SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 19
Download to read offline
Therapeutic Use Of Self Essay
Therapeutic use of self involves using one's personality, body language, active listening that is used to create and maintain a therapeutic relationship
with others (Lowe et al., 2007). Establishing trust is also an important aspect of therapeutic use of self, to address the needs and goals of the client,
which helps our scope of practice to remain client–centered. Using therapeutic use of self is beneficial for occupational therapists (OT), as it
facilitates interaction with the client. It also encourages and allows the therapist to obtain necessary information, and to alleviate fear or anxiety that
may take place during treatment session. During Level I Fieldwork at a SNF, I was able to apply these principles during a treatment session for a
client diagnosed with dementia that was agitated and non–compliant with the activity. To divert her attention to the activity, and to get her to
understand that I was...show more content...
The OT will administer the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) Assessment Tool with Phyllis before she returns home to help write discharge
recommendations. Using AIDET communication the OT would begin treatment by knocking on the patient's door and ask, "May I enter?" Once
the patient responds with "Yes", the OT may enter the room. If the bed was low the OT could kneel down to the level of the bed to sustain
appropriate eye contact. Next, while smiling the OT would introduce themselves to the patient by saying, "Good morning Phyllis. My name is
Alissa, and I will be the occupational therapist working with you today." The OT should smile and reach to shake Phyllis' hand. The OT should also
ask, "Are you familiar with what an OT does?" If not, they should give a quick elevator speech about the profession. The OT should also say, "The
questionnaire will take less than 5 minutes, and the nurse said she would be bringing in your next dose of pain medication within the next 10
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Therapeutic Touch and Pain
Stephanie Brooks
Kelsey McAfee
Kara Lamb
Edinboro University Background Throughout our clinical experiences, almost every patient that we have had reported some pain. Pain medications are
often over–prescribed and over–used and can often do more harm than good. People do need pain medications in certain circumstances, but we wanted
to research other methods for patients to manage pain. Therapeutic touch can offer a variety of benefits including pain management. A majority of the
adult population experiences pain on a daily basis. If more people knew about therapeutic touch and using it for a pain management technique, patients
could feel better while not using pharmacological management. According to Flor and Turk, 116 million experience pain on a daily basis and most
pay for treatment, whether it be physical therapy, pain medication, inpatient services or primary care (Flor and Turk, 2015). The same report also
states, "Prescription painkillers are considered a major contributor to the total number of yearly deaths" (Flor and Turk, 2015).
The Question
Population: Adult Patients experiencing pain
Intervention: Therapeutic Touch
Comparison: N/A
Outcome: patients experiencing pain will report decreased pain after receiving interventions
The final PICO question:
Does therapeutic touch decrease pain levels for adult patients verbalizing mild to moderate pain levels?
The Search We used a variety of different search methods to gather our
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
The Self Essay
The Self Every situation that an individual is exposed to throughout life, helps mold our "self." As humans we have the ability to see ourselves from
the outside, and all through life we try to see what others see and our "self" revolves around the generalized other. We observe how others perceive us
and we make conclusions depending on our observations. How we act around others depends on the image we feel they have towards us.
Charles Horton Cooley, a symbolic interactionist, concluded that our sense of "self" develops from interactions with others. Cooley described this
process as the...show more content...
On the other hand if you see yourself as an individual who can communicate without a problem and you see that you can keep others interested in a
given conversations, your reaction is more positive. Through this looking– glass self we develop a "self" concept. Depending on the observations we
make concerning the reactions of others we develop feelings and ideas about ourselves. The reflection we see in the mirror is either negative or
positive depending on the feedback we get back from those around us. Misjudgments of the reactions of others become part of our "self" concept also
the misinterpretations of how others think of us. Self concepts begins in childhood but it continues to develop throughout life. As we observe how
other people react to us, we modify our "self."
The "self" is never a finished project, and it continues to change as our life takes different turns. Our "self" reacts to the environment that we are in. As
the "self" expands we put together the different reactions making us a unique individual. Every individual has a different way of thinking and therefore
they make their own choices about certain situations. Going through different life changes, means the "self" is expected to change to accommodate the
life stage we find our selves in. The way we perceived things when
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
What Is Your Ideal Self? Essay
What is your ideal self? Do you want to be a college graduate, married, mother/father, homeowner, cultured, musical? Your current state is called the
actual self and the person that you want to be is called the ideal self. An ideal self–concept is how you would like a situation or outcome to be, for
example completing a degree program or not being stuck in traffic. Actual self–concept is what your current situation or outcome is, for example being
in school for a degree or being stuck in traffic. For one to achieve their goal, they must work hard to move through the difficult phases of their goals.
Different personalities create and complete different types of goals, some individuals have many life goals along with smaller goals within that in
order to achieve them, in this research they will be referred to as future minded–thinkers. Other individuals do very little planning for the future,
therefore they have little to no goals set for their future, in this research they will be referred to as present minded–thinkers. The best way to gain
information about an individual's personality is to ask them what kind of person they are (Back, Egloff, & Schmukle, 2009). Research suggests that
type A personalities have three major components; competitive achievement striving, time urgency, and hostility (Strube, et al., 1986). In this study, we
will want to determine what individuals are type A and type B personalities in or determine if type A personalities complete more self
–made
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Dibs In Search Of Self Essay
Book review: Dibs In Search of Self
Yee Ka Fai, Kelvin
3035012234 (sitting student)
Introductiona
This book is written about a five year old male patient, Dibs, of the therapist Virginia Mae Auxline. It is written as a near verbatim account of the
dialogue during the sessions of the psychotherapy. Dibs display severe behavioral problems in family and school, such as non–responsive, socially
detached and violence. Through the course of the therapy, Dibs progresses from a state of severe isolation, regarded as "mentally retarded" (p.12),
through to showing and proving to be a "brilliant boy" (p.196).
The author "Miss A" is a clinical psychologist who is invited to look at the case of this young boy and his family, and because of the needs of...show
more content...
The reasons for behavior during and after the session can be inferred from the patterns and objects of play. Dibs was particularly interested in playing
with the sandbox and the doll house. From his play, it is sensible to deduce that rejection and ignorance of parents deeply hurt Dibs and induce his
maladaptive response. On the other hand, Dibs' play and behaviors in playroom clearly reveals his superior intellectual capacity, which contradicts
greatly with his overt presenting problems in daily functioning at home or
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Feelings and thoughts about the theory Person–Centered Theory stands out amongst the multitude of theories developed to help improve the lives of
