There is an international and national imperative to include educational technologies into teacher training and professional development. Various initiatives are aiming at developing a skill-set in pre-service teacher training; the current in-service teachers are required by law to upgrade their qualifications. Teachers should be able to design, implement, and assess learning experiences to engage students and improve learning; enrich professional practice; and provide positive models for students, colleagues and the community (ISTE,2008).This report is about the variety of initiatives and strategies that support the view of including educational technologies into teacher training and professional development.
This report is about the variety of initiatives and strategies that support the view of including educational technologies into teacher training and professional development. In this report a knowledge society agenda; pervasiveness of technology, ‘education for all’ goals will be addressed; future national strategic objectives will be presented and the broad aims of the various national and international initiatives regarding continuous professional development of teachers with regard to teacher competency standards relating to ICTs and professional aptitude will be highlighted.
A knowledge society is “a human society, in which knowledge should bring justice, solidarity, democracy, peace…A society in which knowledge could be a force for changing society”. A society which provides universal and equitable access to information. Information is a very important source of knowledge in this society
A knowledge society survives by continuously accessing information – by using technological tools. Social networks such as Facebook and Tweeter enable the society to easily access information.
The existence of professionally trained and developed teachers who are able to use educational technologies is vital for the knowledge society.
Being a teacher in this society requires someone who will be able to work with others; work with knowledge, information and technology; work with and in society; work with new knowledge and new ways for accessing knowledge.
“The teachers in the knowledge society must understand that face to face interactions are still important; the role of technology is to support and enhance the human dimension of teaching”.
“Training and professional development of teachers is important as it enables the teachers to enrich the learning experiences of learners and also enrich their professional practice as teachers. “A competent teacher must be able to work in a knowledge society in order to close the gap between technology and pedagogy.”
The importance to include educational technologies into teacher training and development must look at the existence of technology as an advantage to make this goal a reality. Technology refers to “the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.” Technology has increasingly become part of our lives because much of what we do involves the use of technology, for example cellphones, cars, computers for accessing internet etc. An increase in the use of social networks such as Facebook and Tweeter is evident of the existence and the dominance of technology.
The existence of technology enables people to save time, commit fewer mistakes, enhance quality and become more efficient. It is evident that the use of technology has changed people’s way of life “Technology increases our exposure to messages that can inform, educate, entertain, reform or create monetary and other benefits to man” .
Technology can play a vital role in the process of training and developing professional teachers and the teachers need to understand that “technology can vastly increase their ability to transmit educative messages within the educational setting.”
Educational technology refers to “the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.”
Teachers and technology are a good combination to improve students learning experiences; enrich the teacher’s professional practice and provide positive models for students, colleagues and the community (ISTE, 2008). The educators that will be trained to be able to use technology will enable different types of learners to find and use the necessary information, technology offers a wealth of knowledge to students and it also offers great potential for the speed and the different styles of learning “The quality of the class will depend solely on the quality of the teacher and not the presence of technology."
”There is a global movement led by UNESCO called ‘Education for all’ which “aims to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults in 2015.”
Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world – Nelson Mandela. “Education is the worth of knowledge acquired by an individual after studying particular subject matters or experiencing life lessons that provide an understanding of something.”
Education for all as a global movement aims at enrolling millions of children that are left out of school, eliminate illiteracy and through education promote economic growth, empower women, strengthen democracy, fight HIV and AIDS, end poverty etc. The main goals of ‘Educational for all’ movement is to expand early childhood care and education; provide free and compulsory primary education to all; promote learning and life skills for young people and ; increase adult literacy by 50%; achieve gender parity by 2015 and gender equality by 2015 and improve the quality of education.
The main goals of ‘Educational for all’ movement is to expand early childhood care and education; provide free and compulsory primary education to all; promote learning and life skills for young people and ; increase adult literacy by 50%; achieve gender parity by 2015 and gender equality by 2015 and improve the quality of education.
The goals of the ‘Education for all’ movement are a key in improving the quality of education for children, youth and adults. This movement which is being led by UNESCO is in line with the plan of introducing educational technology into teacher training and professional development as they aim at improving the quality of education. According to (Joseph Weizenbaum “width=” 100) in an attempt to improve the quality of education using technology there are three challenges that are expected or should be addressed: Firstly, the learning outcomes should be monitored – effective strategies to access knowledge and skills and demonstrate measurable learning outcome are needed; the learning environments must be improved – access to learning resources, textbooks; and it is of great importance to attract more and better teachers.
Teacher numbers are growing slightly less rapidly compared to enrolments; there is a need for the training and recruitment of more qualified teachers (Global Monitoring Report: 2008).
