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Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain

A brief Seminar Presentation on the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Powertrain Components, Architecture and Modes of Hybridisation. Also includes the Classification of HEV on the basis of Energy Flow.

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Prepared By:
Somraj Dasgupta,
15UME030,
Final Year, Section: A,
Mechanical Engineering,
Bachelor of Technology,
National Institute of Technology Agartala.
Design Considerations
of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain
2
INTRODUCTION
A Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) uses two power sources to power the
vehicle. Conventionally, one power source is Internal Combustion
Engine and the other is Chemical Batteries plus an Electric Motor Drive.
An HEV thus relies not only on Batteries but also an Internal Combustion
Engine to recharge the batteries and to power a generator to provide
electricity and may also drive a wheel.
An HEV can achieve the cruising range and performance advantages
of conventional vehicles by overcoming the major limitations of pure
Electric Vehicles (EVs).
Courtesy: Wikipedia
3
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN
RESEARCH AND ADOPTION
LIMITATIONS OF PURE ELECTRIC VEHICLES
With the fast increase of car
ownership, environmental concerns
such as air pollution, global warming,
and the rapid depletion of the Earth
petroleum resources have become a
matter of attention all over the world.
 In order to ensure the quality of
environment and human living life the
automobile industry has started many
researches in the area of vehicles based
on electric propulsion.
Many researches are going on aiming to
improve the EV and HEV technologies.
The Government of India unveiled
'National Electric Mobility Mission Plan
2020' in 2013 to address the issues of
National energy security and in 2015
commissioned the FAME policy [Faster
Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &)
Electric Vehicles in India].
Electric propulsion vehicles have such
promising advantages as high efficiency
and zero emissions. However, a major
disadvantage of pure electric vehicles
compared to vehicles ran by fuel is their
low autonomy range.
MOTIVATION
4
Discussion about the
Architectures of HEV
drivetrains
Discussion about the
types of Hybridisation
Understanding the HEV
Powertrain Components and
their respective roles
OBJECTIVES
Components of
HEV
Powertrain
01
02
04
03
Power Units:
Fuel Cells and
Conventional Internal
Combustion Engines
Energy Storage
Units: Batteries,
Flywheel
Propulsion Units:
Electric Motors,
Driveshafts
Control
Module
Components
of
Hybrid Electric
Vehicle
Powertrain
6
HEV
Powertrain
Architecture
1.Position of the Electrical
Motor
2.Type of connection in the
Drivetrain. E.g. Belt,
Integrated or Gear Mesh
P0 Electric Motor connected with IC Engine through a belt
with Front End Accessory Drive (FEAD)
P1 Electric Motor connected directly with ICE Crankshaft
P2
Electric Motor is integrated between the IC Engine and
Transmission and has the same or multiple speed of that of
the ICE
P3
Electric Motor is decoupled from the ICE
Electric Motor is connected with the transmission by
means of Gear-mesh and its speed is multiple of wheel
speed
ARCHITECTURE is
defined by:
P4
Electric Motor is decoupled from the ICE
Electric Motor is connected with the rear-axle by means of
Gear-mesh and this enables 4WD mode
Courtesy: www.x-engineer.org
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Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain

