Iron Deficiency1
Hematology Study of blood and blood forming tissues Key components of hematologic systemare: Blood Blood forming tissu...
WHat Does BlooD Do? Transportation Oxygen Nutrients Hormones Waste Products Regulation Fluid, electrolyte Acid-Bas...
Components of BlooD Plasma 55% Blood Cells 45% Three types Erythrocytes/RBCs Leukocytes/WBCs Thrombocytes/Platelets4
erytHroCytes/reD BlooDCells Composed of hemoglobin Erythropoiesis = RBC production Stimulated by hypoxia Controlled b...
normal Clotting meCHanisms Hemostasis Goal: Minimizing blood loss when injured1. Vascular Response vasoconstriction1. P...
AnticoAgulAtion Elements that interfere with bloodclotting Counter mechanism to blood clotting—keeps blood liquid and ab...
StructureS of the hemAtologicSyStem Bone Marrow Liver Lymph System8
Bone mArrow Bone Marrow Soft substance in core of bones Blood cell production (Hematopoiesis):Theproduction of all type...
liverReceives 24% of the cardiac output(1500 ml of blood each minute) Liver has many functions Hematologic functions: L...
Spleen Located in upper L quadrant ofabdomen Functions Hematopoietic function Produces fetal RBCs Filter function Fi...
12
AnemiA Anemia is a reduction in the number ofRBCs, the quantity of hemoglobin, orthe volume of RBCs Because the main fun...
AnemiA Prevalent conditions Blood loss Decreased production of erythrocytes Increased destruction of erythrocytes14
AnemiA (cont’d) Clinical Manifestations:1. Pallor.2. Fatigue, weakness.3. Dyspnea.4. Palpitations, tachycardia.5. Headach...
AnemiA (cont’d) Nursing Management:1. Direct general management toward addressing thecause of anemia and replacing blood ...
Iron-Deficiency AnemiaEtiology1. Inadequate dietary intake Found in 30% of theworld’s population1. Malabsorption Absorbe...
iron-deficiency AnemiA Clinical Manifestations Most common: pallor Second most common: inflammation of the tongue(gloss...
Iron-DefIcIency AnemIA Collaborative Care Treatment of underlying disease/problem Replacing iron Diet Drug Therapy I...
Iron-DefIcIency AnemIAnursIng mAnAgement Assess cardiovascular & respiratory status Monitor vital signs Recognizing s/s...
19/04/2011 21
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  • Iron Deficiency Anemia

    1. 1. Iron Deficiency1
    2. 2. Hematology Study of blood and blood forming tissues Key components of hematologic systemare: Blood Blood forming tissues Bone marrow Spleen Lymph system2
    3. 3. WHat Does BlooD Do? Transportation Oxygen Nutrients Hormones Waste Products Regulation Fluid, electrolyte Acid-Base balance Protection Coagulation Fight Infections3
    4. 4. Components of BlooD Plasma 55% Blood Cells 45% Three types Erythrocytes/RBCs Leukocytes/WBCs Thrombocytes/Platelets4
    5. 5. erytHroCytes/reD BlooDCells Composed of hemoglobin Erythropoiesis = RBC production Stimulated by hypoxia Controlled by erythropoietin Hormone synthesized in kidney Hemolysis = destruction of RBCs Releases bilirubin into blood stream Normal lifespan of RBC = 120 days5
    6. 6. normal Clotting meCHanisms Hemostasis Goal: Minimizing blood loss when injured1. Vascular Response vasoconstriction1. Platelet response Activated during injury Form clumps (agglutination)1. Plasma Clotting Factors Factors I – XIII Intrinsic pathway Extrinsic pathway6
    7. 7. AnticoAgulAtion Elements that interfere with bloodclotting Counter mechanism to blood clotting—keeps blood liquid and able to flow7
    8. 8. StructureS of the hemAtologicSyStem Bone Marrow Liver Lymph System8
    9. 9. Bone mArrow Bone Marrow Soft substance in core of bones Blood cell production (Hematopoiesis):Theproduction of all types of blood cellsgenerated by a remarkable self-regulatedsystem that is responsive to the demandsput upon it. RBCs WBCs Platelets9
    10. 10. liverReceives 24% of the cardiac output(1500 ml of blood each minute) Liver has many functions Hematologic functions: Liver synthesis plasma proteinsincluding clotting factors andalbumin Liver clears damaged and non-functioning RBCs/erythrocytes fromcirculation10
    11. 11. Spleen Located in upper L quadrant ofabdomen Functions Hematopoietic function Produces fetal RBCs Filter function Filter and reuse certain cells Immune function Lymphocytes, monocytes Storage function 30% platelets stored in spleen11
    12. 12. 12
    13. 13. AnemiA Anemia is a reduction in the number ofRBCs, the quantity of hemoglobin, orthe volume of RBCs Because the main function of RBCs isoxygenation, anemia results in varyingdegrees of hypoxia13
    14. 14. AnemiA Prevalent conditions Blood loss Decreased production of erythrocytes Increased destruction of erythrocytes14
    15. 15. AnemiA (cont’d) Clinical Manifestations:1. Pallor.2. Fatigue, weakness.3. Dyspnea.4. Palpitations, tachycardia.5. Headache, dizziness, and restlessness.6. Slowing of thought.7. Paresthesia.15
    16. 16. AnemiA (cont’d) Nursing Management:1. Direct general management toward addressing thecause of anemia and replacing blood loss as neededto sustain adequate oxygenation.2. Promote optimal activity and protect from injury.3. Reduce activities and stimuli that cause tachycardiaand increase cardiac output.4. Provide nutritional needs.5. Administer any prescribed nutritional supplements.6. Patient and family education16
    17. 17. Iron-Deficiency AnemiaEtiology1. Inadequate dietary intake Found in 30% of theworld’s population1. Malabsorption Absorbed in duodenum GI surgery1. Blood loss 2 mls blood contain 1mg iron GI, GU losses1. Hemolysis17
    18. 18. iron-deficiency AnemiA Clinical Manifestations Most common: pallor Second most common: inflammation of the tongue(glossistis) Cheilitis=inflammation/fissures of lips Sensitivity to cold Weakness and fatigue Diagnostic Studies CBC Iron studies Diagnostics: Iron levels: Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), SerumFerritin. Endoscopy/Colonscopy18
    19. 19. Iron-DefIcIency AnemIA Collaborative Care Treatment of underlying disease/problem Replacing iron Diet Drug Therapy Iron replacement Oral iron Feosol, DexFerrum, etc Absorbed best in acidic environemtn GI effects Parenteral iron IM or IV Less desirable than PO19
    20. 20. Iron-DefIcIency AnemIAnursIng mAnAgement Assess cardiovascular & respiratory status Monitor vital signs Recognizing s/s bleeding Monitor stool, urine and emesis for occult blood Diet teaching—foods rich in iron Provide periods of rest Supplemental iron Discuss diagnostic studies Emphasize compliance Iron therapy for 2-3 months after thehemoglobin levels return to normal20
    21. 21. 19/04/2011 21

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