The government has placed education and skills development at the center of its administration’s priorities. The government together with the department of basic education visualizes a South Africa in which all our people will have access to lifelong learning, education and training opportunities which will, in turn contribute towards improving the quality of life and the building of a peaceful, prosperous and democratic South Africa. The Department of Basic Education is prepared to work together with provinces in order to provide relevant and cutting edge quality education for the 21th century – Minister of Education, Angie Motshega
Future national strategic plan: it was developed by the Department of Basic Education under the guidance of the Minister of Basic Education, it takes into account all the relevant policies, legislation and other mandates for which the Department of Basic Education is responsible and accurately reflects the strategic outcome-orientated goals and objectives which the Department of Basic Education will endeavor to achieve over the period 2011/12 to 2013/2014. The plan elaborates on how the Department seeks to improve the quality of education by focusing on triple T: Teacher, Text and Time as expressed by the President in his February 2011 state of the Nation Address.
The training and development of professional teachers who are able to use educational technologies is important because the teachers are the key agents in transforming the education system and accelerating the strategic plan by the Department of Basic Education to improve the quality of education. The Department has set programs that will help measure and evaluate the national strategic plan: Programme 1: Administration the purpose is to manage the Department and provide strategic and administrative support services and to improve the capacity of the Department of Education. Programme 2: Curriculum Policy, Support and Monitoring the purpose is to develop curriculum and assessment policies and monitor and support their implementation. This programme is key in improving teacher capacity and practices, increasing access to high quality learning materials, and improving the quality of early childhood development. Programme 3: Teachers, Education Human Resources and Institutional Development to promote quality teaching and institutional performance through the effective supply, development and utilization of human resources. A key programme for improving teacher capacity and practices, and strengthening school management and promote functional schools. Programme 4: Planning, Information and Assessment the purpose is to promote quality and effective service delivery in the basic education system through monitoring and evaluation, planning and assessment. This programme is key in establishing a quality system of standardized and benchmarked learner assessments. Programme 5: Educational Enrichment Services the purpose for this programme is to develop policies and programmes to improve the quality of learning in schools. This is crucial in strengthening school management and promoting functional schools and also strengthening partnerships with all stakeholders, resulting in education becoming a societal priority.
”the focus of our strategies is geared towards the learners, the teachers and the schools and, by extension, provincial administration of education, including district management”
There is a variety of international and national initiatives that are focusing at the continuous development of professional teachers with regard to teacher competency standards relating to ICTs and professional aptitude. UNESCO-IICBA United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization – International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, was authorized to strengthen the capabilities of teacher education institutions of its 54 Member States.
UNESCO-IICBA through its range of initiatives aims at introducing information and communication technology for education; establishing networks of partner to foster the sharing of experiences; undertake research and development of teacher education institutions in Africa; utilize distance education for improving the capacities of teacher education institutions, linking educational development to economic growth through collaboration with the African Union and promoting international cooperation for the development of education through the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD).TT
In conclusion, the urgency to introduce educational technologies to training and development of professional teachers shows that teachers are required to be competent in using new hardware and software. This report is supported by a variety of documents proving how teacher development will be planned and how the development of professional teachers is appropriate to a teacher’s understanding and skills in the 21st century. As promised at the beginning of the report, the following topics were covered in the report: knowledge society agenda; pervasiveness of technology; “education for all” goals; present future national strategic goals; and the broad aims of the various national and international initiatives regarding continuous professional development of teachers with regard to teacher competency standards relating to ICTs and professional aptitude were highlighted.
ICT stands for Information and Communication Technology. The development of ICT – enhanced Teacher Standards for Africa was “initiated by UNESCO-IICBA as one of the strategies of building the capabilities for strengthening teacher development in Africa”
ICTeTSA is organized around six interrelated domains and broad standards of teachers. To achieve the goal of training and developing teachers who are able to use educational technologies, there must be a set of teacher standards and each standard must have its own competences or performance indicators that deal with the minimum knowledge, skills and attitudes expected of 21st century teachers in Africa. To evaluate or determine whether the teachers have mastered the ICT- enhanced teacher standards in Africa, they must meet the minimum of these separate but interrelated standards: ICTeTSA, the teacher needs to; Engage in Instructional Design Processes – it is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. This standard of teaching involves teacher’s content knowledge(CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), technological Knowledge (TK) and their amalgam knowledge areas; Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning, Innovation and Creativity- this standard attempts to improve the impact of ICT on students, it recognizes that it is highly dependent on the teaching approaches and better skills result when student-centered guidance, group work and inquiry projects are used ; Create and Manage Effective Learning Environments – the teachers are expected to create learning environments that are optimal and manage them throughout the teaching-learning process.; Engage in Assessment and Communication of Student Learning – the teachers should establish and clearly communicate learning goals for all students, assessment/evaluation and communication of student achievement and growth are essential parts of the teaching and learning process.; Engage in Professional Development and Model Ethical Responsibilities – “this includes a set of activities that prepare teachers for their job, including initial training, induction courses, in-service training and continuous professional development within school setting” (EU, 2010, p.19) ; and Understand Subject Matter for Use in Teaching – the teacher must understand the relevant content knowledge (CK), but the teachers knowledge must go beyond comprehension of the material to be taught, he must understand the subject matter for teaching purposes.