individuals. Carl Rogers was the pioneer of Person–Centered Theory, which was the basis for Virginia Axline's development of Child
–Centered Play
Therapy. Immediately, I felt a connection as I began learning about the principles of Person–Centered Theory. The introduction to this theory led me to
discover the work of Virginia Axline. My interest in counseling children was reinforced by the fundamental elements ofplay therapy. Further, the story
of Dibs engendered hope and enthusiasm for the possibility that this could be the theory from which I work. The humanistic perspective is noteworthy,
...show more content...
However, the stories that his mother shared with Axline were insightful and I began to feel empathy for her. My anger towards his parents never fully
dissolved; though my feelings of jubilation prevailed as Dibs progressed and improved. The success of play therapy achieved in the end was uplifting.
Throughout the story, my emotions were on a roller coaster. I was engrossed in the techniques of Axline's approach and the gradual development of
Dibs' personality. His improvement was evident and I felt joyous each time he demonstrated strength and hope. In the beginning, Dibs was resistant to
leaving the Child Guidance Center because he feared going home to an emotionally absent environment. Soon, he began accepting the fact that when
the hour ended he had to leave. An endearing moment happened when Dibs told Axline that he would return the following Thursday to "fill up again
with happiness" (Axline, 1964, p. 133). The playroom was a special place where Dibs could express himself without limitation, and his liberation was
refreshing.
Key points gathered about the theorist's point of view Virginia Axline's work in Child–Centered Play Therapy stemmed from the Person–Centered
theoretical orientation of Carl Rogers. She shared the perspective in which the value of the therapeutic nature is derived from the recognition by the
individual as a capable being and the realization of responsibility. A desired goal of therapy is understanding, which
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Analysis of Dibs in Search of Self
The book Dibs in Search of Self is a story of a smart yet very unsocial and withdrawn little boy named Dibs. The story, written from Dr. Axline's
point of view, shows how Dibs goes from being completely unable to function in a normal classroom setting with other children to discovering himself
through play therapy. Nowhere is the book is Dibs specifically diagnosed or even characterized as being autistic. This is not surprising asautism was not
really widely understood or diagnosed until the 1960's; this book was written in 1964. There are many correlations between this book and some of the
theories and topics discussed in Berger's text. I would like to address some of these correlations now.
Berger says, "Children who developed...show more content...
This is exactly how Dr. Axline is working with Dibs. She is focusing on letting Dibs play, as he sees fit while she observes and minimally participates.
Berger also describes programs that stress attachment. Dr. Axline, through gradual progression and participation, slowly builds a rapport and therefore
attachment with Dibs. This allows Dibs to become comfortable in his own time, under his own rules. This is important for autistic children who may
have issues with trust and attachment.
References:
Axline, V. M. (1964). Dibs in search of self. New York: Ballentine Books.
Berger, K. S. (2009). The developing person: Through childhood and adolescence. New York: Worth
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Carl Rogers: The Early Pioneers Of Play Therapy
Play therapy first began to materialize in the early part of the twentieth century, as theorists such as Anna Freud and Melanie Klein developed their own
concepts of how to obtain insight into the inner emotional world of a child through the media of play (Rye, 2010).
The underlying principle of Child Centred therapy (CCT) or non–directive child centred play (NDCCP) is based on the person centred approach of Carl
Rogers. He believed clients had the capacity to find their own resolutions and achieve self actualization with the aid of a nurturing therapeutic
relationship. He advocated that change was brought about by the therapeutic relationship and so the therapist should not make interpretations for the
client. He considered the core conditions of empathy, unconditional positive regard and congruence were paramount coupled with a non judgmental
attitude (Rogers, 1995). He was non–directive in his approach with clients and employed the techniques of active listening and reflecting back and
although his work was adapted for adults it would be beneficial to aid in helping a child tell their story during the early stages of therapy (Geldard,
Geldard & Yin Foo, 2013).
Early Pioneers of Play Therapy...show more content...
She was hugely influenced by the non–directive person–centered approach of Rogers and adapted its beliefs and values, especially the skill of active
listening along with the core conditions, for use in play therapy for children (Geldard, Geldard & Yin Foo, 2013). Her approach was originally known
as Non Directive Play Therapy, but later became known as client centered play therapy and then subsequently child–centered play therapy (Landreth,
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Social Self
THE SOCIAL SELF
The way we define who we are is a direct result of what we know. In basic terms, the Social Self is defined as how an individual interacts with the
social world presented to him and how he approaches the formation of relationships. Mental images of how I see myself play a big role also such as
physical appearance, accomplishments, roles, and skills. It is self–awareness process that can sometimes be difficult. Within everyday life people
believe themselves to be constantly changing. In actuality, the changes that one believes to have are but minor changes. A person's personality is
usually set at an early age in childhood. This process begins around six or seven months when children begin to realize "themselfs" as...show more
content...
Identityy achievement comes from many years of exploring different roles and personalities. For example a person who thinks negatively of him self
and others, is going to shy away from attachment and be socially avoidant which obviously is going to affect the crisis of intimacy versus isolation.
So personal identity plays a major part in my quest for self–knowledge, but its up to me to choose my own identity. God created all men equally, but it
is up to us to determine whom we ultimately want to be.
Self esteem basically means that we should like ourselves, feel positive about yourself and respect your own worth. Feeling positive about yourself
can determine how you perform. When we respect ourselves and feel really good in ourselves, we will do better at school, enjoy life, make new friends
quickly, and we are more consciously aware and in control of our behaviour. I believe a person'sself–esteem begins to take shape at an early age, with
their parents being a major influence. Parents who do not feel good about themselves or others, sometimes take it out on their childern by belittling
them or discouraging them. This leads the child down a path of self–doubt and eventually given the right circumstances a lower self–esteem. In most
cases, children with low self–esteem feel that the important adults and peers in their lives do not accept them, do not care about them very much, and
would not go out of their way to ensure
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Behaviorist Approach: The behavioral approach is the idea that observable behavior is a result of environmental components and past experiences.
These components are known as the stimuli and the behavioral effect that it produces is called its response. The explanation behind this idea is
based on how individuals learn, which is through classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is a process that associates two stimuli,
which then creates a new learned response every time those stimuli are paired together. The stimuli begins as being neutral, however, proceeds to
turn to one that is conditioned. An excellent example of this idea is in Pavlov's dog experiment where the dogs learned to associate a bell with
food. Operant conditioning is a process that correlates the likelihood of actions happening based on associating its positive or negative
consequences. For instance in Skinner's rat experiment, the rat knew to instantly go to the lever in its box once it figured out it would drop food
