Understanding organizational change• Mohrman (1989)define large scale organizational change as “a lasting change in the character of an organization that significantly alters it performance”(p.2).
Possible effects of change• Reformation of the organizational structure.• Peoples interaction in the organizational structure.• Resistance or attitude towards change.
What is transformational change?• Anderson and Ackerman (2001) explains that during a process of transformation organizations convert and renovate significantly. This process “requires a shift of culture, behavior, and mindset to implement successfully and sustain over time” (p. 39).
Transforming the library through change• Library transformation responds to our principal stakeholder , which are students. Who are they? What are their needs? Do we need to change in order to satisfy their requirements?
Millenials, who are they? According to DeBard (2004) Millennials are the most diverse generation in the history of higher education, and also the biggest, “seventy –six and ninety million depending on immigration trends and the relative wealth of their parents, Millennials have been made to feel important by those, including colleges and universities, who would sell them a product or service” (p. 35).
Problems Background According to Oakleaf and VanScoy (2010) most higher education institutions consider student learning a keystone of their institutional mission. Consequently, many academic libraries focus their missions on student learning. According to research, students who regularly use the library are more successful academically that the ones who do not use it (De Jagger, 1997; Oakleaf & VanScoy, 2010).
Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS)Figure 1. Skills and competencies identified by the Secretary’s Commission of Achieving Necessary Skills of the U.S.Department of Labor (1991, p.iii).
What is a learning commons?A learning commons is defined as: “…a dynamic, collaborative environment on campus, often physically in the library that provides assistance to students with information and research needs. It combines individual and group study space, in-depth reference service, and instruction from a variety of sources, including librarians and information technology staff. Some of its key concerns are learning, writing, technology use, and research. Its main purpose is to make student learning easier and more successful” (York University, n. d.).
Rationale of the plan The justification of this plan is to develop a project that will transform and adapt the learning spaces and services of the library; based on the characteristics of Millennials and the competencies that they need for a solid job performance in the 21st century.
How to implement the proposed changes To better serve Millennials, library leaders have to transform the old paradigm of service, moving their employee’s to change their previous conceptions about what service is.
The Strategic Plan• Hendrickson (1991) presents that “strategic planning offers the best opportunity for library managers to create an effective future for the library organization” (p. 37). Strategic plans are great to use because administrators set in them the strategies the organization should use to make changes.
The Strategic Plan To create a strategic and an operational plan that addresses the problem of Millennials in libraries, we as administrators must consider the following steps:1. Indentify the informational needs of millennial library users through surveys, focal groups, interviews, statistics, etc.2. Analyze and compare results of user studies and identify the informational needs of users and its implications to library services.3. Establish strategic directions and measurable objectives based on the informational needs of Millennials.4. Design and create a strategic plan to implement changes.
The Strategic Plan5. Present to employees the informational needs of Millennials and discuss the necessity to move towards a new model of service.6. Present to employees the strategic plan and make the necessary modifications based on the discussions employees have towards the problem and the proposed changes.7. Develop an operational plan8. Implement the plan and evaluate results.9. Assess results and make the necessary changes.
Strategic line #1- Physical facilities and technological infrastructure Goal- Remodel library spaces in order to consider the characteristics and learning preferences of Millennials. Responsibilities KPIs Timeline Assessment tools1. Create and 1. Increase 1. 2010-2011 Satisfaction Develop a available 2. 2010-2011 surveys learning spaces per Analysis of commons square 3. 2011 Library2. Strengthen footage Statistics the 2. Increase Collect and technological bandwidth. analyze infrastructure 3. Rates of technology3. Implement visitors and usage the learning usage commons. statistics
Strategic line #2- Staff and organizational structure Goal- Improve and adapt the organizational structure in order to meet the technological changes and needs of users. Responsibilities KPIs Timeline Assessment tools1. Propose a new 1. Organizational 1. 2011 Organizational organizational chart approval surveys 2. 2010-2011 structure for the 2. % employees Users satisfaction library. 3. 2010-2012 meeting studies2. Initiate a continuing Pre and post tests professional education development 3. Participation rates program. on workshops.3. Train Faculty, librarians and staff on the competencies indentified by SCANS and information literacy skills.
Strategic line #3- Information resources Goal- Guarantee to students’ unlimited access to library collections in order to meet their research and information needs. Responsibilities KPIs Timeline Assessment tools1. Extend the electronic 1. % of titles added to 1. 2010-2012 Rubrics collection and the collection 2. 2011 User satisfaction provide access 2. # of evaluated online survey through the virtual 3. 2012 resources library. Statistical analysis 3. Rates of online2. Evaluate online visitors. resources that promote the development of the necessary skills and competences for a solid job performance.3. Develop an online bibliographic index based on the evaluation of online resources.
Strategic line #4- Services Goal- Transform library services to meet the requirements and needs of students. Responsibilities KPIs Timeline Assessment tools1. Evaluate 1. % of user 1. 2010 Surveys traditional satisfaction 2. 2012 Focal groups library services 2. % of usage 3. 2011-2012 Pre and post test2. Expand online 3. # of modules and and virtual One minute students served. services papers3. Create Portfolios supplemental web-based modules to develop basic skills and competences in students.
Operational Plan• Lewis, Goodman, Fandt and Michlitsch (2006) assert that “operational planning focuses on determining the day-to-day activities that are necessary to achieve the long term goals of the organization” (p. 128).
Operational Plan 2010-2011 Goal Activities Who’s ResponsibleRemodel library spaces in 1. Administer a survey to 1. Librariansorder to consider the students 2. Assessment andcharacteristics and learning 2. Analyze survey results Evaluation Officepreferences of Millennials. 3. Hire an architect to 3. Library Director remodel spaces 4. Planning and Facilities 4. Approve plans Office 5. Remodel the library 5. Construction company 6. Create the Learning 6. Librarians commonsImprove and adapt the 1. Revise and discuss the 1. Library employees andorganizational structure in organizational chart library directororder to meet the 2. Propose structural 2. Library directortechnological changes and changes 3. Administrationneeds of users 3. Approve new chart
Operational Plan 2010-2011 Goal Activities Who’s ResponsibleGuarantee to students’ 1. Expand the electronic 1. Collection developmentunlimited access to library collection. librariancollections in order to meet 2. Evaluate actual services 2. Librarianstheir research and through a student 3. Librariansinformation needs survey. 3. Analyze usage statistics.Transform library services 1. Analyze data from 1. Librariansto meet the requirements surveys. 2. Researcher assigned byand needs of students 2. Initiate a focal group the Assessment and 3. Develop communities of evaluation Office practice 3. Library director, librarians, library staff
Evaluation plan• Kaye and Allison (2005) present that evaluation should be a continuous process in any organization. Formal evaluations should be done regularly to see if the library is meeting the goals settled in the strategic plan.
Assessing the plan• The purpose of assessing the plan is to improve library services.• A good way to assess if library activities are been successful is by using Key Performance Indicators.
Implications for future change efforts• Commitment• Credibility• Communication
How to deal with potential pushback• By using facilitating leadership techniques, managers can take into consideration the preoccupations and concerns of internal and external stakeholders.
How to deal with potentialpushback Kezar (2001) presents that in order to succeed leaders have to guide people to move towards a different reality. The best way to do this is by envisioning the future and “focus organizational members’ attention on the desired future rather than on the present situation and organization…leaders create change by helping employees to view the organization through different lenses and by reframing issues so that people can understand and enact the needed change” (p. 47).
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