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Individual and environment


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Individual and environment

  1. 1. Individual and Environment
  2. 2. Behavior <ul><li>Social environment – our behavior comes in relation with other who live in our social environment </li></ul><ul><li>It is exhibited </li></ul>
  3. 3. Think? <ul><li>Which factors affect leisure behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Social and cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Leisure as Social Phenomenon <ul><li>Psychological motivation – individual characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Different cultures –understanding of leisure is different (western and non-western societies) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Japan, India </li></ul>
  5. 5. Differences between China & USA Case study
  6. 6. Major differences (1) <ul><li>1.       Social Structure – In China the social structure is formal and hierarchical.  You know where you fit in the structure and you abide by the rules there.  There is no crossing into other areas.  In America, it is much more loose and informal.  It is not uncommon to see those of various social levels socializing and knowing each other.  There are very few lines that socially are not allowed to be crossed.  This can cause problems in business relationships if the visiting culture is unaware of it. </li></ul><ul><li>2.       Confrontation/Conflict – If you are planning on conducting business in China or expecting an extended stay, it might be useful to know that the direct way that most Americans approach issues is not the way to go in China.  Direct conflict or confrontation over issues is highly frowned upon.  Doesn’t matter that the “truth” needs to be spoken, respect and honor to each person supersedes that.  To prove a point and show yourself in the right even over business issues is considered shameful and should be avoided. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Major differences (2) <ul><li>3.       Self – The Chinese looks more at the group collective than at individualism.  America has become known for its push of individualism which has been a source of conflict with other cultures that look collectively.  A person from China is more prone to look at how their acts affect the whole instead of how it affects them personally.  They are more willing to give up and sacrifice for the greater good.  America’s individualism has been its backbone and the reason for its success as a world power, but when visiting China it needs to be reined in. </li></ul><ul><li>4.       Face/Reputation – Reputation of the individual is very important in China.  If an action will humiliate someone or ruin a reputation, it is avoided.  When shame occurs, the person sacrifices their job or whatever it is that will heal the shame.  In America, reputations come and go overnight and in the end usually does not matter.  The end result is more of the focus.  A person is more likely to overlook a reputation to get the job done. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Major differences (3) <ul><li>5.       Business Relations – When doing business in China, be prepared for much socializing.  Business becomes secondary as the parties get to know each better.  If it delays a contract, that is perfectly acceptable as long as the correct social time is allotted for.  In America, business associates are usually more aloof.  There might be some social gathering but the business is more important and the socializing will be sacrificed to get the job done if needed.  Though there seems to be shift in America regarding this.  The recognition of networking is becoming more pronounced. </li></ul><ul><li>6.       Morals – Chinese society places high values on the morals of their people.  Marriage is not encouraged until the late twenties.  In fact, dating is discouraged early in a young adult’s life and proprieties are expected to be held up.  The American culture is much more relaxed and some could even argue that there needs to be more moral emphasize. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Major differences (4) <ul><li>7.       Recognition of the Dead – One of the time honored traditions of the Chinese is the recognition of the dead.  Once a year, all members of a family visit the gravesites of each ancestor and pay their respects.  Honoring ancestors is very important in Chinese culture.  This is in direct contrast to most Americans who rarely know where the majority of their ancestors are laid to rest.  This might be due to the fact that most Americans are immigrants who either have lost the information on grave locations or the locations are in foreign countries.  China’s culture is much older and the percentage of immigration is far less. </li></ul><ul><li>8.       Humility – Humility is a revered virtue in Chinese culture.  The success of one’s business or personal life is downplayed while in America the successes are lauded.  Most Americans in the fast business world consider humility a sign of weakness.  This can be an issue that hurts inter-cultural relations.  Be very sensitive to comments and actions in the presence of another culture. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Major differences (5) <ul><li>9.       Time Sensitivity – Crossing cultures for business can be frustrating when it interferes with getting the job done.  Most Americans are very time sensitive when it comes to meetings and deadlines.  If the meeting was to commence at 2:00, then all parties are to be present at that time.  The Chinese do not view time as an absolute but more as a suggestion.  