which was positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement was also demonstrated when it would be removed and instead the rat would be
electrocuted when not on the lever, eventually the rat learned to go to the lever instantly to avoid the electricity. In the story, Dibs: In Search of Self
by Virginia Axline, the main character Dibs often supported behaviorism. For instance, when Dibs was in the playroom and began to play with the
doll house and the way he would repeat "Dibs
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Dibs In Search Of Self Analysis
Too frequently play therapy becomes overlooked and rejected due to the joyous word play. Despite the beliefs, play therapy can inhibit
communication barriers, and provide a safe environment for the child to explore critical elements in their life. The book Dibs in Search of Self by
Virginia M. Axline provides an excellent example of how effectiveplay therapy can be. Time and time again I found myself becoming moved and
flabbergasted by the way play therapy worked for Dibs. Furthermore, the way play therapy assembled a healthy and positive relationship with his
family in general. In the beginning, I was very skeptical if play therapy would successfully work for Dibs. Axline states "when anyone approached
him, he would huddle up in a ball on the floor and not move" (1967, p.14). I continuously thought, how do you reflect on a child that is so persistent
in these mute behaviors? In addition to being consumed by questions, I couldn't help but feel terrible for Dibs. At five years old home is a comfort
zone and not being able to feel that sense of security is awful. Axline states "he had a temper tantrums sometimes when it was time to go home..."
(1967, p.15). Unfortunately, Dibs parents were...show more content...
Dibs makes a comment at the end that warms my heart in every aspect, he says "Miss A. Miss A. A special name for a special friend" I think this
shows how much of an impact a play therapist can have on a child, and also play therapy in general (Axline, 1967, p. 214). Before this book, I
believed in play therapy, but after this book, I believe it on a whole different level. One statement that Dibs says that I think really defines play
therapy is, "As you said you wanted it. As I said I wanted it. As we said we wanted it" (Axline, 1967, p.203). I think this shows that he understood that
it was them together against the world not just him. All in all, this book was nothing short of
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
The 's Use Of Play Therapy With Dibs Essay
When I first started reading Dibs in Search of Self, I was not sure if I was going to really be able to get into the book. Once I started reading it, I
found it to be interesting, informative, and enjoyable. I found myself being more and more interested after each chapter and found myself wanting to
learn more about Dibs' situation. There are so many aspects of this book that made me feel emotionally connected to it. I could not help but become
interested in learning more about this child's life and seeing how he changed throughout the course of the book. Along with the book being a great
read, it was also interesting being able to read a book that related heavily to the topics that we have talked about in class. This book not only gives a
real–life perspective about childhood psychopathology, but it also make you think about the difference factors that can influence a child's overall
development. A major factor in this book was Axline's use of play therapy with Dibs. Axline is known for her concept of play therapy and there are
eight principles of play therapy. Throughout the book, I could see the different principles were incorporated into the appointments that Dibs attended.
The first principle is that the therapist needs to form a warm and friendly relationship with the child. I thought Axline accomplished this principle
pretty quickly. It did not take a long time for Dibs to feel comfortable with her and he started talking to her and becoming more verbally and
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Self Exploration
Many of us go through life skimming the surface of our identities. That is, we don't truly dig deeply into our thoughts, feelings, desires and dreams.
Part of the problem is that we're always on the go. When to–do lists keep swelling, self–exploration takes a backseat. How can it not, when we barely
find time for self–care?
Specifically, self–exploration involves "taking a look at your own thoughts, feelings, behaviors and motivations and asking why. It's looking for the
roots of who we are – answers to all the questions we have about [ourselves]," according to Ryan Howes, Ph.D, psychologist, writer and professor in
Pasadena, California.
Having a deeper understanding of ourselves has many benefits. It "helps people understand and accept...show more content...
Take some time and think about what you might need in order to be happy and ultimately successful in your job/career. For example, a few things to
consider might be salary, geographic location, job autonomy, work hours, and professional growth opportunities, to name a few. Which ones of these,
and/or others, are most significant; things that would make an obvious difference in whether we would enjoy our job/career? If you don't take the time
to consider who you are and what you want, you won't know what you are looking for. You need to be aware that no job/career is going to be perfect
and meet all of your expectations. But if you at least think about which things are more vital to your happiness and aim for those, you can come
pretty close to what you want. Think about the skills and abilities you may have that you would like to utilize in your chosen profession (i.e.
leadership, helping others, mathematical ability, creativity, communication, etc.) Which careers give you more of an opportunity to express yourself
and be yourself? Many people make the mistake of assuming that they can and will do just about anything for the right amount of money. Well let me
assure you that this is only partially true. In the beginning, the money may seem like enough to sustain your job satisfaction and happiness, but soon
everyone realizes that money alone is only a temporary fix. If you don't really like what you are doing, or like where you work, you won't be
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Self-Discovery: Who Am I? Essay
In human existence, a question commonly asked is, "Who am I?" This question is the heart of the quest for the Self. This is a quest which may take a
lifetime, sometimes longer, to fulfill. One path, of self–discovery, is when people turn to their surroundings in their search. In turning to their
surroundings, people are able to see their Selves by the things around them. In observing the surroundings, people may, not only, find their Selves, but
establish their Selves. This path, however, is not the only way people search for the Self. Another path is when people turn to something higher than
themselves for answers. This path is lined with the hope the answers can be given by the, "something higher." These two paths represent two preceding
...show more content...
In my view, the Infinite Intellect, due to its infinite nature, is a source for the Self to learn, since the Self has a limited intellect. The infinite intellect
then becomes the foundation in the relationship between the Absolute and the Self. The assertion that the Absolute is complete, or infinite, sets the
hierarchy of the relationship between the Absolute and the Self. The Absolute is above the Self and acts as a source for the Self to see what it could
aspire to, in terms of completeness. Waton then describes the innate relationship between the Absolute and the Self by stating, "Human beings were
only the impressions of one and the same idea of the Infinite Intellect" (Waton 42). This description of the existing association between the Absolute
and the Self, further demonstrates the hierarchy of their relationship. The relationship between the Absolute and the Self is important to understand in
order to determine why contact between the Self and the Absolute is necessary in self–discovery.
In Christian beliefs, the Absolute is not only a transcendental example to the Self, but may also be the origin of the Self. Waton continues on this
thought when he writes, "В…like God, man is a trinity, consisting of a body, a mind and asoul. The body is a form of extension, the mind is a form of
thought, and the soul is an idea of God. The soul is the essence of man; the body and
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
In Search of Dibs
Dibs Reaction
