healthcare information.
Article 31 looks at the need to inform the supervisory authority of a breach
Article 32 centers on telling individuals if there has been a breach that may affect them.
We are going to focus on these three Articles for the rest of this session.
So here’s the requirements in a nutshell. In terms of securing personal data, organizations need to:
1. Implement appropriate security measures to protect personal data. We’ll go into what these measures are in more detail in a minute. 2. Have a data protection policy that guides employees in how to keep personal data secure. 3. Have a named Data Protection officer (unless they are classified as a SMB, which in this context means you process data on less than 5000 EU citizens a year)
As well as imposing requirements on organizations to secure data, the Regulation will also open the door to fines of up to €100 million or 5% of annual turnover in the event of a breach.
If you suffer a breach, but can demonstrate that the the data was subject to technological protection measures rendering it unintelligible to unauthorized people (e.g. encryption) then you won’t need to notify affected individuals of the breach.
At present we do not know the criteria which will be used when considering whether to impose fines, but it is highly likely that use of encryption will result in no fines being imposed.
So where does encryption fit in?
The regulation doesn’t specifically mandate the use of encryption. However, the need to encrypt data is a key outcome from the Regulation.
At present we do not know the criteria which will be used when considering whether to impose fines, but legal experts confirm it is highly likely that use of encryption will result in no fines being imposed.
Encryption is widely agreed to be the best security measure to protect personal data. But where to start? Data no longer stops at the corporate perimeter. Let’s think about common ways that data is lost and how to implement encryption for them.
Accidental loss or Theft of a device is common place: Left at airport security? Left your mobile phone at a restaurant/bar? Stolen from office, hotel or car? Handed over after physical threats Only authorized users can access the devices!
Consider all of your devices: Laptops Desktops Mobiles Tablets
The use cases here is a lost or stolen device. The threat is an external one to the organization; say an thief who has stolen the device. We’re all human. It’s possible that a user will accidentally leave their laptop at airport security; or it is stolen from the office or their car or hotel room. In any of these scenarios you don’t want the attacker to be able to boot the system and gain access to your data. Think of this simple example, when you are going through airport security what is the object you are most aware of and it’s location? And in a rush, what do you grab first? For most people it is their wallet, passport, or mobile phone. Laptops tend to be a secondary consideration.
Questions to consider: Has your organization lost any devices recently? What were they? What data did they contain? Did they contain anything confidential? How many different platforms do you have? Windows? Mac OS X? iOS? Android?
The principle of this requirement is that you only access to a device by an authorized user. While the majority of these cases can be attributed to simple human error it is a common vector for data loss. With the large storage capacity of devices today, a large amount of data can be lost through an innocent act.
This is the historical usage of encryption. Historically this was full disk encryption used on laptops because those were the devices that left the organization. Now there are more devices with data outside of the organization. They all need to be considered in a data protection strategy. While desktops don’t leave the office, they need to be considered because of the possibility that they are stolen from an office.
For laptops and desktops this is the use of Full Disk Encryption. The disk is encrypted and a user must authenticate before the Operating System will boot. This ensures that only authorized users can access the device. And as the drive is encrypted, the drive cannot be extracted and inserted into another system in an attempt to read the data.
For mobile or tablet devices, this is enabling the native encryption options in those devices and require the user to enter a PIN/Password before accessing the device.
This is the first layer of defense in a data protection strategy.
Notes for Sales: The Full Disk Encryption functionality is a part of Sophos SafeGuard. The subscriptions SKUs are SEE or DEA. You can cross sell the Mobile Management functionality if they want to manage the default encryption settings on mobile devices.
Removable Media (e.g. USB Sticks) can also be a vector for data loss.
Small devices can store large amounts of data and are easily misplaced. Do you remember where your first USB Stick is located? Have you ever lost a USB Stick? More importantly, what was on it?
Two basic choices: Don’t allow users to attach removable media Protect data being copied to removable media
Copying data to removable media, such as a USB stick, is a very simple act and end users have learnt that it is a very easy way to share a small or large amount of data with a colleague, customer or partner. As these devices are generally used as a temporary storage mechanism for sharing larger amounts of data end users don’t tend to track what is on these devices. Alternatively, it could be a completely backup of a laptop. Just like with everything else, technology has made advances and a small removable media device (from something the size of a fingernail, to something the size of a mobile phone) can contain gigabytes/terabytes of data.
And as they generally tend to be small, they are easily lost. Running late, you put the USB stick in your pocket. You pull your keys out of your pocket and accidentally also pull out the USB stick and it drops to the floor. Would you notice?
It’s very interesting to consider the basic question: Do you know where your first USB stick is located and what is stored on it? This is a good example because most people can’t tell you the answer to either part of the question. It illustrates the point that the location of these devices tend to be at best a secondary consideration and who knows what was stored on them.