Concern is not expressed for a meeting starting late or ending at a different time.  The same can be applied to deadlines.  If a report is due on Friday, an American would be waiting for that report to be received before end of business day.  The Chinese would not worry if it showed up several days later. </li></ul><ul><li>10.   Respect – Being sensitive to another person’s needs is very important in Chinese culture.  It is expected that you will respect the other person and treat them well.  Their needs are met at each encounter.  This is a characteristic that unfortunately has fallen on the wayside in most American circles. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Leisure as Social Phenomenon (2) <ul><li>Cultural belonging (traditional or modern society) </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent preferences </li></ul><ul><li>The individual plays different roles (work, home, leisure) </li></ul><ul><li>Every role comes with certain expectation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Different Roles
  13. 13. Different Role - Leisure <ul><li>Member of a team </li></ul><ul><li>Customer </li></ul><ul><li>Partner </li></ul>
  14. 14. Compare
  15. 15. Individual choices - leisure <ul><li>how are made? </li></ul><ul><li>are they possible? </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities – constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Pros – cons </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reference group <ul><li>Group to which you belong or want to belong </li></ul><ul><li>Directs your opinions, preferences, decisions </li></ul><ul><li>The significant others – partner, friends, family, co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>Their judgment is important and determines the decision-making process </li></ul>
  17. 17. Social factors at Micro, Meso and Macro Level <ul><li>Micro-level: individual’s environment (direct) </li></ul><ul><li>Macro-level: wider context </li></ul><ul><li>Meso-level: level of the organization, economic and social factors, subcultures, lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction between levels: higher levels affect lower levels </li></ul>
  18. 18. Social-Structural and Social-Cultural factors <ul><li>Roles give structure to human actions </li></ul><ul><li>Social structure –different levels macro, meso and micro level </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to build an identity </li></ul>
  19. 19. Culture <ul><li>Macro level: culture of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Meso level: Subcultures and lifestyles </li></ul><ul><li>Micro level: member of society, social group </li></ul>
  20. 20. Problems <ul><li>Structural – organization or society have to change </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural – change of mentality, views, rules of conducts </li></ul>
  21. 21. Remarks <ul><li>Cultural and structural factors account for individual’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals are part of the group, organizations, countries </li></ul><ul><li>Different roles – who you are and how to behave </li></ul><ul><li>The structure forms your identity </li></ul>
  22. 22. Social-structural factors at micro level <ul><li>Structure / organizations for our free time </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced the way the society is organized (paid holidays = leisure) </li></ul><ul><li>The structure indicates the preconditions within the boundaries of which the individual is able to determine his own possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Structural factors: social class, education, age, gender, race </li></ul>
  23. 23. Socio-economic position <ul><li>Position determined by work, study, care tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Obligations (rules) and possibilities (income) </li></ul><ul><li>Precondition for leisure bahavior </li></ul>
  24. 24. Competencies and Capitals <ul><li>Disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Economic, cultural and social capital (competencies) – you have it decide whether to participate or not </li></ul>
  25. 25. Economic capital <ul><li>Income, capital , holdings, durable goods, leisure time </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable and time to enjoy it </li></ul><ul><li>Determines quantity and quality of leisure </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cultural capital <ul><li>Knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding, value </li></ul>
  27. 27. Social capital <ul><li>Number and nature of social relations </li></ul><ul><li>Networks, contacts – access to areas and provide you with status and esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Depend of origin, family, neighborhood, friends… </li></ul>
  28. 28. Identity and status <ul><li>Basic needs </li></ul><ul><li>Identity = belonging to certain group </li></ul><ul><li>Status distinguishes you from other people </li></ul><ul><li>Different for different cultures </li></ul>
  29. 29. Competition in the fields <ul><li>Competition for attention, success, esteem, identity and status </li></ul><ul><li>Acess to different domains </li></ul>Entrance fee Evening wear Elitist characteristics of the public Unwritten rules Knowledge about classical music
  30. 30. Social-Cultural Factors at Micro Level <ul><li>Strongly determine person’s possibilities and constraints with regard to leisure </li></ul><ul><li>The possibilities for leisure are expressed in economic, social and cultural capital </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Living conditions </li></ul>
