Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Khmer culture, civilization (part3)


Published on

I share what I know

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Khmer culture, civilization (part3)

  1. 1. University of Cambodia Lectured by: Mut Somoeun, M.Ed KHM 140: Khmer Culture
  2. 2. THE ORIGIN OF CAMBODIA  Indian Prince (Hun Tein) Cambodian Princess (Liv Yi)
  3. 3. WHAT IS RELIGION?  The belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, esp a personal God or gods  Faith, belief, divinity, worship, creed, teaching, doctrine, theology  A particular system of faith and worship  A pursuit/ interest followed with great devotion
  4. 4. WHAT IS RELIGION?  Religion is the set of beliefs, feelings, dogmas and practices that define the relations between human being and sacred or divinity.  A given religion is defined by specific elements of a community of believers: dogmas, sacred books, rites, worship, sacrament, moral prescription, interdicts, organization.
  5. 5. WHY RELIGION EXISTS?  Human Fear  Human Knowledge  Problems & Solutions  Power (Human & God)
  6. 6. RELIGIONS IN CAMBODIA  Buddhism (90-95% of the population)  Christianity  Islam  Brahmanism & Hinduism  Animism (Tribal Groups)
  7. 7. BUDDHISM IN CAMBODIA  Originated from India (Theravada) during the 3rd Century of BE to the mainland (Malayu/ S Burma)  1st Century (Hun Tein & Liv Yi)– 6th Century, 2 monks named Sanghabal & Mantrasen to China as Buddhist missionaries  Theravada almost disappeared in late 9th century (Mahayana existed) and in late 13th century CE a son of Jayavarman 7 (Tamalindra) became a monk then went to study Buddhism in Srilangka)
  8. 8. BUDDHISM IS THE PREDOMINANT RELIGION IN CAMBODIA  In each family, the oldest son is expected to spend several months as a monk in order to provide merit for his family.
  9. 9. THREE FUNDAMENTALS OF BUDDHISM  In Tribitaka based on Cause & Effect  No doing all bad things  Vinaya (Buddhist Code of Conduct)  Doing all good things  Sutra (narrative, explanation...)  Purifying mind  Aphidhamma (mind cultivation)
  10. 10. NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATHS (អដ្ឋង្គិកមគ្គ)  right understanding  right thought  right speech  right action  right living  right effort  right mindfulness  right concentration
  12. 12. BRAHMANISM & HINDUISM  Originated from India since the 1st king in Funan Kingdom period  3 Gods are the most important in Brahmanism: Vishnu, Siva (Isor) and Brahma = sacrifices  Prominently seen the practice of Brhmanism in Chenla period (6th CE – Angkor period)  Brahmanism & king coronation & other ceremonies in kingdom (temple)
  13. 13. HINDUISM  Hinduism is the combinations of Brahman doctrine & Buddhist doctrine plus others  Most kings from Chenla (6th CE) – Angkor period practiced Brahmanism + Hinduism; esp in coronation & building temples (the largest Hindu temple – Angkor Toch)
  14. 14. THE DEVARAJA CULT  In 802, Jayavarman II proclaimed himself god-king of Cambodia. He did so through a Hindu ritual involving worship of Shiva, king of the gods.  A royal cult developed, involved an annual festival during which a statue of Shiva was paraded thru the capital city.  The ceremony not only proclaimed the devaraja but Cambodia’ permanent separation from Java. Ritually sanctifying a symbol of the devaraja.
  15. 15. CHRISTIANITY  Established by a man named Jesus or Jesus Christ in 545 of BE in Palestine & died at the age of 30.  Flowed into Cambodia in 16th century CE (1570) in the reign of King Satha I (Longvek)  In the time of French protectorate (1863-1953)  The most prominent canon is Bible
  16. 16. ISLAM  Established in Arabic land by a man named Mohamed/ Mohamad in 570 CE & died in 632  Islam existed in Cambodia by Cham people since the 19th century CE  Cham used to rule Khmer in 1177 – 1181 Jayavarman VII gained back.  The most prominent canon is Quo An/ Qoran)
  17. 17. ANIMISM (TRIBAL GROUPS)  The tribal/ indigenous groups and live in the high land/ mountainous areas.  They believe in various invisible spirits, who some are benevolent and malevolent.  They associate spirits with rice, soil, water, fire, stones, paths, and so forth. Sorcerers or specialists in each village contact these spirits and prescribe ways to appease them.
  18. 18. QUESTIONS?