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2_5206272636526537457.pdf

  1. 1. IDA & VITAMIN B12 & FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
  2. 2. Signs& Symptoms  Extreme fatigue.  Weakness.  Pale skin.  Chest pain, fast heartbeat or shortness of breath.  Headache, dizziness or lightheadedness.  Cold hands and feet.  Inflammation or soreness of your tongue.  Brittle nails.
  3. 3. Causes  Blood loss. ( Sudden blood loss due to injury or some specific condition)  Lack of iron in your diet  Inability to absorb iron  Pregnancy  Inflammatory conditions
  4. 4. Diagnosis  Red blood cell size and color. With iron deficiency anemia, red blood cells are smaller and paler in color than normal.  Hematocrit. This is the percentage of your blood volumemade up by red bloodcells.Normal levels are generally between35.5 and 44.9 percent for adult womenand 38.3 to 48.6 percent for adult men. Thesevalues may change depending on your age.  Hemoglobin. Lower than normal hemoglobin levels indicate anemia. The normal hemoglobinrange is generallydefinedas 13.2 to 16.6 grams (g) of hemoglobin per deciliter (dL) of bloodfor men and 11.6 to 15 g/dL for women.  Ferritin.This protein helps store iron in your body, and a low level of ferritin usuallyindicates a low level of stored iron
  5. 5. Complications  Heart problems. Iron deficiency anemia may lead to a rapid or irregular heartbeat.  Problems during pregnancy. In pregnant women, severe iron deficiency anemia has been linked to premature birth and low birth weight.  Growth problems. In infants and children, severe iron deficiency can lead to anemia as well as delayed growth and development.
  6. 6.  Endoscopy. Doctors often check for bleeding from a hiatal hernia, an ulcer or the stomach with the aid of endoscopy  Colonoscopy. To rule out lower intestinal sources of bleeding  Ultrasound. Women may also have a pelvic ultrasound to look for the cause of excess menstrual bleeding, such as uterine fibroids.
  7. 7. Treatment  Iron supplements (Take iron tablets on an empty stomach) (Don’t take iron with antacids) (Take iron tablets with vitamin C.)  Depending on the cause, iron deficiency anemia treatment may involve: 1. Medications, such as oral contraceptives to lighten heavy menstrual flow 2. Antibiotics and other medications to treat peptic ulcers 3. Surgery to remove a bleeding polyp, a tumor or a fibroid
  8. 8. VITAMIN B12 & FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY ANEMIA  VitaminB12 or B9 (commonly called folate) deficiency anaemia occurs when a lack of vitaminB12 or folate causes the body to produce abnormally large red blood cells that cannot function properly.
  9. 9. Causes  There are a number of problems that can lead to a vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.   These include:   pernicious anaemia – where your immune system attacks healthy cells in your stomach, preventing your body absorbing vitamin B12 from the food you eat; this is the most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in the UK  a lack of these vitamins in your diet – this is uncommon, but can happen if you have a vegan diet and do not take vitamin B12 supplements or eat foods fortified with vitamin B12 , follow a fad diet or have a generally poor diet for a long time  medicine – certain medicines, including anticonvulsants and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), can affect how much of these vitamins your body absorbs  Both vitamin B12 deficiency and folate deficiency are more common in older people, affecting around 1 in 10 people aged 75 or over and 1 in 20 people aged 65 to 74.
  10. 10. Signs & Symptoms  Extreme tiredness  a lack of energy  pins and needles (paraesthesia)  a sore and red tongue  mouth ulcers  muscle weakness  disturbed vision  psychological problems, which may include depression and confusion  problems with memory, understanding and judgement
  11. 11. Diagnosis  The number and appearance of red blood cells  The amount of vitaminB-12 and folate in the blood  The presence of antibodies to intrinsic factor, which indicates pernicious anemia
  12. 12. Complications  Problems with the nervous system  temporary infertility  heart conditions  pregnancy complications and birth defects  Adults with severe anaemia are also at risk of developing heart failure.
  13. 13. Treatment  Most cases of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can be easily treated with injections or tablets to replace the missing vitamins.  VitaminB12 supplements are usually given by injection at first.  Then, depending on whether your B12 deficiency is related to your diet, you’ll either require B12 tablets between meals or regular injections.  Folic acid tablets are used to restore folate levels. These usually need to be taken for 4 months.  In some cases, improving your diet can help treat the condition and prevent it coming back.
  14. 14.  VitaminB12 is found in meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, yeast extract (such as Marmite) and specially fortified foods.  The best sources of folate include green vegetables, such as broccoli, brussels sprouts and peas.
  15. 15. References  Benz, E. (2017). Anemias, Red Cells, and the Essential Elements of Red Cell Homeostasis. In E. Benz, Jr., N. Berliner, & F. Schiffman (Eds.), Anemia: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (pp. 1-13). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108586900.002  Handout: Iron Deficiency Anemia – From the National Anemia Action Council

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