So what can organizations do? One method is to not all users to attach removable media devices. If they can’t attach a removable media device, they can’t copy data to one. This is a perfectly valid solution and removes this vector for data loss, however it does remove this sharing possibility from end users and could be met with end user resistance. There are other options such as Device Control which can control which types of removable media devices are allowed to attach to the laptop/desktop and reject all others. The very security conscience of organizations could even go as far as to glue up the USB ports so nothing can ever be inserted.
That brings on the other second option: If users are allowed to attach removable media devices, protect/encrypt the data that is written to them. Think back to the description of “What is a data breach” – make sure that data being written is not in a useable form to the attacker.
Additional possible pitch: Who has found a 64/128GB USB Stick just laying on the ground and picked it up? If yes, did you insert it into your laptop? If Yes, congratulations you could now be infected with malware. Make sure that you keep your Anti-virus/Anti-Malware up to date. This is a common vector of getting malware into an organization.
Notes to Sales: The ability to protect/encrypt removable media is a part of Sophos SafeGuard. The subscriptions SKUs are SEE or FEA. The device control ability is a part of the Endpoint functionality.
We all email – we all make mistakes.
Unintentional human error: Accidentally attached the wrong file to an email? Did that e-mail go outside the company? Accidentally sent the e-mail to the wrong person? Even it was inside the organization, what is the implication of the person knowing that information?
Two basic choices: Encrypt files attached to e-mails Examine e-mails at the gateway
No one can say that they haven’t sent a file attachment with an email. This is a very common use case for the sharing of the data. E-Mail is one of those double edge sword technologies. It is a great way to easily share information, both inside and outside of an organization. However this can be a vector for data loss, either accidentally or maliciously by an end user.
We’re all human and it’s easy to accidentally attach the wrong file to an e-mail. What harm can that do you ask? Imagine if you were going through an acquisition/merger and someone accidentally sent out the offer and the deal fell through because it got publicized? Or maybe the attachment was your price list, or financials, or the details of your competitive advantage? It comes back to the question of what data is important to your organization and what happens if it is lost/stolen.
It’s one thing to send the wrong file outside the organization, but think about doing the same thing internally. What happens if HR, or Legal made that mistake and sent information to someone who shouldn’t need to see it/know it?
It’s always a good idea to encrypt the data files in your organization. These are main types of files that users would work with during their day. For example: The office documents (Word, Excel, Powerpoint) and the Adobe documents (PDF, InDesign, Photoshop, etc.).
Notes to Sales: The ability to protect/encrypt files is a part of Sophos SafeGuard. The subscriptions SKUs are SEE or FEA. Additional pitch: Sophos also offers SPX email encryption in our Gateway Email Appliance and UTM solutions.
Modern Operating Systems make sharing data on the Network very simple: Do you have any data that should be restricted to certain parts of your organization? Do you have a compliance implication with authorized access to data?
Protect against internal threats: IT Administrator accessing all HR documents Only Legal should access documents on the Legal Share Only authorized users can access patient data/results
Encrypt your data to help protect against Internal Threats
Everyone has accessed data on a network share. Or they’ve put data on a network share. This is such an easy way to share data internally in an organization. And modern operating systems make this effortless. At times it’s not easy to tell the difference between copying a file locally or across to a network drive.
Now think about internal threats. This doesn’t necessarily mean that an end user is malicious, but they may accidentally access data to which they should not be authorized, and do not require to perform their day to day tasks. You might think, “Well what does that matter?”. It actually matters a lot. For some regulations there is specific text that deals with who has access to customer data, and how much of it they can see (for example: PCI-DSS. This is the regulation for anyone accepting Credit Card Payments)
An example: IT Administrators tend to have god-like privileges on internal infrastructure. Imagine if an IT administrator could access all of the HR data and know what different employees are paid. Obviously this is a HR, and ethical issue. Users expect privacy.
A second example: Do you want anyone from outside of the Legal department to have access to your organization’s legal documents about current cases, etc.?
A third example: You may visit your doctor one or more times a year. Maybe they are in a practice with a few doctors. Imagine that you’ve gone for a scan, or a blood test. Do you want other people to know the results of your blood test or would you as a private citizen expect your private data to be kept confidential?
So how can you protect your organization’s data on Network Shares? Obviously the first step is to get the permissions correct on who can access the network shares in the first place. But after that, it’s good practice to ensure that the data is encrypted. This gives you an additional layer of defense. Especially in the example of the IT administrator where they may not be restricted by the network share permissions.
Notes to Sales: The ability to protect/encrypt files is a part of Sophos SafeGuard. The subscriptions SKUs are SEE or FEA.
Cloud Storage Services provide an easy way to share data between users and devices DropBox, OneDrive, etc.
These services are outside of the organizational perimeter Who has access to them? What type of data is stored using these services? What is the impact if the accounts are compromised and the data is stolen?
