Discuss Philosophy of staffing in nursing.
Define staffing plan.
Define staffing strategy.
Determine factors affecting staffing
Describe Types of staffing.
Discuss Objectives of scheduling.
Describe Types of scheduling.
“Is defined as human resources planning to
fill positions in an organization with qualified
NURSE staffing has three main components:
4. Planning: refers to determining the number of
nursing personnel needed over a long term
Scheduling: is assigning nursing staff for
specific time period.
Allocation: refers to making adjusted
assignments or reallocations on a daily or
shift by shift basis.
5. Philosophy of staffing in
Matching employees knowledge and skills to
patient care needs in a manner that optimizes
job satisfaction and care quality.
Technical and humanistic care needs of
critically ill patient are so complex that care
should be provided by professional nurses.
Health teaching and rehabilitation needs of
chronically ill patient are so complex that care
should be provided by professional and
6. Patient assessment, work quantification and job
analysis should be used to be assigned to care for
patient of each type (such as coronary care, renal
failure, chronic arthritis, cancer.) –
Staffing plan and policies in all units should be
developed by the head nurse and staff of the
Staffing plan should be administrated at the unit
level by the head nurse so that shift start time,
number of staff assigned on holidays, and number
of employees assigned to each shift can be
modified to accommodate the unit workload and
7. Staffing plan:
The staffing plan is a written plan that specifies
the number and classification type of staff
personnel who are needed to implement to care
delivery model for each unit on a shift-by-shift
Short-term plans involve filling existing
Long-term plans are concerned with
determining the gap between the present and
a desired future human resources status.
8. Staffing strategy:
“It is a set of actions undertaken to determine
the organization’s future human resources
needs, recruit qualified applicants, and select
the best of the applicants as a new employees.”
9. Staff classification:
Professional degree nurse: Baccalaureate.
Technical nurse: Secondary Technical
Nursing School. (Diploma degree).
Auxiliary: messenger and transport
10. Factors affecting staffing pattern:
Nursing organization factors include:
1-Patient care objectives.
2-Determined level of patient care.
11. Methods of determining staffing
The traditional system
The advanced system
The traditional system: • The number of beds per unit (
one nurse per 4-6 beds)
The average census of patients per unit (one nurse per 4
The distribution of nurses is based on the nurse manager'
opinion of the proportion of care that is needed on each shift
and the adequate staff number to provide that care.
Example: Days: 45% of the staff Evenings 35% of the staff
Nights 20% of the staff
12. The advanced system:
Focuses on patient needs during a shift and
nursing tasks to be performed through:
a -patient classification system
b- Task quantification
a. Patient classification system - Also known
as patient acuity systems - A patient
classification system (PCS) is a measurement
tool used to determine the nursing workload for
a specific patient or group of patients over a
specific period of time.
13. The patients grouped according to their nursing
needs into 3 or more categories.
Level 1 (Minimal Care)
• Patient can take a bath on his own, feed himself,
feed perform his activities of daily living, and
requires little treatment, observation
• Average amount of nursing care hours per patient
per day is 1.5 .
Level 2 (Moderate Care)
• Patients under this level need some assistance in
assistance in bathing, feeding, or ambulating for
short periods of time. Vital signs ordered up to three
times per shift Average nursing care hours per
patient per day is 3 hour
14. Level 3 care (maximum care):
• Requires frequent, close nursing observation
and intervention .
• Requires moderate medical intervention . •
The nursing care hours per patient per day are
Level 4 (Critical Care):
• Requires continuous treatment and
• The nursing care hours per patient per day
may range from 6 or more.
15. . Task quantification system - Focuses on
nursing tasks to be performed. Common
nursing tasks are either:
1. direct nursing care (in the presence of the
patient as in giving medication, measuring vital
2. indirect nursing care (away from the
patients as in preparing medication,
documentation in patients' files, giving
instructions or educative sessions).
17. Basic permanent staff:
Which is determined based on average Patient care
requirements using (Patient classification system)
and nursing tasks (task quantification) to be
performed by different levels of nursing staff.
This is needed when demands for patient care
exceed the capabilities of the basic staff
a) Borrowing method: It is borrowing staff from
units that have the most to help those who have too
The problem here that the staff often resists being
transferred from unit to unit and head nurse never
permits that she has more nurses
18. Float staff:
A pool of nurses who are permanent workers but
do not belong to any special unit care .
This methods help to manage the day to day
variations in work volume , but some nurses like
this method since it gives a chance to work with
different types of patients.
On call staff:
On call staff is regular employees who receive
extra pay for being on call whether or not they are
This is useful in OR, ICU, and other special care
Scheduling means planning patterns of on
duty hours for employees in a particular unit for
a given period of time. It is a timetable showing
planned work days and shift for nursing
• “Scheduling is to assign working days and
days off to the nursing personnel so that
adequate patient care is assured.”
20. Objectives of scheduling:
To provide adequate staffing to meet patient care
needs during 24 hours For a certain time .To
maintain staff morale , through:
a-To treat fairly individual members in their
b- To satisfy personnel both as to work hours and
as to perceive sense of equity.
c- To maximize the use of nursing of nursing staff
power and optimize the use of professional
d- To organize work in the unit and prevent
confusion by avoiding periods of understaffing or
over staffing . To define responsibilities of personnel.
22. Block scheduling:
Means that the work schedule for a unit is
planned in a “block” of week, i.e. days to be
worked by staff are blocked together.
Block scheduling is done for 4-8 weeks at a
• It can be calculated easily and has
• This type of scheduling does not provide
for maximum level of care seven days a
23. Cyclic scheduling:
Schedule patterns are set for a certain
number of weeks and are repeated (every
two, four, six, or more weeks as desired)
within the given cyclical period. • Taking
in consideration the need of proper
number and mixes of personnel, continuity
• Is an improvement on block scheduling
in that it has repetitive work patterns.
24. Self scheduling:
Self-scheduling is a
system that is
coordinated by staff
Is the process by which
staff nurses on a unit
collectively decide and
implement the monthly
work schedule, each
staff nurse chooses
which day and shift he
or she will work .
25. Computerized scheduling:
This type enables the user to devise a plan,
which considers more variables than schedules
done by individuals .
• Computerized scheduling allows for
maintaining the patterns to be used and the
choice of employee and the planning of
holidays, days off and vacations. All data
necessary for time planning are fed to the
computer and a program for scheduling is
designed based on the fed data .
• The computerized scheduling is more effective
than the other types.
27. Centralized scheduling:
Staffing coordinator created schedules based
on the approved staffing plans for individual
1. lack of individual treatment.
2. Un-recognized organizational and managerial
28. Decentralized scheduling:
Nurse manager develop the schedule for
their units in isolation from all other units.
The manager approves all schedule
manager have authority.
personnel feels that they get more
staffing is easier.
It carries the risk that employees will be
treated unequally or inconsistently.
It is time consuming for the manager .
There is difficulty in Adjustment in case of
It may be lead to over staffing in some