No one is born a parent; no one really is a perfect parent. Dibs: In Search of Self is a perfect example of this as both parents had no idea how to
raise a child in a loving, compassionate home. Dibs' mother stated from the get go that the boy seemed to have it out for her and he was responsible
for ruining her and her marriage. The father was completely wrapped up in his work and studies and made sure he'd made no time for his children.
Additionally, his children had been instructed to stay out of his room while he was home. Once Dibs' sister is born, he is again pushed further away as
their mother spoils the little girl. Eventually, however even the sister is sent away to a boarding school.
I am not so sure I...show more content...
Instead of interacting with his son, he shut him down, effectively causing Dibs to react negatively. Dibs screamed at his father that he hated him.
(Axline, 1964, p. 80)
I had my mom read this book to give me some feedback and about half way through it, she'd stated that she'd read it once before. She was about 16
years old in 1978 and her mother was reading it for a college class. They would read it aloud to her and her siblings after dinners during her
semester. She recalled how uncomfortable she felt hearing the book. "In those days, you didn't talk to people who had children like Dibs. You didn't
look them in the eye, you didn't ask them anything. You avoided them like a disease, because that's almost what they were. When people would
converse about them, it was always in hushed tones. We would always hear how bad people felt because the child was retarded or manic."
During the interview of Dibs' mother, she stated: "There was no place we could send him." (Axline, 1964, p. 87) This intrigued me because it
seemed very cold for her to want to just get rid of her child, but again in talking to my mom, that was how it was in that time period. It was standard
practice to send problem children off to boarding schools or private practices to keep peace in well to do families. Again, Dibs' sister was eventually
sent to a private boarding school herself, even though she was labeled as "a perfect child".
"When I was a child, a
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Summary Of Dibs By Dr Axline
This is the story of a little boy named, Dibs. Dibs was a 5 year old boy who was an emotionally crippled child. He belonged to a wealthy and highly
educated family [his mother was a surgeon, his father a scientist who could think of him only as a "mental defective" as he exhibited abnormal social
behavior such as continuously isolating himself, rarely speaking, and physically lashing out at those around him. When the author first meets Dibs
parents, they describe her as their Dib's last hope. The book describes the interactions between Dibs and the psychologist. In their sessions together, Dr
Axline integrates the principles of non–directive play therapy. Her psychological approach to children was based on most of the humanistic concepts of
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
What Is The Relationship Between Self And Society
In Sociology, to understand one's self, we must understand the relationship between self and society. The concept of the Sociological Imagination
was presented in 1959 by C. Wright Mills and his famous book of the same title, where he states that "The sociological imagination enables us to
grasp history and biography and the relation between the two within society, that is its task and its promise" (Mills, 2001). The whole concept is
set out to give the distinction between personal troubles and public issues and to allow one to see the bigger picture within their own lives and to
show the correlation between personal troubles and public issues as two facets of a single process. Sociological imagination allows individuals to
have a better understanding of the society they live in. Removing individuals from reality and allowing them to look beyond the picture itself, it
helps correlate the link between an individual's personal life and the society in which they live. Thus, sociological imagination allows individuals to
acknowledge how personal troubles and social problems are connected. Many times, individuals fail to see their own lives are part of the bigger
picture of the public society as a whole. Personal troubles occur on an individual level and are limited by the scope of one's biography, while public
issues transcend the individual and are collective interests or values felt to be threatened. Both personal troubles and public issues are intertwined, as C.
Wright
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Understanding of the Self Essay
Understanding of the Self
INTRODUCTION The social constructionist perspective holds the view that the self is continuing "shaped and reshaped through interactions with
others and involvement in social and cultural activities" (Wetherell & Maybin, 1996, p 220). Social constructionist is concerned with explicating the
processes by which people come to describe, explain, or otherwise account for the world (including themselves) in which they live (Gergen, 1971).
Thus, the social constructionist approach implies that the self is shaped by social interaction within historical, cultural and social contexts. Social
constructionist's apply an analysis of societal level which explain the self through social relations. Conversely, the...show more content...
Therefore, the argument as presented by the social constructionist view is that self identity is shaped through a combination of interactions between the
society and the individual (Wetherell and Maybin, 1996). An example to support would be social constructionist's Miller and Sperry whose finding
discovered connections in the emotions of a child's and his mother's. Thus they believe that this finding proves that there is an internalisation and
construction of one self through descriptive stories and social distribution (Wetherell & Maybin, 1996).
Both the social constructionist and the psychodynamic views adopt a hermeneutic epistemology, which centers on the analysis of a person's actions,
their fundamental influences and how the external social world can be internalised and represented symbolically within an individual (Stevens, 1996).
However, there are key differences between the two views. The social constructionist applies a societal study approach which converge the external
society and the social relationships within it. This implying that the self is built–up and continually developed through multiple social networks
(Sapsford, 1996). On the other hand, psychodynamic theories applies psychoanalytical
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
The Eight Principles Of Child Psychology
Child psychology, also called child development, is the study of the psychological processes of children and especially, how they develop as young
adults and how they differ from one child to the next. It basically tend to map onto children's physical, cognitive and social/emotional development.
Psychologists attempt to make sense of every aspect of child development, including how children learn, think, interact and respond emotionally to
people around them and understand emotions and their developing personalities, temperaments and skills. It also includes how individual, social and
cultural factors may influence their development. Child study is of comparatively recent origin. Notable psychologists namely Sigmund Freud,
Melanie Klein and...show more content...
It chronicled Axline's therapeutic relationship with a five–year–old boy who appeared withdrawn and uncommunicative. Dr.Axline writes from her
viewpoint as a therapist, after helping Dibs. The book records the weekly play therapy sessions of Dibs with Dr.Axline and describes Dibs'
behaviour and demonstrates how Dr.Axline used reflective listening and allowed Dibs to discover himself and his responsibilities. Dr.Axlines's
style is formal and each chapter describes the play therapy session or event. The book reflects the activities of Dibs captured by Dr. Axline and how
she was engaged with Dibs and her subject matter. The basic theme outlined by Dr.Axline is how play therapy can help a child psychologist to help
the child who has been in isolation lead to his self–discovery. The book holds that through self–knowledge one gains valuable life experience and
grows as a complete new human being. The book is important because of its contribution to play therapy. Although, it also tells the story of how Dibs
goes from being thought "retarded and hostilely rejecting" to being a "brilliant boy". "Dibs in Search of Self" is an inspirational
Get more content on HelpWriting.net

