Leisure experience02


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Leisure experience02

  1. 1. Leisure experience
  2. 2. Emotion <ul><li>What determines the emotion we are going through? </li></ul><ul><li>Motives and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Physical and mental capabilities and their influence on the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations preceding the participation in leisure activity </li></ul><ul><li>The environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Emotions <ul><li>Always there: in our brain </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions to physiological changes – inners selves (adrenaline, estrogen or testosterone) </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to external stimuli </li></ul>
  4. 4. Common Sense Theory of Emotion <ul><li>Common Sense Theory of Emotion - a stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to bodily arousal. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Emotions in World of Leisure <ul><li>Leisure: time to compensate certain shortcomings in everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Stress needs to be counterbalanced </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure offers surrogate solutions (artificial) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Why surrogate (artificial) solutions? <ul><li>Loneliness </li></ul><ul><li>Boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Good movie? </li></ul><ul><li>Going rafting? </li></ul>
  7. 8. Leisure <ul><li>Artificial surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled adventure </li></ul><ul><li>No real, natural emotions - artificial emotions </li></ul><ul><li>We do display emotions in cinema, but these emotions are different from real emotions </li></ul>
  8. 9. Artificial emotions <ul><li>Temporary elimination of the disbelief </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure manipulates the awareness of simulation situation trying to induce real emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Is this desirable? </li></ul><ul><li>There is a boundary up to which we have our emotions under control </li></ul>
  9. 10. Emotions in Leisure <ul><li>Leisure needs to ensure that, particularly when negative emotions are concerned, boundaries are not crossed and are well controlled. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Optimal Leisure Experience Flow <ul><li>Leisure emotion generated during the consumption of a leisure product is called leisure experience </li></ul>
  11. 12. Leisure experience <ul><li>The emotions evoked by participation may vary in intensity (flow) </li></ul><ul><li>The intensity of emotions differs with each leisure activity and also differs throughout the participation in one and the same activity </li></ul><ul><li>Flow: experience in which you forget everything around and you became ecstatic. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Characteristics of optimal leisure experience <ul><li>Enriched perception </li></ul><ul><li>Observation of the surroundings in intense manner – the assumption is colorful and sparking </li></ul>
  13. 14. Characteristics of optimal leisure experience <ul><li>Disturbance in the same sense </li></ul><ul><li>Time sense gets utterly disturbed, Hours pass as they are minutes, and time “flies” </li></ul>
  14. 15. Characteristics of optimal leisure experience <ul><li>Strong personal involvement and total absorption </li></ul><ul><li>People totally lose themselves in the activity and are not aware about other things that are happening around them </li></ul>
  15. 16. Characteristics of optimal leisure experience <ul><li>Sense of carelessness, fun and pleasure </li></ul>
  16. 17. Fear, Pain and Sorrow as a Peak Experience <ul><li>Leisure experience is not always positive </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of control of negative emotions (controlled fear, pain, sorrow) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Leisure experience <ul><li>Experience: emotional frame of mind when taking part in a leisure activity </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure experience vary in intensity and it is strongly individual </li></ul><ul><li>High experience value is usually associated with positive emotions but could derived from negative (controlled) emotions </li></ul>
  18. 19. Optimal leisure experience <ul><li>The experience flow: </li></ul><ul><li>pleasure, carelessness, intense perception, full concentration, disturbance of one’s time sense. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Conditions for Optimal Leisure experience <ul><li>Neulinger’s Leisure Paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Csikzentmihalyi’s Optimal Leisure experience </li></ul>
  20. 21. John Neulinger <ul><li>April 26, 1924 - June 20, 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>German-American psychologist and Professor of psychology at City College of New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Neulinger is best known for contributing a social psychological theory of leisure to the field of leisure studies </li></ul>