Encrypt the data before it goes to Cloud Storage Services
Cloud Storage Services like DropBox, OneDrive, etc. have become very popular and are an easy way to share data between devices, and between users. As these services exist outside of the organizational perimeter, they present another vector for data loss.
You need to ask yourself the following questions: Should your organization allow the usage of such services? Who in the organization should be allowed to access them? What type of data can be, and should not be, stored on these services? What happens if the accounts are compromised and the data is stolen?
This can represent a regulatory data breach if such an account is compromised. As with all things, the burden of proof is on you to show that your data was not compromised. In such situations, the default assumption is that all of your data has been stolen until you can prove otherwise.
There have been many publicized events where such accounts have been compromised. The CEO of Box even recommended to all of their customers that they encrypt their data before it is stored on box.
So what can you do? Ensure that all of the data that is transmitted to any of these cloud based services is encrypted before it even leaves a device. This means the encryption of your files before they are even synced. (You may start to see a pattern emerging). You don’t want to encrypt it once it reaches the service because that means it was transmitted in plain text over the internet – which is a very bad thing.
And at the same time you want employees to remain productive.
Notes to Sales: The ability to protect/encrypt files is a part of Sophos SafeGuard. The subscriptions SKUs are SEE or FEA.
With all these options, how do you go about implementing the security measures to secure personal data?
Well, your starting point is a rock-solid Data Protection strategy. This will then guide what you need to do.
Building a Strategy – Consider the following: How does data flow both into and out of your organization? How do end users use the data? Who has access to company data?
Always remember – Your Data Protection strategy should not disrupt your user’s workflow.
You need a strategy to protect the personal data your organization holds. So let’s look at three basic questions to help you start building a data protection strategy.
Firstly, how does data flow into, and where necessary, out of your organization? Do you receive emails with file attachments, or send them out? Do you receive data on USB sticks or other forms of removable media? Same question for sending large amounts of data. What about the use of cloud base storage services like DropBox, Box, OneDrive, etc.?
Secondly, how do your end users use data? What are their workflows and how do their go about their day to day jobs being productive? What tools or methodologies do they use and do any of those present a possible vector for data loss?
Thirdly, who has access to the personal data you hold? Does the IT administrator need access to everyone’s HR data? Do your employees have access to the data they need to do their job, or do they have access to a lot more? They will certainly tell you if they don’t have access!
Everyone organization is different, and will implement a different data protection strategy based on their business, the type of data they have, any local/industry regulations and the size of their business. Some will only need to implemented a small data protection strategy, whereas another organization will need everything. However, there are common themes/best practices to be implemented when introducing a DP plan:
1. Does it satisfy compliance regulations 2. While your workforce/users should not need to be burdened with adapting their work habits to adhere to a data protection strategy – it is important that they are aware of what is at stake, and their role in protecting both customer and company data. 3. The most common ways of sharing personal data should be reviewed to ensure that there is not the case of accidental data loss. 4. There are other ways that end users can lose data which is simply human error. If someone prints out customer information and then leaves them their desk and the cleaner takes them and sells them the competition is an example. This goes back to point 2.
Flow of data inside and outside the organization. As we already have the image above showing a flow, perhaps this could be more strategy oriented: a. You have data, that is valuable b. Protecting it is your number 1 priority c. Your DP strategy should be built around where the data is used, how it is flows, etc. It should be easy for IT to administrator and also easy for end users to comply. Basically, I’d like it to demonstrate that the users aren’t even aware that they’re protected. They shouldn’t have to be aware of this stuff, it’s happening in the background and the IT administrator can manage all of this.
While it’s essential to secure data in the event of a breach, organizations should also look to defend against data loss so that the breaches don’t happen in the first place. We’re now going to take a quick look at some of the key ways to do that.
Encryption is essential as it means personal data is secure whatever happens to it. But of course, you save yourself lots of time, effort and worry if you can prevent breaches in the first place. Here are 5 top tips to stop data getting in the wrong hand:
Keep patches up-to-dateData-stealing malware often exploits known vulnerabilities. Ensure you have the latest patches installed on all your endpoints, including Windows and Mac laptops and desktops, as well as point-of-sale systems. Apply multi-layered entry-point protectionSecure against multiple vectors of attack with Web, Email and Malware protection at the gateway. Together they prevent infections from entering the network in the first place through drive-by downloads, spam or phishing attacks Select Advanced Threat Protection Choose a next-generation firewall that includes Advanced Threat Protection to detect and block direct attacks on the network, and identify command and control traffic patterns on the local network before data is lost. Use Selective SandboxingToday’s threats are increasingly complex and sophisticated. With Selective Sandboxing suspicious code or content that is not readily identified as a threat is sent for analysis to uncover slow-moving or delayed threats. Limit dissemination of sensitive dataApplication Control lets you prevent your employees from using file sharing applications that make it easy to accidentally share data outside the organization. Data Control monitors and optionally blocks sensitive data, like credit card numbers or personally identifiable information (PII), when users try to post it to web sites or store it on removable devices.