  • 1. Prepared By: Somraj Dasgupta, 15UME030, Final Year, Section: A, Mechanical Engineering, Bachelor of Technology, National Institute of Technology Agartala. Design Considerations of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain
  • 2. 2 INTRODUCTION A Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) uses two power sources to power the vehicle. Conventionally, one power source is Internal Combustion Engine and the other is Chemical Batteries plus an Electric Motor Drive. An HEV thus relies not only on Batteries but also an Internal Combustion Engine to recharge the batteries and to power a generator to provide electricity and may also drive a wheel. An HEV can achieve the cruising range and performance advantages of conventional vehicles by overcoming the major limitations of pure Electric Vehicles (EVs). Courtesy: Wikipedia
  • 3. 3 ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN RESEARCH AND ADOPTION LIMITATIONS OF PURE ELECTRIC VEHICLES With the fast increase of car ownership, environmental concerns such as air pollution, global warming, and the rapid depletion of the Earth petroleum resources have become a matter of attention all over the world.  In order to ensure the quality of environment and human living life the automobile industry has started many researches in the area of vehicles based on electric propulsion. Many researches are going on aiming to improve the EV and HEV technologies. The Government of India unveiled 'National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020' in 2013 to address the issues of National energy security and in 2015 commissioned the FAME policy [Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India]. Electric propulsion vehicles have such promising advantages as high efficiency and zero emissions. However, a major disadvantage of pure electric vehicles compared to vehicles ran by fuel is their low autonomy range. MOTIVATION
  • 4. 4 Discussion about the Architectures of HEV drivetrains Discussion about the types of Hybridisation Understanding the HEV Powertrain Components and their respective roles OBJECTIVES
  • 5. Components of HEV Powertrain 01 02 04 03 Power Units: Fuel Cells and Conventional Internal Combustion Engines Energy Storage Units: Batteries, Flywheel Propulsion Units: Electric Motors, Driveshafts Control Module Components of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain
  • 6. 6 HEV Powertrain Architecture 1.Position of the Electrical Motor 2.Type of connection in the Drivetrain. E.g. Belt, Integrated or Gear Mesh P0 Electric Motor connected with IC Engine through a belt with Front End Accessory Drive (FEAD) P1 Electric Motor connected directly with ICE Crankshaft P2 Electric Motor is integrated between the IC Engine and Transmission and has the same or multiple speed of that of the ICE P3 Electric Motor is decoupled from the ICE Electric Motor is connected with the transmission by means of Gear-mesh and its speed is multiple of wheel speed ARCHITECTURE is defined by: P4 Electric Motor is decoupled from the ICE Electric Motor is connected with the rear-axle by means of Gear-mesh and this enables 4WD mode Courtesy: www.x-engineer.org
  • 7. HEV Classification on the basis of Energy Flow 7 SERIES Hybrid PARALLEL Hybrid POWER-SPLIT Hybrid The Internal Combustion Engine, Generator, Battery, Motor and Transmission are all in Series. Drive to the wheel is provided by the Electric Motor. Electric Motor and the Engine Cranskshaft is connected by the Clutch. A Planetary Gear set connects the Engine, Battery and Two Electric Motors. Also called the Series- Parallel Configuration. This enables smaller motors to do the job of larger motors when compared to single-mode systems. Eg. Toyota Prius Courtesy: www.skill-lync.com
  • 8. Mild Hybrid: Small Electric Motor and Battery are combined with IC Engine which facilitates Acceleration assist and Regenerative Braking. Eg. Suzuki Ciaz, Honda Jazz. Full (or Strong) Hybrid: Bigger Electric Motor and Battery is combined with downsized IC Engine which allows better Regenerative Braking and periods of Electric Motor Drive. Eg. Toyota Prius, Ford Escape. Micro Hybrid: Engine is turned off when the vehicle pauses in traffic and restarts quickly. Eg. Mahindra Scorpio. Plug-in Hybrid: Strong hybrid with extended electric range and necessary electronics to charge the battery externally. E.g. Audi A3 hybrid, Audi Q7 hybrid, BMW i8 etc. 8 TYPES OF HYBRIDISATION Courtesy: Wikipedia
  • 9. Features vs. Types of Hybrid Electric Vehicles www.x-engineer.org 9 Micro Hybrid Mild Hybrid (MHEV) Strong Hybrid Plug-in Hybrid (PHEV) Idle Start/Stop Torque Assist Regenerative Braking Electric Driving Mode Battery Charging (during Driving) Battery Charging (from Grid)
  • 10. Conclusions 10 This is done either to achieve better fuel economy or better performance by increasing total torque and power. HEVs may take into account 5 types of Powertrain Architecture and use 4 types of hybridisation techniques to accomplish the aforesaid purpose. Hybrid Electric Vehicles combine a conventional IC Engine with an Electric Propulsion System. Range Anxiety, Vehicle Integration, Performance Engineering and Safety Engineering are the major concerns of HEV development and manufacturing. 1 2 3 4 5 Modern HEVs adopt Regenerative Braking in which Kinetic Energy of the vehicle is converted into Electrical Energy in Batteries.
  • 11. ~SomrajTHANK YOU 1. DC/DC converter 2. Low voltage battery (12 V) 3. High voltage battery (48 V) 4. 48V belt-drive starter-generator 5. 3.0 TFSI internal combustion engine Courtesy: www.x-engineer.org

Editor's Notes

  1. https://unsplash.com/photos/c4XoMGxfsVU
  2. https://unsplash.com/photos/3I7Sg4u5CVA