  31. 31. Social-cultural factors at micro level <ul><li>Culture – collective identity of the group; set of social codes, rules and conduct, views, symbols and lifestyle, which ties a group together </li></ul>
  32. 32. Social and cultural environment refers to the influence exercised by certain social factor which are “beyond the companies gate” Culture refers to dance, drama, music and festival include Knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, customs & others capability
  33. 33. Following characteristic of culture are <ul><li>Learned : Culture is not inherited or biologically based, it is acquired by learning and experience </li></ul><ul><li>Shared : People are member of a group, organisation, or society share culture, it is not specific individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Tran generational : Culture is passed on from one generation to the next. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic: Culture is based on the human capacity to symbolic or use one thing that represent another. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive : Culture is based on the human capacity to change or adapt, as opposed to the more genetically driven driven adaptive process of animanls. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Factors which effect social and cultural environment Attitude of people Attitude of wealth Marriage Religion Education Ethics Social Responsibility
  35. 35. Culture that people create Culture determines personality. There are sub culture. People have their own idiosyncrasies , blend of heredity Cultural experience, sub culture experience, family experience & unique personal experience Enhance social system stability Organisational Culture Create distinction Sense of identity Commitment
  36. 36. Culture and Globalization When business goes International work motivation, profit motivation, business goal gift giving, custom, greeting, body gesture, colour and numbers. U.S. Japan Company Team in Sport Family in Village Business goal To Win To Survive Employees Players in team Children in Family Human Relation Functional Emotional Competition Cut throat cooperative Work motivation Individual Income Group Income promotion Acc. To Abilities Length of Service Pay Service & Result Award of patience and sacrifice
  37. 37. Culture determines good and services Social/Cultural factor Japan India Govt./Admn. Emphasis on govt by virtuous and abrogation of coercion, mutual trust EE minimum control, Highly motivated Prevalence of impersonal bureaucratic social relation, mistrust, assumption of human evil, Highly concentrated admn.. bureaucratic delays Low level of delegation Attitude towards work and goal Highly result oriented General deep seated Discipline Highly disciplined and respect towards superiors Lack of discipline. Poor S-S relationship Group harmony Highly based on informal facilitative pattern of behavior Assumption of in equality, suspicious environment, self centered Education Highly emphasized General
  38. 38. People attitude towards business: U.K, Saudi Arab, South Korea Attitude towards work: Moral, Motivation, penalty & reward system Collectivism & Individualism : Ambition or complacent ( to get a govt. Job) Education Family Authority Religion Marriage Cultural resource
  39. 39. Social Class <ul><li>Social Class is used to denote “societal rank” – one’s position relative to another on one or more dimensions valued by the society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a result of Characteristics possessed by an Individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of the characteristics possessed by the society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A social class system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be defined as hierarchical divisions of a society in to relatively distinct and homogenous groups with respect to attitudes, values and lifestyles </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Social class <ul><li>Social Stratification: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refers to the perceived hierarchies in which consumer rate others as higher or lower in social status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ascribed Status : status due to being born in wealth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achieved Status : status due to work or study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Status Crystallization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the consistency of individuals and families on relevant status dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. A child of a highly educated parent is assumed to have a high education level – else she is supposed to have failed her social class </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Lifestyle dimensions Age Education Income Occupation Family size Dwelling Geography City size Stage in life-cycle Themselves Social issues Politics Business Economics Education Products Future Culture Family Home Job Community Recreation Fashion Food Media Achievements Work Hobbies Social events Vacation Entertainment Club membership Shopping Sports Community Demographics Opinions Interests Activities
  42. 42. Personal Influences Age and Family Life Cycle Stage Occupation Economic Situation Lifestyle Identification Activities Opinions Interests Personality & Self-Concept
  43. 43. macro meso micro Social-cultural trends in society Social-cultural Trends in society Structure Culture Corporate community, Family, study, Organizations Leisure sector Lifestyle and Institutions, media Commerce, religion Socio-economic position Cultural frame of reference of the individual