More Related Content

Recently uploaded

Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Seán Kennedy
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptxDhatriParmar
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17Celine George
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...DhatriParmar
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDhatriParmar
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptxmary850239
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvRicaMaeCastro1
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
Student Profile Sample - We help schools to connect the data they have, with ...
 
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 

Featured

2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by HubspotMarius Sescu
 
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPTEverything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPTExpeed Software
 
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage EngineeringsProduct Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage EngineeringsPixeldarts
 
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental HealthHow Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental HealthThinkNow
 
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdfAI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdfmarketingartwork
 
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024Neil Kimberley
 
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)contently
 
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024Albert Qian
 
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie InsightsSocial Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie InsightsKurio // The Social Media Age(ncy)
 
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024Search Engine Journal
 
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summarySpeakerHub
 
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd Clark Boyd
 
Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next Tessa Mero
 
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search IntentGoogle's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search IntentLily Ray
 
Time Management & Productivity - Best Practices
Time Management & Productivity -  Best PracticesTime Management & Productivity -  Best Practices
Time Management & Productivity - Best PracticesVit Horky
 
The six step guide to practical project management
The six step guide to practical project managementThe six step guide to practical project management
The six step guide to practical project managementMindGenius
 
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...RachelPearson36
 

Featured (20)

2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
2024 State of Marketing Report – by Hubspot
 
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPTEverything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
Everything You Need To Know About ChatGPT
 
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage EngineeringsProduct Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
Product Design Trends in 2024 | Teenage Engineerings
 
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental HealthHow Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
How Race, Age and Gender Shape Attitudes Towards Mental Health
 
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdfAI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
AI Trends in Creative Operations 2024 by Artwork Flow.pdf
 
Skeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Culture CodeSkeleton Culture Code
Skeleton Culture Code
 
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
PEPSICO Presentation to CAGNY Conference Feb 2024
 
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
Content Methodology: A Best Practices Report (Webinar)
 
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
How to Prepare For a Successful Job Search for 2024
 
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie InsightsSocial Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
Social Media Marketing Trends 2024 // The Global Indie Insights
 
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
Trends In Paid Search: Navigating The Digital Landscape In 2024
 
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
5 Public speaking tips from TED - Visualized summary
 
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
ChatGPT and the Future of Work - Clark Boyd
 
Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next Getting into the tech field. what next
Getting into the tech field. what next
 
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search IntentGoogle's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
Google's Just Not That Into You: Understanding Core Updates & Search Intent
 
How to have difficult conversations
How to have difficult conversations How to have difficult conversations
How to have difficult conversations
 
Introduction to Data Science
Introduction to Data ScienceIntroduction to Data Science
Introduction to Data Science
 
Time Management & Productivity - Best Practices
Time Management & Productivity -  Best PracticesTime Management & Productivity -  Best Practices
Time Management & Productivity - Best Practices
 
The six step guide to practical project management
The six step guide to practical project managementThe six step guide to practical project management
The six step guide to practical project management
 
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...
Beginners Guide to TikTok for Search - Rachel Pearson - We are Tilt __ Bright...
 

