Modals 090402070854-phpapp01

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Modals 090402070854-phpapp01

  1. 1. MODALS I.E.S TEROR FIRST BACCALAUREATE
  2. 2. WHICH ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MODALS AND VERBS? VERBS MODALS Singular / Plural -S / -ES / -IES (He plays, We play) NO variation (He must, We must) Negative Form Use of auxiliaries (don’t, doesn’t) NO auxiliaries (I must, I mustn’t) Interrogative Form Use of auxiliaries (do, does) NO auxiliaries (Should you...? Place in the sentence Bw the S and the O (You listen to music) ALWAYS before base form (He may be at home) Other forms: infinitive, participle, futur, -ing forms, complex tenses GO: to go, gone, will go, going, has gone They have NOT any of these forms
  3. 3. MODAL VERBS
  4. 4. CAN <ul><li>I can speak English, because I lived in London. </li></ul><ul><li>ability </li></ul><ul><li>Can you open your books? </li></ul><ul><li>request </li></ul><ul><li>I can lend you my book if you need it. </li></ul><ul><li>possibility </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>My brother is able to play football very well </li></ul><ul><li>ability </li></ul>BE ABLE TO
  6. 6. COULD <ul><li>I could run very fast when I was a child. </li></ul><ul><li>past ability </li></ul><ul><li>Could you help me, please? </li></ul><ul><li>polite request </li></ul><ul><li>You could study and your results will improve. </li></ul><ul><li>polite suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t worry, you could win the lottery. </li></ul><ul><li>possibility </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>You can’t be Mark! He’s got dark hair </li></ul><ul><li>certainty that </li></ul><ul><li>something is impossible </li></ul>CAN’T
  8. 8. MAY <ul><li>It may rain next week </li></ul><ul><li>possibility </li></ul><ul><li>May I pay with a credit card? </li></ul><ul><li>polite request </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>She might win the gold medal </li></ul><ul><li>possibility </li></ul>MIGHT
  10. 10. WOULD <ul><li>Would you open the door, please? </li></ul><ul><li>formal request </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like some coffee? </li></ul><ul><li>offer </li></ul>
  11. 11. MUST <ul><li>You must arrive on time at school. </li></ul><ul><li>obligation </li></ul><ul><li>I hear some noises inside. They must be at home. </li></ul><ul><li>certainty that </li></ul><ul><li>something is true </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>I have to stay at home before midnight. </li></ul><ul><li>obligation, </li></ul><ul><li>necessity </li></ul>HAVE TO
  13. 13. <ul><li>I need to go to the market because I’ve anything to eat. </li></ul><ul><li>obligation, </li></ul><ul><li>necessity </li></ul>NEED TO
  14. 14. <ul><li>You needn’t wake up early on Sundays </li></ul><ul><li>lack of obligation </li></ul>NEEDN’T
  15. 15. <ul><li>You dont’ have to bring anything to the party </li></ul><ul><li>lack of obligation </li></ul>DON’T HAVE TO
  16. 16. <ul><li>You mustn’t smoke in this area. </li></ul><ul><li>prohibition </li></ul>MUSTN’T
  17. 17. <ul><li>You should try and give up smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>advice, opinion </li></ul>SHOULD
  18. 18. <ul><li>You ought to go to the doctor if you don’t feel well. </li></ul><ul><li>advice, opinion </li></ul>OUGHT TO
  19. 19. <ul><li>Modal Pefects refer to PAST or COMPLETED ACTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>You should go to the doctor to feel it better. </li></ul><ul><li>You should have gone to the doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>Which of these sentences refer to the past? </li></ul><ul><li>What differences in terms of form can you see? </li></ul>MODAL PERFECTS
  20. 20. STRUCTURE MODALS MODAL PERFECTS Subject + modal + base form Subject + modal + have + past participle
  21. 21. MODAL PERFECTS <ul><li>Must have </li></ul><ul><li>May have / might have </li></ul><ul><li>Could have </li></ul><ul><li>Couldn’t have </li></ul><ul><li>Would have </li></ul><ul><li>Should have / ought to have </li></ul><ul><li>Shouldn’t have </li></ul><ul><li>Needn’t have </li></ul>
  22. 22. MUST HAVE <ul><li>She hasn’t arrived yet. She must have been in a traffic jam. </li></ul><ul><li>certainty that something </li></ul><ul><li>was true </li></ul>
  23. 23. MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE <ul><li>She may / might have missed the bus </li></ul><ul><li>a guess about a </li></ul><ul><li>past action </li></ul>
  24. 24. COULD HAVE <ul><li>You could have studied more for this exam. </li></ul><ul><li>ability to have done </li></ul><ul><li>something but in </li></ul><ul><li>fact did not </li></ul>
  25. 25. COULDN’T HAVE <ul><li>He couldn’t have killed him because he was in the hospital. </li></ul><ul><li>certainty that </li></ul><ul><li>something did </li></ul><ul><li>not happen </li></ul>
  26. 26. WOULD HAVE <ul><li>I would have gone to the beach, but I didn’t feel very well </li></ul><ul><li>willingness to have </li></ul><ul><li>done something </li></ul><ul><li>but in fact </li></ul><ul><li>could not </li></ul>
  27. 27. SHOULD HAVE / OUGHT TO HAVE <ul><li>You should have told me that they splitted up. </li></ul><ul><li>criticism </li></ul><ul><li>or regret after </li></ul><ul><li>an event </li></ul>
  28. 28. SHOULDN’T HAVE <ul><li>You shouldn’t have insulted her! </li></ul><ul><li>criticism </li></ul><ul><li>after an event </li></ul>
  29. 29. NEEDN’T HAVE <ul><li>You needn’t have brought anything to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>an unnecessary </li></ul><ul><li>action in the </li></ul><ul><li>past </li></ul>

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