  21. 22. Neulinger’s paradigm (1) <ul><li>Two qualities of leisure (perceived freedom of choice/perceived constraints intrinsic motivation) offer the explanation. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Neulinger’s paradigm (2) <ul><li>All activities could be divided into 2 categories: Leisure: perceived freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Non- leisure: perceived constraint </li></ul>
  23. 24. Classification of Leisure & Non-leisure activities by motivation type <ul><li>Intrinsic (internal) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation comes form rewards inherent to an activity itself </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic (external) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation comes from rewards outside of the performer </li></ul><ul><li>All activities can be intrinsically, extrinsically or both motivated </li></ul>
  24. 25. Leisure categories
  25. 26. PURE LEISURE <ul><li>freely engaged in, doing an activity for its own sake, no external awards </li></ul><ul><li>Please give examples ….. </li></ul>
  26. 27. LEISURE WORK: <ul><li>freely engaged in & combine both intrinsic & extrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><li>The rewards/ incentives for doing the activities come form within & outside the performer </li></ul><ul><li>Please give examples </li></ul>
  27. 28. LEISURE JOB <ul><li>Activities that are freely engaged in & are totally extrinsically motivated </li></ul><ul><li>The reward / incentives for participation in an activity come solely form outside the performer </li></ul><ul><li>Please give examples </li></ul>
  28. 29. Non leisure categories
  29. 30. PURE WORK <ul><li>Activities that are participated in under some kind of constraint & are totally intrinsically motivated </li></ul>
  30. 31. WORK JOB <ul><li>Activities that are participated in under some kind of constraint & combine both intrinsic& extrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Please give example… </li></ul>
  31. 32. PURE JOB <ul><li>Activities that are performed in under some kind of constraint & are totally extrinsically motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Please give example </li></ul>
  32. 33. 6 States of Mind <ul><li>State of Mind One : purest form of leisure --an activity freely chosen for its own sake; contains freedom from external control & brings intrinsic rewards; E.G.: volunteering; any activity chosen for its own sake </li></ul><ul><li>State of Mind Two : (leisure-work) all activities are freely chosen yet are both extrinsically and intrinsically rewarding ; activity is satisfying not only in itself but also in terms of payoffs; E.G.: gardening; woodworking; classic car restoration </li></ul><ul><li>State of Mind Three : leisure-job which one engages in without coercion but the satisfaction comes from external payoffs; E.G.: golf for money, exercising for better fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>State of Mind Four : pure-work , or activities engaged in because of perceived constraints but for intrinsic reasons; E.G.: homework - even though you like the subject, it is mandatory...given free choice you would not do it, but still find it interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>State of Mind Five : work-job --activities engaged in under constraint, but having both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; E.G.: average job...work may be meaningful, but wouldn’t do it unless you were paid, or b/c you have to work to live </li></ul><ul><li>  6.   State of Mind Six : pure job represents a complete opposition to leisure ; activity is done out of necessity and under constraint with only reward being external payoff; E.G.: drudgery work </li></ul>
  33. 34. STATE OF MIND NON-LEISURE LEISURE Pure job Work-job Pure-work Leisure-job Leisure-work Pure leisure extrinsic intrinsic & extrinsic intrinsic extrinsic intrinsic & extrinsic intrinsic PERCEIVED CONSTRAINT PERCEIVED FREEDOM FREEDOM
  34. 35. Task for next week 27.10.2011 <ul><li>Take a note the leisure behavior for 3 days for different people and based on these examples classify them into the Neulinger’s Leisure paradigm categories </li></ul>Day 2 Day 3 Example / category Day 1 Your older siblings Your younger siblings Your parents You
  35. 36. Csikszentmihalyi’s Optimal Leisure experience <ul><li>Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi , </li></ul><ul><li>Hungarian psychologist, born 1934 in Italy, emigrated at age of 22 to USA, now professor at University of Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Known by his studies in creativity and happiness, and as “father” of notion of “FLOW” experience </li></ul>
  36. 37. Csikszentmihalyi’s Optimal Leisure experience <ul><li>When the peak experience occur, regardless of whether occur – in work or leisure time. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of his studies and interviews of creative people he concluded that 2 matters are crucial: </li></ul><ul><li>COMMITMENT (skills) </li></ul><ul><li>CHALLENGE </li></ul><ul><li>! One side </li></ul>
  37. 38. The quality of experience as a function of the relationship between challenges and skills. Optimal experience, or flow occurs when both variables are high.