Therapeutic Use of Self in OT: Building Trust with Clients

  • 1. Therapeutic Use Of Self Essay Therapeutic use of self involves using one's personality, body language, active listening that is used to create and maintain a therapeutic relationship with others (Lowe et al., 2007). Establishing trust is also an important aspect of therapeutic use of self, to address the needs and goals of the client, which helps our scope of practice to remain client–centered. Using therapeutic use of self is beneficial for occupational therapists (OT), as it facilitates interaction with the client. It also encourages and allows the therapist to obtain necessary information, and to alleviate fear or anxiety that may take place during treatment session. During Level I Fieldwork at a SNF, I was able to apply these principles during a treatment session for a client diagnosed with dementia that was agitated and non–compliant with the activity. To divert her attention to the activity, and to get her to understand that I was...show more content... The OT will administer the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) Assessment Tool with Phyllis before she returns home to help write discharge recommendations. Using AIDET communication the OT would begin treatment by knocking on the patient's door and ask, "May I enter?" Once the patient responds with "Yes", the OT may enter the room. If the bed was low the OT could kneel down to the level of the bed to sustain appropriate eye contact. Next, while smiling the OT would introduce themselves to the patient by saying, "Good morning Phyllis. My name is Alissa, and I will be the occupational therapist working with you today." The OT should smile and reach to shake Phyllis' hand. The OT should also ask, "Are you familiar with what an OT does?" If not, they should give a quick elevator speech about the profession. The OT should also say, "The questionnaire will take less than 5 minutes, and the nurse said she would be bringing in your next dose of pain medication within the next 10 Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. Therapeutic Touch and Pain Stephanie Brooks Kelsey McAfee Kara Lamb Edinboro University Background Throughout our clinical experiences, almost every patient that we have had reported some pain. Pain medications are often over–prescribed and over–used and can often do more harm than good. People do need pain medications in certain circumstances, but we wanted to research other methods for patients to manage pain. Therapeutic touch can offer a variety of benefits including pain management. A majority of the adult population experiences pain on a daily basis. If more people knew about therapeutic touch and using it for a pain management technique, patients could feel better while not using pharmacological management. According to Flor and Turk, 116 million experience pain on a daily basis and most pay for treatment, whether it be physical therapy, pain medication, inpatient services or primary care (Flor and Turk, 2015). The same report also states, "Prescription painkillers are considered a major contributor to the total number of yearly deaths" (Flor and Turk, 2015). The Question Population: Adult Patients experiencing pain Intervention: Therapeutic Touch Comparison: N/A Outcome: patients experiencing pain will report decreased pain after receiving interventions The final PICO question: Does therapeutic touch decrease pain levels for adult patients verbalizing mild to moderate pain levels? The Search We used a variety of different search methods to gather our Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. The Self Essay The Self Every situation that an individual is exposed to throughout life, helps mold our "self." As humans we have the ability to see ourselves from the outside, and all through life we try to see what others see and our "self" revolves around the generalized other. We observe how others perceive us and we make conclusions depending on our observations. How we act around others depends on the image we feel they have towards us. Charles Horton Cooley, a symbolic interactionist, concluded that our sense of "self" develops from interactions with others. Cooley described this process as the...show more content... On the other hand if you see yourself as an individual who can communicate without a problem and you see that you can keep others interested in a given conversations, your reaction is more positive. Through this looking– glass self we develop a "self" concept. Depending on the observations we make concerning the reactions of others we develop feelings and ideas about ourselves. The reflection we see in the mirror is either negative or positive depending on the feedback we get back from those around us. Misjudgments of the reactions of others become part of our "self" concept also the misinterpretations of how others think of us. Self concepts begins in childhood but it continues to develop throughout life. As we observe how other people react to us, we modify our "self." The "self" is never a finished project, and it continues to change as our life takes different turns. Our "self" reacts to the environment that we are in. As the "self" expands we put together the different reactions making us a unique individual. Every individual has a different way of thinking and therefore they make their own choices about certain situations. Going through different life changes, means the "self" is expected to change to accommodate the life stage we find our selves in. The way we perceived things when Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. What Is Your Ideal Self? Essay What is your ideal self? Do you want to be a college graduate, married, mother/father, homeowner, cultured, musical? Your current state is called the actual self and the person that you want to be is called the ideal self. An ideal self–concept is how you would like a situation or outcome to be, for example completing a degree program or not being stuck in traffic. Actual self–concept is what your current situation or outcome is, for example being in school for a degree or being stuck in traffic. For one to achieve their goal, they must work hard to move through the difficult phases of their goals. Different personalities create and complete different types of goals, some individuals have many life goals along with smaller goals within that in order to achieve them, in this research they will be referred to as future minded–thinkers. Other individuals do very little planning for the future, therefore they have little to no goals set for their future, in this research they will be referred to as present minded–thinkers. The best way to gain information about an individual's personality is to ask them what kind of person they are (Back, Egloff, & Schmukle, 2009). Research suggests that type A personalities have three major components; competitive achievement striving, time urgency, and hostility (Strube, et al., 1986). In this study, we will want to determine what individuals are type A and type B personalities in or determine if type A personalities complete more self –made Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. Dibs In Search Of Self Essay Book review: Dibs In Search of Self Yee Ka Fai, Kelvin 3035012234 (sitting student) Introductiona This book is written about a five year old male patient, Dibs, of the therapist Virginia Mae Auxline. It is written as a near verbatim account of the dialogue during the sessions of the psychotherapy. Dibs display severe behavioral problems in family and school, such as non–responsive, socially detached and violence. Through the course of the therapy, Dibs progresses from a state of severe isolation, regarded as "mentally retarded" (p.12), through to showing and proving to be a "brilliant boy" (p.196). The author "Miss A" is a clinical psychologist who is invited to look at the case of this young boy and his family, and because of the needs of...show more content... The reasons for behavior during and after the session can be inferred from the patterns and objects of play. Dibs was particularly interested in playing with the sandbox and the doll house. From his play, it is sensible to deduce that rejection and ignorance of parents deeply hurt Dibs and induce his maladaptive response. On the other hand, Dibs' play and behaviors in playroom clearly reveals his superior intellectual capacity, which contradicts greatly with his overt presenting problems in daily functioning at home or Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Feelings and thoughts about the theory Person–Centered Theory stands out amongst the multitude of theories developed to help improve the lives of individuals. Carl Rogers was the pioneer of Person–Centered Theory, which was the basis for Virginia Axline's development of Child –Centered Play Therapy. Immediately, I felt a connection as I began learning about the principles of Person–Centered Theory. The introduction to this theory led me to discover the work of Virginia Axline. My interest in counseling children was reinforced by the fundamental elements ofplay therapy. Further, the story of Dibs engendered hope and enthusiasm for the possibility that this could be the theory from which I work. The humanistic perspective is noteworthy, ...show more content... However, the stories that his mother shared with Axline were insightful and I began to feel empathy for her. My anger towards his parents never fully dissolved; though my feelings of jubilation prevailed as Dibs progressed and improved. The success of play therapy achieved in the end was uplifting. Throughout the story, my emotions were on a roller coaster. I was engrossed in the techniques of Axline's approach and the gradual development of Dibs' personality. His improvement was evident and I felt joyous each time he demonstrated strength and hope. In the beginning, Dibs was resistant to leaving the Child Guidance Center because he feared going home to an emotionally absent environment. Soon, he began accepting the fact that when the hour ended he had to leave. An endearing moment happened when Dibs told Axline that he would return the following Thursday to "fill up again with happiness" (Axline, 1964, p. 133). The playroom was a special place where Dibs could express himself without limitation, and his liberation was refreshing. Key points gathered about the theorist's point of view Virginia Axline's work in Child–Centered Play Therapy stemmed from the Person–Centered theoretical orientation of Carl Rogers. She shared the perspective in which the value of the therapeutic nature is derived from the recognition by the individual as a capable being and the realization of responsibility. A desired goal of therapy is understanding, which Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Analysis of Dibs in Search of Self The book Dibs in Search of Self is a story of a smart yet very unsocial and withdrawn little boy named Dibs. The story, written from Dr. Axline's point of view, shows how Dibs goes from being completely unable to function in a normal classroom setting with other children to discovering himself through play therapy. Nowhere is the book is Dibs specifically diagnosed or even characterized as being autistic. This is not surprising asautism was not really widely understood or diagnosed until the 1960's; this book was written in 1964. There are many correlations between this book and some of the theories and topics discussed in Berger's text. I would like to address some of these correlations now. Berger says, "Children who developed...show more