Experience and needs


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Experience and needs

  1. 1. Experience and Needs
  2. 2. Content of today’s presentation <ul><li>Motivations behind particular leisure activities </li></ul><ul><li>Types of motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological theories and concepts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Needs <ul><li>Leisure behavior is aimed in realization of an optimal level of stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>The two opposite possible sides are: </li></ul><ul><li>Overdose stimulation: stressful, unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Under stimulation: boredom, apathy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Needs: Introduction <ul><li>Needs = inner motivations to act in order to go from the existing situation to a desired situation </li></ul><ul><li>Existing situation -> Desired situation </li></ul><ul><li>Thirsty? -> The need for a drink </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed? -> The need for a rest </li></ul><ul><li>Lonely? -> The need for company </li></ul><ul><li>Needs of people are important in marketing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Relation between well-being and activation + Subjective well-being - Optimal range - Level of stimulation +
  6. 6. Desired Level of Stimulation Low desired level high desired level Optimal Range Boredom Stress Level of Stimulation Wellbeing of a person
  7. 7. Relation between well-being and activation <ul><li>Desired level of stimulation: </li></ul><ul><li>Changes from moment to moment for a specific person </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of stimuli on the actual level of stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the biography and state of mind of a person </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly differs from person to person </li></ul>
  8. 8. Need? <ul><li>When there is a discrepancy between factual and desirable level of stimulation the need arises </li></ul><ul><li>We try to compensate the shortage or the surplus of stimuli trying to achieve the optimal level of stimulation from leisure activities </li></ul>
  9. 9. The optimal range <ul><li>Varies from moment to moment </li></ul><ul><li>Varies with each individual </li></ul>
  10. 10. When need arises? <ul><li>When the factual and desired situation disagree </li></ul><ul><li>The wish that moves us to the desired situation is NEED (need for…something) </li></ul><ul><li>The need is what make us act </li></ul>
  11. 11. Leisure Needs <ul><li>Need – inner motivation act </li></ul><ul><li>Push and pull factors </li></ul><ul><li>The desire to escape and the appeal of the new situation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Iso-Ahola <ul><li>The escape and seek dimension of the need </li></ul><ul><li>Our leisure behavior is avoiding something (escape) as well as looking for something (seeking) </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that push people towards a holiday </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did you travel? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors that pull them towards a particular destination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did you go to that destination? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Think! <ul><li>Write down the push and pull factors when you went on holiday. Discuss them. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 4 aspects of the needs <ul><li>Escaping personal environments </li></ul><ul><li>Escaping interpersonal environments </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking personal rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking interpersonal rewards </li></ul>
  16. 16. Iso-Ahola two-dimensional leisure motivation theory Seeking personal rewards Escaping personal environment Escaping interpersonal environment Seeking interpersonal rewards Trends: - Escaping from reality: fantasy stories, computer games, relaxing holidays - Seeking authentic experiences: adventurous sports, untouched holiday destinations
  17. 17. Consider… <ul><li>Need: an internal desire to be satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>Want: A means to fulfill a need </li></ul><ul><li>Motive: Energy arising from need, lacking or wanting of something, leading towards the satisfaction of need/ fulfillment of want. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation: Goal directed behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Incentive: A stimulus that can influence the behavior </li></ul>
  18. 18. Maslow hierarchy of needs
  19. 19. Maslow theory <ul><li>The needs are ranged hierarchically </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns human behavior in general </li></ul>
  20. 20. Aerobics (example) <ul><li>Need for physical strain (physiological need) </li></ul><ul><li>Health reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Self-respect </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul>
  21. 21. Experience and needs are interrelated <ul><li>The intensity of the experience depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>The number of needs to be satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>The importance the individual attaches to the various needs </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ragheb and Beard motivation scale <ul><li>The intellectual dimension </li></ul><ul><li>The social dimension </li></ul><ul><li>The competence mastery dimension </li></ul><ul><li>The stimulus avoidance dimension </li></ul>