CONT…THERE IS AN INTERNATIONAL ANDNATIONAL IMPERATIVE TO INCLUDEEDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES INTOTEACHER TRAINING ANDPROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
TO BE COVERED: KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AGENDA PERVASIVENESS OF TECHNOLOGY “EDUCATION FOR ALL” GOALS PRESENT FUTURE NATIONAL STARTEGIC OBJECTIVS BROAD AIMS OF THE VARIOUS NATIONAL ANDINTERNATIONAL INITIATIVES REGARDING CONTINUOUSPROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS WITHREGARD TO TEACHER COMPETENCY STANDARDSRELATING TO ICTs AND PROFESSIONAL APTITUDE
TECHNOLOGY ENABLES PEOPLE TO: SAVE TIME COMMIT FEWER MISTAKES ENHANCE QUALITY LEADS TO EFFICIENCY
THE TRANSMISSION OFEDUCATIVE MESSAGESWITH TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATION: ENABLES DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEARNERS TO FIND ANDUSE THE NECESSARY INFORMATION OFFERS A WEALTH OF KNOWLEDGE TO STUDENTS OFFERS GREAT POTENTIAL FOR THE SPEED AND THEDIFFERENT STYLES OF LEARNING
EDUCATION IS THE MOSTPOWERFUL WEAPON WHICHYOU CAN USE TO CHANGETHE WORLD – NELSONMANDELA
AIMS TO: ENROL MILLIONS OF CHILDREN LEFT OUT OF SCHOOL ELIMINATE ILLITERACY PROMOTE ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH EDUCATION EMPOWER WOMEN STRENGTHEN DEMOCRACY FIGHT HIV/AIDS ALLEVIATE POVERTY
GOALS: EXPAND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION PROVIDE FREE AND COMPULSORY PRIMARY EDUCATION TO ALL PROMOTE LEARNING AND LIFE-SKILLS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE INCREASE ADULT LITERACY BY 50% ACHIEVE GENDER PARITY BY 2015 GENDER EQUALITY BY 2015 IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION
ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED: LEARNING OUTCOMES TO BE MONITORED THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS MUST BE IMPROVED ATTRACTING MORE AND BETTER TEACHERS
TEACHER NUMBERS AREGROWING SLIGHTLY LESSRAPIDLY COMPARED TOENROLMENTS; THERE IS ANEED FOR THE TRAINING ANDRECRUITMENT OF MOREQUALIFIED TEACHERS –GLOBAL MONITORING REPORT,2008
NATIOINAL STRATEGICOBJECTIVES FOR THEFUTURE OF EDUCATION
TRIPLE T – IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATIONTEACHERTEXTTIME
PROGRAMMES TO MEASURE AND EVALUATE THENATIONAL STRATEGIC PLAN: PROGRAMME 1: ADMINISTRATION PROGRAMME 2: CURRICULUM POLICY, SUPPORT ANDMONITORING PROGRAMME 3: TEACHERS, EDUCATION HUMANRESOURCES AND INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 4: PLANNING, INFORMATION ANDASSESSMENT PROGRAMME 5: EDUCATIONAL ENRICHMENT SERVICES
THE FOCUS OF OUR STRATEGIES ISGEARED TOWARDS THE LEARNERS,THE TEACHERS AND THE SCHOOLSAND, BY EXTENSION, PROVINCIALADMINISTRATION OF EDUCATION,INCLUDING DISTRICT MANAGEMENT– MINISTER OF EDUCATION
United NationsEducational, Scientific andCultural OrganizationInternational Institute forCapacity Building in Africa
UNESCO-IICBA AIMS: INTRODUCING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATION ESTABLISHING NETWORKS OF PARTNER TO FOSTER THESHARING OF EXPERIENCES UNDERTAKE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OFTEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN AFRICA UTILIZE DISTANCE EDUCATION FOR IMPROVING THECAPACITIES OF TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUITONS LINKING EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TO ECONOMICGROWTH THROUGH COLLABORATION WITH THE AFRICANUNION PROMOTING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR THEDEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION THROUGH THE NEWPARTNERSHIP FOR AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT
“the urgency to introduce educational technologies to training anddevelopment of professional teachers shows that teachers arerequired to be competent in using new hardware and software. Thisreport is supported by a variety of documents proving how teacherdevelopment will be planned and how the development ofprofessional teachers is appropriate to a teacher’s understanding andskills in the 21st century. As promised at the beginning of the report,the following topics were covered in the report: knowledge societyagenda; pervasiveness of technology; “education for all” goals;present future national strategic goals; and the broad aims of thevarious national and international initiatives regarding continuousprofessional development of teachers with regard to teachercompetency standards relating to ICTs and professional aptitude werehighlighted.”CONCLUSSION:
ICT – Information and Communication TechnologyICT- enhanced Teacher Standards for Africa:Initiated by UNESCO-IICBA as one of the strategies of building thecapabilities for strengthening teacher development in Africa
AIMS:Engage inInstructionalDesignProcessesFacilitate and Inspire StudentLearning, Innovation andCreativityCreate andManageEffectiveLearningEnvironmentsEngage inAssessment andCommunicationof StudentLearningEngage inProfessionalDevelopment andModel EthicalResponsibilitiesUnderstandSubject Matterfor Use inTeaching