content... This is exactly how Dr. Axline is working with Dibs. She is focusing on letting Dibs play, as he sees fit while she observes and minimally participates. Berger also describes programs that stress attachment. Dr. Axline, through gradual progression and participation, slowly builds a rapport and therefore attachment with Dibs. This allows Dibs to become comfortable in his own time, under his own rules. This is important for autistic children who may have issues with trust and attachment. References: Axline, V. M. (1964). Dibs in search of self. New York: Ballentine Books. Berger, K. S. (2009). The developing person: Through childhood and adolescence. New York: Worth Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. Carl Rogers: The Early Pioneers Of Play Therapy Play therapy first began to materialize in the early part of the twentieth century, as theorists such as Anna Freud and Melanie Klein developed their own concepts of how to obtain insight into the inner emotional world of a child through the media of play (Rye, 2010). The underlying principle of Child Centred therapy (CCT) or non–directive child centred play (NDCCP) is based on the person centred approach of Carl Rogers. He believed clients had the capacity to find their own resolutions and achieve self actualization with the aid of a nurturing therapeutic relationship. He advocated that change was brought about by the therapeutic relationship and so the therapist should not make interpretations for the client. He considered the core conditions of empathy, unconditional positive regard and congruence were paramount coupled with a non judgmental attitude (Rogers, 1995). He was non–directive in his approach with clients and employed the techniques of active listening and reflecting back and although his work was adapted for adults it would be beneficial to aid in helping a child tell their story during the early stages of therapy (Geldard, Geldard & Yin Foo, 2013). Early Pioneers of Play Therapy...show more content... She was hugely influenced by the non–directive person–centered approach of Rogers and adapted its beliefs and values, especially the skill of active listening along with the core conditions, for use in play therapy for children (Geldard, Geldard & Yin Foo, 2013). Her approach was originally known as Non Directive Play Therapy, but later became known as client centered play therapy and then subsequently child–centered play therapy (Landreth, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 9. Social Self THE SOCIAL SELF The way we define who we are is a direct result of what we know. In basic terms, the Social Self is defined as how an individual interacts with the social world presented to him and how he approaches the formation of relationships. Mental images of how I see myself play a big role also such as physical appearance, accomplishments, roles, and skills. It is self–awareness process that can sometimes be difficult. Within everyday life people believe themselves to be constantly changing. In actuality, the changes that one believes to have are but minor changes. A person's personality is usually set at an early age in childhood. This process begins around six or seven months when children begin to realize "themselfs" as...show more content... Identityy achievement comes from many years of exploring different roles and personalities. For example a person who thinks negatively of him self and others, is going to shy away from attachment and be socially avoidant which obviously is going to affect the crisis of intimacy versus isolation. So personal identity plays a major part in my quest for self–knowledge, but its up to me to choose my own identity. God created all men equally, but it is up to us to determine whom we ultimately want to be. Self esteem basically means that we should like ourselves, feel positive about yourself and respect your own worth. Feeling positive about yourself can determine how you perform. When we respect ourselves and feel really good in ourselves, we will do better at school, enjoy life, make new friends quickly, and we are more consciously aware and in control of our behaviour. I believe a person'sself–esteem begins to take shape at an early age, with their parents being a major influence. Parents who do not feel good about themselves or others, sometimes take it out on their childern by belittling them or discouraging them. This leads the child down a path of self–doubt and eventually given the right circumstances a lower self–esteem. In most cases, children with low self–esteem feel that the important adults and peers in their lives do not accept them, do not care about them very much, and would not go out of their way to ensure Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. Behaviorist Approach: The behavioral approach is the idea that observable behavior is a result of environmental components and past experiences. These components are known as the stimuli and the behavioral effect that it produces is called its response. The explanation behind this idea is based on how individuals learn, which is through classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is a process that associates two stimuli, which then creates a new learned response every time those stimuli are paired together. The stimuli begins as being neutral, however, proceeds to turn to one that is conditioned. An excellent example of this idea is in Pavlov's dog experiment where the dogs learned to associate a bell with food. Operant conditioning is a process that correlates the likelihood of actions happening based on associating its positive or negative consequences. For instance in Skinner's rat experiment, the rat knew to instantly go to the lever in its box once it figured out it would drop food which was positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement was also demonstrated when it would be removed and instead the rat would be electrocuted when not on the lever, eventually the rat learned to go to the lever instantly to avoid the electricity. In the story, Dibs: In Search of Self by Virginia Axline, the main character Dibs often supported behaviorism. For instance, when Dibs was in the playroom and began to play with the doll house and the way he would repeat "Dibs Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. Dibs In Search Of Self Analysis Too frequently play therapy becomes overlooked and rejected due to the joyous word play. Despite the beliefs, play therapy can inhibit communication barriers, and provide a safe environment for the child to explore critical elements in their life. The book Dibs in Search of Self by Virginia M. Axline provides an excellent example of how effectiveplay therapy can be. Time and time again I found myself becoming moved and flabbergasted by the way play therapy worked for Dibs. Furthermore, the way play therapy assembled a healthy and positive relationship with his family in general. In the beginning, I was very skeptical if play therapy would successfully work for Dibs. Axline states "when anyone approached him, he would huddle up in a ball on the floor and not move" (1967, p.14). I continuously thought, how do you reflect on a child that is so persistent in these mute behaviors? In addition to being consumed by questions, I couldn't help but feel terrible for Dibs. At five years old home is a comfort zone and not being able to feel that sense of security is awful. Axline states "he had a temper tantrums sometimes when it was time to go home..." (1967, p.15). Unfortunately, Dibs parents were...show more content... Dibs makes a comment at the end that warms my heart in every aspect, he says "Miss A. Miss A. A special name for a special friend" I think this shows how much of an impact a play therapist can have on a child, and also play therapy in general (Axline, 1967, p. 214). Before this book, I believed in play therapy, but after this book, I believe it on a whole different level. One statement that Dibs says that I think really defines play therapy is, "As you said you wanted it. As I said I wanted it. As we said we wanted it" (Axline, 1967, p.203). I think this shows that he understood that it was them together against the world not just him. All in all, this book was nothing short of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 12. The 's Use Of Play Therapy With Dibs Essay When I first started reading Dibs in Search of Self, I was not sure if I was going to really be able to get into the book. Once I started reading it, I found it to be interesting, informative, and enjoyable. I found myself being more and more interested after each chapter and found myself wanting to learn more about Dibs' situation. There are so many aspects of this book that made me feel emotionally connected to it. I could not help but become interested in learning more about this child's life and seeing how he changed throughout the course of the book. Along with the book being a great read, it was also interesting being able to read a book that related heavily to the topics that we have talked about in class. This book not only gives a real–life perspective about childhood psychopathology, but it also make you think about the difference factors that can influence a child's overall development. A major factor in this book was Axline's use of play therapy with Dibs. Axline is known for her concept of play therapy and there are eight principles of play therapy. Throughout the book, I could see the different principles were incorporated into the appointments that Dibs attended. The first principle is that the therapist needs to form a warm and friendly relationship with the child. I thought Axline accomplished this principle pretty quickly. It did not take a long time for Dibs to feel comfortable with her and he started talking to her and becoming more verbally and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. Self Exploration Many of us go through life skimming the surface of our identities. That is, we don't truly dig deeply into our thoughts, feelings, desires and dreams. Part of the problem is that we're always on the go. When to–do lists keep swelling, self–exploration takes a backseat. How can it not, when we barely find time for self–care? Specifically, self–exploration involves "taking a look at your own thoughts, feelings, behaviors and motivations and asking why. It's looking for the roots of who we are – answers to all the questions we have about [ourselves]," according to Ryan Howes, Ph.D, psychologist, writer and professor in Pasadena, California. Having a deeper understanding of ourselves has many benefits. It "helps people understand and accept...show more content... Take some time and think about what you might need in order to be happy and ultimately successful in your job/career. For example, a few things to consider might be salary, geographic location, job autonomy, work hours, and professional growth opportunities, to name a few. Which ones of these, and/or others, are most significant; things that would make an obvious difference in whether we would enjoy our job/career? If you don't take the time to consider who you are and what you want, you won't know what you are looking for. You need to be aware that no job/career is going to be perfect and meet all of your expectations. But if you at least think about which things are more vital to your happiness and aim for those, you can come pretty close to what you want. Think about the skills and abilities you may have that you would like to utilize in your chosen profession (i.e. leadership, helping others, mathematical