Sophos Enduser Protection delivers the multi-layered protection you need to stay secure. It includes patch assessment to identify and prioritize missing patches, Application Control, Data Control, and advanced web protection capabilities for optimum data security. <Learn more> <Get pricing>
Sophos UTM, our next-generation firewall solution, protects against data loss at the gateway. It includes powerful Advanced Threat Protection capabilities and selective sandboxing to give you the ultimate network security package. <Learn more> <Try for free>
Prevent million dollar fines - preparing for the EU General Data Regulation
The proposed EU Data Regulation
and what this means for you
• Anthony Merry
• Director of Product Management
• Proposed EU Data Protection Regulation
• Survey results: European attitudes to data protection
• How to comply with the Regulation and minimize fines in the
event of a breach
• Stopping breaches in the first place
Establish a single, pan-European law to
replace the current inconsistent
patchwork of national laws.
Modernize the principles enshrined in the 1995 Data
Benefits of the new Regulation
Benefits for businesses
1. One EU market, one law
2. One-stop-shop – a single supervisory authority
3. Same rules for all companies
Benefits for EU citizens
1. Better data security
2. Putting people in control
Data security focus
3 key Articles pertaining to data security :
1. Security of processing (Article 30)
a. prevent any unauthorized access to personal data
b. prevent any unauthorized disclosure, reading, copying, modification,
erasure or removal of personal data
2. Notification of a personal data breach to the supervisory
authority (Article 31)
3. Communication of a personal data breach to the data
subject (Article 32)
What you need to know
• Organizations must:
• implement appropriate security measures to protect personal data
• have a clear data protection policy
• have a named Data Protection officer (except SMEs)
• Fines for unprotected data breaches will range up to €1 million
or 2% of annual turnover.
• If you suffer a breach and can show that the personal data can’t
be accessed by unauthorized people (e.g. it was encrypted):
• The likelihood of being fined should be very greatly reduced
• You won’t need to notify affected data subjects of the breach
How to ensure
compliance with the
Encryption is key
The Regulation will require organizations to:
1. Implement ‘appropriate security measures’ to protect personal data
Encryption is widely agreed to be the best data security measure
2. Notify affected parties in the event of a personal data breach
If you can prove the data was encrypted you don’t need to notify
the individuals concerned
3. Pay fines in the event of a personal data breach
If the data was encrypted it’s highly likely that no fines will be
Lost or Stolen Device
• Accidental loss or Theft of a device is a common
• Only authorized user should access devices.
• How many devices have you lost?
Copy Files to Removable Media
• These tiny devices can store large amounts of data
and are easily misplaced.
• Block or protect?
• Where is your first USB stick and what was on it?
Attach Files to E-Mail
• We all email & we all make mistakes (it happens)
• What’s the consequence of sending the wrong
attachment to the wrong person?
• Encrypt file attachments or examine at Gateway?
Copy Files to a Network Share
• Today’s Operating Systems make sharing data on the
Network very simple.
• Protect against Internal Threats.
• Who is allowed to access company/user data?
Copy Files to the Cloud
• Cloud Storage Services revolutionized the way we
share data between users and devices.
• What have you stored in the Cloud and what
happens if someone steals it?
• Encrypt the data before sending it to the Cloud.
Rock solid data protection strategy
It’s all about the data
1. How does data flow into and
out of your organization?
2. How do end users use the
3. Who has access to company
data and do they need it to
perform their job?
4. How does data glow out of an
5 steps to stop data getting into the wrong hands
1. Keep patches up-to-date
Data-stealing malware often exploits known vulnerabilities.
2. Apply multi-layered entry-point protection
Secure against multiple vectors of attack with Web, Email and Malware
protection at the gateway.
3. Select Advanced Threat Protection
Choose a next-generation firewall that detects and blocks attacks directly
on the network.
4. Use Selective Sandboxing
Secure against slow-moving or delayed threats.
5. Limit dissemination of sensitive data
Deploy Application Control and Data Control
• This legislation WILL go ahead
• It has already progressed very far, and with very high support. It will not
be allowed to fail.
• Key stakeholders want to move fast
• European Commission
• European Parliament
• Data Protection Authorities
• Individual Governments
• Media pressure is building up
• PRISM, large scale data thefts (e.g. Target)
• Confidence from citizens in online activities is eroding
• You need to be ready
• Implement appropriate data security measures
• Create and communicate your data protection policy
Resources available to help you
• Sample Data Protection Policy
• 60-Second EU Data Security Compliance Check
• Whitepaper on EU Data Protection Regulation
• Try the Sophos products for free
All available at www.sophos.com/EU