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INTRODUCTION
TO MANAGEMENT
AND
ORGANIZATIONS
1-1
What Is Management?
–the process of coordinating work activities so that
they are completed efficiently and effectively
with and through other people
–elements of definition
• Process - represents ongoing functions or
primary activities engaged in by managers
• Coordinating - distinguishes a managerial
position from a non-managerial one
1-2
What is Management? (cont.)
 elements of definition
Efficiency - getting the most output from the least
amount of inputs (people, money, equipment)
“doing things right”
concerned with means
Effectiveness - completing activities so that
organizational goals are attained
“doing the right things”
concerned with ends
1-3
Efficiency and Effectiveness in
Management
Low Waste High Attainment
Management Strives For:
Low resource waste (high efficiency)
High goal attainment (high effectiveness)
Resource
Usage
Efficiency (Means)
Goal
Attainment
Effectiveness (Ends)
1-4
Who Are Managers?
–someone who works with and through other
people by coordinating their work activities in
order to accomplish organizational goals
–changing nature of organizations and work has
blurred the clear lines of distinction between
managers and non-managerial employees.
1-5
Managerial Titles
– First-line managers - manage the work of non-
managerial individuals who are directly involved with
the production or creation of the organization’s
products.
• Supervisors-shift/district/dept or office managers.
– Middle managers - all managers between the first-line
level and the top level of the organization
– manage the first-line managers
– Regional/store/division managers and project leader.
– Top managers - responsible for making organization-
wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that
affect the entire organization.
• Exec VP-president-COO-CEO-Director
1-6
Management Levels
Non-managerial Employees
Top
Managers
Middle
Managers
First-line
Managers
1-7
Management Functions
Henri Fayol’s 5 Functions----Now 4
 Planning
 defining goals,
 establishing strategies for achieving those goals,
 and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities
 Organizing
 determining what tasks are to be done,
 who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped,
 who reports to whom,
 and where decisions are made
 Leading
 directing and motivating all involved parties and dealing with employee behavior
issues.
 Controlling
monitoring activities to ensure that they are going as planned
1-8
Management Functions and Process (cont.)
–Management process
• Set of ongoing decisions and work activities in
which managers engage as they plan, organize,
lead, and control.
• Managerial activities are usually done in a
continuous manner.
1-9
Management Roles
–specific categories of managerial behavior
• Interpersonal - involve people and duties that
are ceremonial and symbolic in nature
• Informational - receiving, collecting, and
disseminating information
• Decisional - revolve around making choices
–emphasis that managers give to the various roles
seems to change with their organizational level
1-10
EXHIBIT 1.4: MINTZBERG’S MANAGERIAL ROLES
1-11
Management Skills
– Technical - knowledge of and proficiency in a certain
specialized field
– Human - ability to work well with other people both
individually and in a group
– Conceptual - ability to think and to conceptualize about
abstract and complex situations
• see the organization as a whole
• understand the relationships among subunits
• visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment
1-12
EXHIBIT 1.5: SKILLS NEEDED AT DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT LEVELS
1-13
What Do Managers Do? (cont.)
• Managing in Different and Changing Situations
–require managers to use different approaches
and techniques
–Contingency perspective - different ways of
managing are required in different organizations
and different circumstances
• stresses that there are no simplistic or
universal rules
1-14
What Is An Organization?
• Organization
– a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some
specific purpose
• elements of definition
– each organization has a distinct purpose
– each organization is composed of people
– all organizations develop some deliberate structure
– today’s organizations have adopted:
• flexible work arrangements
• open communications
• greater responsiveness to changes
1-15
EXHIBIT 1.10: THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION
1-16
EXHIBIT 1.11: UNIVERSAL NEED FOR MANAGEMENT
1-17
Why Study Management?
• The Reality of Work
–most people have some managerial
responsibilities
–most people work for a manager
Challenges of Being a Manager
- being a manager is hard work
- must deal with a variety of personalities
- must motivate workers in the face of uncertainty
1-18
Why Study Management? (cont.)
• Rewards of Being a Manager
–create an environment that allows others to do
their best work
–provide opportunities to think creatively
–help others find meaning and fulfillment
–meet and work with a variety of people
1-19

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INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONS

  • 2. What Is Management? –the process of coordinating work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people –elements of definition • Process - represents ongoing functions or primary activities engaged in by managers • Coordinating - distinguishes a managerial position from a non-managerial one 1-2
  • 3. What is Management? (cont.)  elements of definition Efficiency - getting the most output from the least amount of inputs (people, money, equipment) “doing things right” concerned with means Effectiveness - completing activities so that organizational goals are attained “doing the right things” concerned with ends 1-3
  • 4. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Management Low Waste High Attainment Management Strives For: Low resource waste (high efficiency) High goal attainment (high effectiveness) Resource Usage Efficiency (Means) Goal Attainment Effectiveness (Ends) 1-4
  • 5. Who Are Managers? –someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals –changing nature of organizations and work has blurred the clear lines of distinction between managers and non-managerial employees. 1-5
  • 6. Managerial Titles – First-line managers - manage the work of non- managerial individuals who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization’s products. • Supervisors-shift/district/dept or office managers. – Middle managers - all managers between the first-line level and the top level of the organization – manage the first-line managers – Regional/store/division managers and project leader. – Top managers - responsible for making organization- wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. • Exec VP-president-COO-CEO-Director 1-6
  • 8. Management Functions Henri Fayol’s 5 Functions----Now 4  Planning  defining goals,  establishing strategies for achieving those goals,  and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities  Organizing  determining what tasks are to be done,  who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped,  who reports to whom,  and where decisions are made  Leading  directing and motivating all involved parties and dealing with employee behavior issues.  Controlling monitoring activities to ensure that they are going as planned 1-8
  • 9. Management Functions and Process (cont.) –Management process • Set of ongoing decisions and work activities in which managers engage as they plan, organize, lead, and control. • Managerial activities are usually done in a continuous manner. 1-9
  • 10. Management Roles –specific categories of managerial behavior • Interpersonal - involve people and duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature • Informational - receiving, collecting, and disseminating information • Decisional - revolve around making choices –emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with their organizational level 1-10
  • 11. EXHIBIT 1.4: MINTZBERG’S MANAGERIAL ROLES 1-11
  • 12. Management Skills – Technical - knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field – Human - ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group – Conceptual - ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations • see the organization as a whole • understand the relationships among subunits • visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment 1-12
  • 13. EXHIBIT 1.5: SKILLS NEEDED AT DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT LEVELS 1-13
  • 14. What Do Managers Do? (cont.) • Managing in Different and Changing Situations –require managers to use different approaches and techniques –Contingency perspective - different ways of managing are required in different organizations and different circumstances • stresses that there are no simplistic or universal rules 1-14
  • 15. What Is An Organization? • Organization – a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose • elements of definition – each organization has a distinct purpose – each organization is composed of people – all organizations develop some deliberate structure – today’s organizations have adopted: • flexible work arrangements • open communications • greater responsiveness to changes 1-15
  • 16. EXHIBIT 1.10: THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION 1-16
  • 17. EXHIBIT 1.11: UNIVERSAL NEED FOR MANAGEMENT 1-17
  • 18. Why Study Management? • The Reality of Work –most people have some managerial responsibilities –most people work for a manager Challenges of Being a Manager - being a manager is hard work - must deal with a variety of personalities - must motivate workers in the face of uncertainty 1-18
  • 19. Why Study Management? (cont.) • Rewards of Being a Manager –create an environment that allows others to do their best work –provide opportunities to think creatively –help others find meaning and fulfillment –meet and work with a variety of people 1-19