  23. 23. Leisure motivation scale (Ragheb and Beard) <ul><li>Intellectual dimension : learn, discover, think imagine </li></ul><ul><li>Social dimension : friendships, relationships, appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Competence mastery dimension : achievements, challenge, competition </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus avoidance dimension : mental and physical relaxation, tranquil environment </li></ul>
  24. 24. The intellectual dimension <ul><li>The individual “will to know”, need to learn, explore, discover, think and imagine </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul>
  25. 25. The social dimension <ul><li>The need for social contact – friendship, relationship, need for appreciation, sense of belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think. </li></ul><ul><li>The social needs </li></ul>
  26. 26. The competence mastery dimension <ul><li>The need to achieve or master something- challenge, competition, based on need to prove oneself. </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think </li></ul><ul><li>The need of esteem </li></ul>
  27. 27. The stimulus avoidance dimension <ul><li>Need of escaping from too high level of stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>What is important is relaxation, tranquility </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent to what need from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs it is? Think </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological need for esteem </li></ul>
  28. 28. Think. <ul><li>What in the theory of Ragheb and Beard is missing if compared to the Maslow’s five categories of needs? </li></ul><ul><li>The need of safety </li></ul>
  29. 29. The most important results <ul><li>Social dimension and competence mastery dimension are the strongest motivations factors for holidaymakers (UK) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Type of travel motivation Description Business Travelling for work purposes MICE Culture Travelling to learn about: architecture, food and drink, lifestyle, religion To understand more about the culture and history of a destination Desire for adventure Experience a new activity that cannot be found at home Includes ‘active’ activities: extreme sports, safari
  31. 31. Types of travel motivation Description Escape (escapism) Escape everyday life; have a change of scenery; usually involves relaxation on some level Education Learn a new skill (language, art, study etc) Love and romance Travel to romantic or exotic places Includes: honeymoons, weddings
  32. 32. Types of motivation Description Physical reasons (R&R) Rest and relaxation; passive activities Social reasons VFR; meet new people (18-30 Club); social activities
  33. 33. Experience and Physical and mental Capacities <ul><li>The quality of the experience strongly depends on what we want or able to do (capacity) </li></ul><ul><li>Age (ability, knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Age category 4-5 years: incapable to make connections cause- effect, egocentric, </li></ul><ul><li>Age category 6-7 years: fantasy and reality are divided, strong own perception; </li></ul><ul><li>Age category 8-9 : understand the abstract, sense of regularities, right and wrong, individual interest </li></ul><ul><li>Age category 10-11 years: capable, responsible, moral position </li></ul>
  34. 34. Satisfaction model of Goossens and Mazursky: <ul><li>Pre-Exposure phase: Formation of expectations through experience, knowledge and environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Direct-Exposure phase: Factual participation in activity: use of the senses, raising emotions, the actual leisure experience </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Exposure phase: After the participation evaluating the activity. Compare actual experience (AE) with initial expectations (IE) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Satisfaction model of Goossens and Mazursky (2) <ul><li>Possible outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>AE = IE (as expected) -> CONFIRMATION </li></ul><ul><li>AE > IE (better than expected) -> POSITIVE DISCONFIRMATION </li></ul><ul><li>AE < IE (disappointing) -> NEGATIVE DISCONFIRMATION </li></ul>
  36. 36. High expectations, low expectations <ul><li>High expectations can easily lead to disappointment </li></ul><ul><li>BUT: </li></ul><ul><li>Low expectations can lead to NO participation at all </li></ul><ul><li>FURTHERMORE: </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations lead to more commitment, which leads to more focus and a tendency to have a positive attitude towards an activity </li></ul><ul><li>BEWARE THAT: </li></ul><ul><li>The level of performance has to be in accordance with these high expectations </li></ul>
  37. 37. Experience, expectations, satisfaction <ul><li>3 phases: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-exposure – forming expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Direct exposure – factual participation (experience) </li></ul><ul><li>Post exposure – evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction – repeat visitors, word of mouth </li></ul>
  38. 38. The Cultural definition of experience <ul><li>The experience is largely culturally determined </li></ul><ul><li>The time, society and environment in which we live determine the experience and the way we evaluate it </li></ul>
  39. 39. Universal experiences vs. cultural differences <ul><li>The basic human emotions might be the same but experiences are ALSO culturally determined… </li></ul><ul><li>Time, society and direct environment (family, friends, subculture) partly determine how we judge and experience things… </li></ul>
  40. 40. Thank you for attention. Q & A ?