ability, creativity, communication, etc.) Which careers give you more of an opportunity to express yourself and be yourself? Many people make the mistake of assuming that they can and will do just about anything for the right amount of money. Well let me assure you that this is only partially true. In the beginning, the money may seem like enough to sustain your job satisfaction and happiness, but soon everyone realizes that money alone is only a temporary fix. If you don't really like what you are doing, or like where you work, you won't be Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 14. Self-Discovery: Who Am I? Essay In human existence, a question commonly asked is, "Who am I?" This question is the heart of the quest for the Self. This is a quest which may take a lifetime, sometimes longer, to fulfill. One path, of self–discovery, is when people turn to their surroundings in their search. In turning to their surroundings, people are able to see their Selves by the things around them. In observing the surroundings, people may, not only, find their Selves, but establish their Selves. This path, however, is not the only way people search for the Self. Another path is when people turn to something higher than themselves for answers. This path is lined with the hope the answers can be given by the, "something higher." These two paths represent two preceding ...show more content... In my view, the Infinite Intellect, due to its infinite nature, is a source for the Self to learn, since the Self has a limited intellect. The infinite intellect then becomes the foundation in the relationship between the Absolute and the Self. The assertion that the Absolute is complete, or infinite, sets the hierarchy of the relationship between the Absolute and the Self. The Absolute is above the Self and acts as a source for the Self to see what it could aspire to, in terms of completeness. Waton then describes the innate relationship between the Absolute and the Self by stating, "Human beings were only the impressions of one and the same idea of the Infinite Intellect" (Waton 42). This description of the existing association between the Absolute and the Self, further demonstrates the hierarchy of their relationship. The relationship between the Absolute and the Self is important to understand in order to determine why contact between the Self and the Absolute is necessary in self–discovery. In Christian beliefs, the Absolute is not only a transcendental example to the Self, but may also be the origin of the Self. Waton continues on this thought when he writes, "В…like God, man is a trinity, consisting of a body, a mind and asoul. The body is a form of extension, the mind is a form of thought, and the soul is an idea of God. The soul is the essence of man; the body and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 15. In Search of Dibs Dibs Reaction No one is born a parent; no one really is a perfect parent. Dibs: In Search of Self is a perfect example of this as both parents had no idea how to raise a child in a loving, compassionate home. Dibs' mother stated from the get go that the boy seemed to have it out for her and he was responsible for ruining her and her marriage. The father was completely wrapped up in his work and studies and made sure he'd made no time for his children. Additionally, his children had been instructed to stay out of his room while he was home. Once Dibs' sister is born, he is again pushed further away as their mother spoils the little girl. Eventually, however even the sister is sent away to a boarding school. I am not so sure I...show more content... Instead of interacting with his son, he shut him down, effectively causing Dibs to react negatively. Dibs screamed at his father that he hated him. (Axline, 1964, p. 80) I had my mom read this book to give me some feedback and about half way through it, she'd stated that she'd read it once before. She was about 16 years old in 1978 and her mother was reading it for a college class. They would read it aloud to her and her siblings after dinners during her semester. She recalled how uncomfortable she felt hearing the book. "In those days, you didn't talk to people who had children like Dibs. You didn't look them in the eye, you didn't ask them anything. You avoided them like a disease, because that's almost what they were. When people would converse about them, it was always in hushed tones. We would always hear how bad people felt because the child was retarded or manic." During the interview of Dibs' mother, she stated: "There was no place we could send him." (Axline, 1964, p. 87) This intrigued me because it seemed very cold for her to want to just get rid of her child, but again in talking to my mom, that was how it was in that time period. It was standard practice to send problem children off to boarding schools or private practices to keep peace in well to do families. Again, Dibs' sister was eventually sent to a private boarding school herself, even though she was labeled as "a perfect child". "When I was a child, a Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 16. Summary Of Dibs By Dr Axline This is the story of a little boy named, Dibs. Dibs was a 5 year old boy who was an emotionally crippled child. He belonged to a wealthy and highly educated family [his mother was a surgeon, his father a scientist who could think of him only as a "mental defective" as he exhibited abnormal social behavior such as continuously isolating himself, rarely speaking, and physically lashing out at those around him. When the author first meets Dibs parents, they describe her as their Dib's last hope. The book describes the interactions between Dibs and the psychologist. In their sessions together, Dr Axline integrates the principles of non–directive play therapy. Her psychological approach to children was based on most of the humanistic concepts of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 17. What Is The Relationship Between Self And Society In Sociology, to understand one's self, we must understand the relationship between self and society. The concept of the Sociological Imagination was presented in 1959 by C. Wright Mills and his famous book of the same title, where he states that "The sociological imagination enables us to grasp history and biography and the relation between the two within society, that is its task and its promise" (Mills, 2001). The whole concept is set out to give the distinction between personal troubles and public issues and to allow one to see the bigger picture within their own lives and to show the correlation between personal troubles and public issues as two facets of a single process. Sociological imagination allows individuals to have a better understanding of the society they live in. Removing individuals from reality and allowing them to look beyond the picture itself, it helps correlate the link between an individual's personal life and the society in which they live. Thus, sociological imagination allows individuals to acknowledge how personal troubles and social problems are connected. Many times, individuals fail to see their own lives are part of the bigger picture of the public society as a whole. Personal troubles occur on an individual level and are limited by the scope of one's biography, while public issues transcend the individual and are collective interests or values felt to be threatened. Both personal troubles and public issues are intertwined, as C. Wright Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 18. Understanding of the Self Essay Understanding of the Self INTRODUCTION The social constructionist perspective holds the view that the self is continuing "shaped and reshaped through interactions with others and involvement in social and cultural activities" (Wetherell & Maybin, 1996, p 220). Social constructionist is concerned with explicating the processes by which people come to describe, explain, or otherwise account for the world (including themselves) in which they live (Gergen, 1971). Thus, the social constructionist approach implies that the self is shaped by social interaction within historical, cultural and social contexts. Social constructionist's apply an analysis of societal level which explain the self through social relations. Conversely, the...show more content... Therefore, the argument as presented by the social constructionist view is that self identity is shaped through a combination of interactions between the society and the individual (Wetherell and Maybin, 1996). An example to support would be social constructionist's Miller and Sperry whose finding discovered connections in the emotions of a child's and his mother's. Thus they believe that this finding proves that there is an internalisation and construction of one self through descriptive stories and social distribution (Wetherell & Maybin, 1996). Both the social constructionist and the psychodynamic views adopt a hermeneutic epistemology, which centers on the analysis of a person's actions, their fundamental influences and how the external social world can be internalised and represented symbolically within an individual (Stevens, 1996). However, there are key differences between the two views. The social constructionist applies a societal study approach which converge the external society and the social relationships within it. This implying that the self is built–up and continually developed through multiple social networks (Sapsford, 1996). On the other hand, psychodynamic theories applies psychoanalytical Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 19. The Eight Principles Of Child Psychology Child psychology, also called child development, is the study of the psychological processes of children and especially, how they develop as young adults and how they differ from one child to the next. It basically tend to map onto children's physical, cognitive and social/emotional development. Psychologists attempt to make sense of every aspect of child development, including how children learn, think, interact and respond emotionally to people around them and understand emotions and their developing personalities, temperaments and skills. It also includes how individual, social and cultural factors may influence their development. Child study is of comparatively recent origin. Notable psychologists namely Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein and...show more content... It chronicled Axline's therapeutic relationship with a five–year–old boy who appeared withdrawn and uncommunicative. Dr.Axline writes from her viewpoint as a therapist, after helping Dibs. The book records the weekly play therapy sessions of Dibs with Dr.Axline and describes Dibs' behaviour and demonstrates how Dr.Axline used reflective listening and allowed Dibs to discover himself and his responsibilities. Dr.Axlines's style is formal and each chapter describes the play therapy session or event. The book reflects the activities of Dibs captured by Dr. Axline and how she was engaged with Dibs and her subject matter. The basic theme outlined by Dr.Axline is how play therapy can help a child psychologist to help the child who has been in isolation lead to his self–discovery. The book holds that through self–knowledge one gains valuable life experience and grows as a complete new human being. The book is important because of its contribution to play therapy. Although, it also tells the story of how Dibs goes from being thought "retarded and hostilely rejecting" to being a "brilliant boy". "Dibs in Search of Self" is an inspirational Get more content on HelpWriting.net